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UTAssistant: a Web Platform Supporting Usability Testing in Italian Public Administrations

Authors:

Abstract

Even if the benefits of the usability testing are remarkable, it is scarcely adopted in the software development process. To foster its adoption, this paper presents a Web platform, UTAssistant, that supports people, also without skills in Human-Computer Interaction (HCI), in evaluating Web site usability.
UTAssistant: a Web Platform
Supporting Usability Testing in Italian
Public Administrations
Abstract
Even if the benefits of the usability testing are
remarkable, it is scarcely adopted in the software
development process. To foster its adoption, this paper
presents a Web platform, UTAssistant, that supports
people, also without skills in Human-Computer
Interaction (HCI), in evaluating Web site usability.
Author Keywords
Usability testing; public administration web sites;
automatic and semi-automatic tools.
ACM Classification Keywords
H.5.2 Human-centered computing~Usability testing.
Introduction
HCI literature proposes different methods for evaluating
usability of interactive systems. Among them, usability
testing is generally considered the most complete form
of evaluation, because it assesses usability through
samples of real users and permits to gather a wide
range of qualitative and quantitative data, whose
analysis allow to detect possible issues about the
system and the interface elements which cause
them [7].
Copyright is held by the author/owner(s).
CHItaly ’17, September 18-20, 2017, Cagliari, Italy.
Giuseppe Desolda
Università di Bari
via Orabona, 4
70125 Bari, Italy
giuseppe.desolda@uniba.it
Rosa Lanzilotti
Università di Bari
via Orabona, 4
70125 Bari, Italy
rosa.lanzilotti@uniba.it
Antonello Cocco
ISCOM-MISE
Viale America 201
00144 Roma, Italy
antonello.cocco@mise.gov.it
Giancarlo Gaudino
ISCOM-MISE
Viale America 201
00144 Roma, Italy
antonello.cocco@mise.gov.it
Stefano Federici
Università di Perugia
Piazza G. Ermini, 1
06123 Perugia, Italy
stefano.federici@unipg.it
Although the benefits of this technique are
unquestionable, it is hardly adopted due to the required
effort and time needed to set up reliable user testing. A
frequently used technique is the thinking aloud in which
users are asked to verbalize their actions during the
interaction with the system to complete a set of critical
tasks [7]. During the task execution, the evaluators can
collect quantitative data, e.g. task time/clicks, and
qualitative data, e.g. facial expressions and
externalized comments. In addition, questionnaires are
typically administered to evaluate the users’ perceived
usability. Then, all the collected data are analyzed to
evaluate the software usability with respect to the
administered tasks, thus producing statistics like the
task completion time or number of clicks to accomplish
tasks, task success rate, heat map of the user
behavior, questionnaire results and graphs, and so on.
To foster the adoption of usability testing technique, in
the past few years, there has been massive growth of
usability testing tools. For example, professional
platforms like Morae, Ovo Logger and User Testing
support HCI experts in most of the evaluation activities
[2][9, 11]. Despite their powerful features and
automatization of data gathering and analysis, their use
is limited by their price and/or the need to install them
on dedicate machines (e.g., Morae and Ovo Logger).
Simpler and cheaper tools are also available but they
typically cover part of the evaluation process, for
example the user behavior analysis obtained gathering
and elaborating the mouse movements/clicks (e.g.,
UsabilityTool) or the facial expressions and externalized
comments recording (e.g. Camtasia).
This paper proposes a Web platform, called
UTAssistant, which assists evaluators, even without
skills in HCI, in performing usability testing.
UTAssistant automatizes and simplifies the usability
testing process in all its phases, i.e. design, execution
and data analysis.
UTAssistant
UTAssistant is a Web platform designed and developed
within the PA++ Project, an initiative coordinated by
the High Institute of Communication and Information
Technology (ISCOM) scientific and technical body of the
Italian Ministry of Economic Development (MISE),
whose main goal is to promote the usability practices in
the Italian Public Administration (PA). In particular, the
PA++ (A Public Administration + mobile and + usable:
design and evaluation of Public Administration Web
sites) project involves a grouo of people that are
members of the GLU (Gruppo di Lavoro per l’Usabilità,
in English, Working Group on Usability). The GLU is
related to the Italian Ministry of Public Administration
and is working to support people of the PA website staff
in performing usability evaluation activities of their
websites and other e-government systems. Among the
different activities of the GLU, in May 2015, a new
version of the eGLU and eGLU-M Protocol 2.1 has been
published [1]; its aim is to guide web masters and web
editors, who do not have experience on usability and
UX evaluation, in performing usability testing of the
websites they work on, by committing limited resources
in terms of time and people.
UTAssistant has been conceived to support remote
usability testing executed by using desktop and mobile
devices, from the test design to the analysis of the data
collected following the guidelines provided by the eGLU
2.1 and eGLU-M evaluation protocol. UTAssistant has
been entirely developed as Web platform. The idea is to
provide Italian PA with a lightweight and simple service
that does not require any installation on user devices or
special requirements. In fact, thanks to the use of the
recent evolutions of the HTML5 standard, the browser
gathers data from desktop and mobile peripherals like
webcam, microphone, mouse, keyboard, and so on.
From a technological point of view this is an important
step forward with respect to the state-of-the-art, which
can foster a wide adoption of this tool and,
consequently, of the usability testing technique.
Indeed, the existing software for usability testing,
require dedicated devices (e.g. Morae) or cover part of
the evaluation process and often do not support the
evaluation of web site used on mobile devices that
today represent the most common interaction device.
In the following sections, it is described how
UTAssistant supports evaluators in designing a usability
test and in analyzing the results, as well as how
participants are driven by UTAssistant in completing
usability tests.
Test Design
The first phase of a usability testing is its design. The
most important issue of this phase is the study creation
that mainly consists in defining a set of tasks users
have to complete during the test execution. After the
logging into the system, evaluators create a new study:
a wizard procedure guides them in designing the test
following three main steps. At the first step of the test
design, the evaluators have to define: a) general
information about the study (e.g., a title, a short
introduction), b) data UTAssistant has to gather while
participants carry out the tasks (e.g., mouse/keyboard
data log, audio/video from participant
webcam/microphone), and c) questionnaires
participants have to complete during/at the end of the
study. According to the eGLU protocol, UTAssistant
actually implements post-questionnaires like SUS [5],
NPS [8], UMUX-Lite [6], USE [10]. Another post-
questionnaire, not mentioned by the eGLU protocols
but also implemented in UTAssinstant are: AttrakDiff,
[4] and the NASA-TLX questionnaire [3]. After defining
the study general information, at the second step
evaluators define the task list. For each task, they have
to provide the title, the starting/ending URL, the goal,
the duration. Finally, the third step requires evaluators
to specify the study participants, by selecting them
from a list of users already registered in the platform or
by typing their email. Then the study has to be saved.
The invited participants receive an email describing all
the instructions to participate in the usability testing.
Test Execution
A usability testing execution is typically managed by
one or more HCI experts, which assist participants in
carrying out the study tasks, gather data (e.g.,
externalized comments, task times/click) and
administer the questionnaires. UTAssistant aims to
automatize all the execution steps guiding participants
even without the physical presence of evaluators.
Once the participant receives an email, by clicking the
URL reported inside it, UTAssistant is open in a browser
on the desktop or mobile device. First, UTAssistant
shows general indications about the platform (e.g., a
short description of the toolbar with all the useful
commands) as well as the privacy policies indicating
that data like mouse/keyboard log data and
webcam/microphone stream could be captured. Then,
UTAssistant administers the tasks one at a time. For
each task, the platform shows the goal in a pop-up
window. A minimal toolbar is positioned on top of the
task web page reporting the current task goal and
description, the duration time, the task number, and
the buttons to go to the next task, or stop the study. If
the user is executing the last task, the “Next task
button becomes “Fill in the questionnaire”. All the
steps, are completely assisted by UTAssistant that
simulates the presence of the HCI expert.
Test Data Analysis
One of the most time-consuming phase of a usability
testing is the data analysis. HCI experts have to store,
merge and analyze the mouse logs, the video/audio
recordings, the questionnaire results, and so on.
UTAssistant assists evaluators in performing these
activities, thus making easier and lighter the entire
analysis. UTAssistant provides different types of tools
for the automatic data analysis and to produce
information that facilitate the evaluators’ work in
detecting usability issues.
One of the most important usability metric is the task
success rate, i.e. the percentage of tasks that users
complete correctly during the study [7]. UTAssistant
creates a report showing the general success rate
(“Tasso di successo medio complessivo” in Italian as
shown at the bottom of Figure 1) and a table reporting
the details for each task (column)/user (row).
In addition, for each task UTAssistant shows: its title,
the number of pages the user visited to carry out it, the
number of notes evaluator made during the analysis,
the date and time in which the task starts and finishes,
the average time and the average number of clicks all
the users needed to complete the task.
A different analysis of the mouse/keyboard logs is
provided by the heatmaps, i.e., graphical visualizations
overlapped to a web page that show where people
click/touch, move the mouse, scroll. It uses hotter
colors, e.g. orange or bright red, on areas that get the
most clicks/movements and colder colors, e.g. blues
and purples, on areas that get the less
clicks/movements. For each web page, UTAssistant
builds a heatmap that evaluators can analyze to
understand if some area of the web page wrongly
attracted the users’ attention due to some user
interface elements. Figure 2 shows an example of
mouse heatmap.
UTAssistant automatically analyzes questionnaire data
and provides proper statistics and graphs to summarize
the results and to help evaluators in understanding the
perceived usability, cognitive load and so on.
Conclusion
This paper has presented a web-based platform, called
UTAssistant, developed in the project PA++, to support
people working in PA website staff in performing
usability tests. A preliminary evaluation of the
UTAssistant, involving 2 people acting as evaluators
and 6 people as participants, showed that evaluators
appreciated a lot the support to the evaluation
activities, while participants enjoyed the possibility to
participate in a user test, without being observed.
Acknowledgements
This work is supported by ISCOM under grant PA++ (A
Public Administration + mobile and + usable: design
and evaluation of Public Administration Web sites).
Figure 1. Summary of the success rate of a
performed study.
Figure 2. Example of heatmap overlapped to
a page involved in a task execution.
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