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Factors Affecting Minority Drowning

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... Additional reports also revealed that the fatal unintentional drowning rate overall for Native Americans including aboriginal Alaskans was 2.2 times that of Euro-Americans with similar dramatic disparities among age groups (children ages 5-14 had a drowning rate 2.6 times higher than that of Euro-Americans; CDC, 2009). Consistent with literature on physical activity patterns (Bgeginski, Finkelstein, Alberton, Tartaruga, & Kruel, 2009;Kruel, Peyer-Tartaruga, Alberton, Muller, & Petkowizc, 2009;Peyre-Tartaruga, Tartaruga, Coertjens, Black, Oliveira & Kruel, 2009), aquatics and minority populations (Applebee, 1991;Avramidis et al., 2009a;Banks & Banks, 1989;Beale et al., 2002;Eisenhart & Cutts-Dougherty, 1991;Irwin, Irwin, Ryan, & Drayer, 2009;Jackson, 1991;Moran, 2009;Pendelton, 1975;Waller & Norwood, 2009;Wieser, 1995), physical environment (e.g., access to swimming pools), and a combination of social-cultural issues (e.g., valuing swimming skills and choosing water-related activities when making recreational choices) may be the primary factors contributing to the heritage and ethnic differences in drowning rates due to the lack of exposure to APA. (Avramidis et al., 2007(Avramidis et al., , 2009a(Avramidis et al., , 2009b(Avramidis et al., , 2009cMartin & Witman, 2010;Moran, 2009). ...
... Results clearly revealed that physical educators' attitudes regarding the barriers attributed to the lack of APA in physical education programs were also consistent with the literature including issues such as scheduling conflict, lack of certification, and training, lack of facilities (refer to Table 4). Moreover, literature suggested that culture plays a role in one's use of and participation in APA, thus limiting exposure to APA through the allocation of resources and decision-making when it comes to participation in aquatic venues (Avramidis, Butterly, Llewellyn, 2007, 2009a, 2009b, 2009cMartin & Witman, 2010). Cardon, Verstraete, Dirk, and Bourdeaudhuij (2004) compared the physical activity levels of 8-12-year-old students during swimming and nonswimming elementary physical education classes. ...
... For example, children who do not have access to swim lessons, aquatic facilities, and safety products (e.g., life jackets)not to mention basic knowledge of the danger associated with aquatic activities-are at higher risk of drowning or suffering from a water-related injury (Golob, Giles, & Rich, 2013). Another issue minorities or persons from lower socioeconomic status may suffer from is inadequate or absent supervision near and in the water (Martin & Witman, 2010). For children of all races and ethnicities, drowning remains a worldwide problem, with the majority of countries listing it as one of the top three unintentional injury fatalities (Forjuoh, 2013). ...
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Background: Water-related injuries and fatalities pose serious public health issues, especially to African American youth, a demographic group that drowns at disproportionately high rates. Aim: The purpose of this study was to determine if a social marketing intervention targeting the parents and guardians of inner-city youth (U.S. Midwest) could positively influence their perceptions concerning water safety. Method: Researchers employed a quasi-experimental design using matched pairs to evaluate the intervention. Participants consisted of parents who enrolled their children in a six-session survival-swimming course. Guided by the Health Belief Model, the researchers disseminated six prevention messages using six different channels (brochure, e-mail, SMS text message, postcard, Facebook, and window cling). Results: The findings from a two-way analysis of covariance revealed that treatment group participants' knowledge and perceptions of water-related threat all changed favorably. Additionally, all participants planned to reenroll their children in swim lessons. Discussion: A social marketing campaign using the Health Belief Model improved inner-city parents' knowledge regarding water safety and enhanced their self-efficacy. Conclusion: This study provides practitioners with feasible strategies (prevention messages) to supplement swim lessons, with the ultimate goal of preventing drowning among at-risk youth.
... An adequate level of swimming skills is very useful in life and beneficial for a person or even populations (Barss, 1995;Asher, Rivara, Felix, Vance, and Dune, 1995;Brenner, Saiuja, and Smith, 2003). This seems to have been proved by numerous instances of drowning, which have been recorded among ethnic minorities living in developed countries as a result of their inability to swim (Martin and Witma, 2010;Quan, Crispin, Bennett, and Gomez, 2006). A similar research referred to a heightened risk of drowning of children living in low and middle income countries who were incapable of swimming (Borse, Hyder, Bishai, Baker, and Arifin, 2011;Royal Life Saving Society, 2012;World Health Organization, 2008, Yang, Nong, Li, Feng, andLo, 2007). ...
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The aim of the study was to assess the influence of selected environmental factors on the level of swimming skills exhibited by young Polish women. Swimming skills were expressed as the ability to swim, the distance swum, and the familiarity with selected swimming strokes. The research was conducted with 298 young Polish women aged 19-20 as participants, all of them residing in Warmia and Mazury Province, Poland. A diagnostic survey was conducted using an anonymous questionnaire. Out of the analyzed environmental factors only the place of permanent residence and an available monthly budget were found to have significantly (p = 0.0001) influenced measures of swimming skills (i.e. the ability to swim, the distance swum, and the familiarity with selected swimming strokes, respectively). The increasing level of urbanization and a higher monthly budget positively influenced the women's performance in swimming as there were only few women who were unable to swim even a single meter. Moreover, the latter factor also positively affected the number of swimming strokes the study participants could perform. The remaining factors (i.e. parents' educational background, the distance between the place of residence and the nearest lake, and the proximity of beaches at the nearest lake) revealed a complete lack of relationships with the swimming skill measures. INTRODUCTION Human processes of adaptation such as acquiring swimming skills depend on a person's personal qualities as well as the factors coming from the immediate and general environment. The nature of a person's reaction to the influence of environmental factors depends on the type of the factor, its intensity, duration, and a given person's susceptibility (Malinowski, 1980). Socioeconomic factors such as the level of income, parents' educational background, urbanization status, physical culture, traditions and social behaviors, all of which belong to the group of exogenous environmental factors (Wolański, 2005), play a major role in human development (Goldstein, 1971; Lindgren, 1976; Tanner, 1986). Urbanization is arguably one of the major socioeconomic factors (Eiben, Barabás, Kontra, and Pantó, 1996; Eveleth and Tanner, 1990). A person's physical development can be influenced by the place of residence, be this a large or small urban area or a rural environment (Komlos, 1994). The accelerated growth and maturity of children from large urban environments is associated with better care and living conditions (e.g. diet, hygiene, medical care) (Eiben and Mascie-Taylor, 2004). Researchers also point out the influence of urban stimuli affecting the nervous system and sensory organs (e.g. TV, cinema, the Internet, advertisements) (Jopkiewicz and Suliga, 2008). Income levels are relative indicators of a material status of a given family or socioeconomic group (Roche and Sun, 2003). The actual state of wealth and consumption is expressed by an average income per family member. Variations in the general level of income and expenses result in different ways of managing finances (Lindgren, 1976; Tanner, 1962). Social factors play an equally important role in human ontogenesis, as it is believed that from the moment a child is born it is subjected to the influence of the domestic environment (Bogin, 1999). To illustrate this, children of white collar workers tend to be of more ectomorph build and grow taller than their village peers, who are characterized by a stockier, more mesomorph build. The highest values of somatic features and the quickest maturation have been observed in the children raised by parents with a higher education background (Eiben and Pantó, 1988). Individuals who grow up in privileged upper-class or middle-class communities are fitter than their peers from working-class (tradesmen, factory workers) or backwater rural areas (Jopkiewicz and Suliga, 2008). The biological state of individuals and populations is expressed by their physical, mental, and social health (Eiben, 1998; Tanner, 1994), motor fitness being its most important indicator (Eiben and Pantó, 1986). Environmental factors also significantly influence the level of various forms of physical activity engaged in by a person. Numerous studies have been conducted in this field; however, as Ford and colleagues (Ford, Merritt, Heath, Powell, Vashburn, Kriska, and Haile, 1991) and Eiben and Mascie-Taylor (2004) point out, there is very few data published on the physical habits of individuals from low socioeconomic backgrounds. Since there is a strong relationship between
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The authors argue that age, sex, and racial differentials in swimming participation are conditioned by the availability of swimming infrastructure and the principle of social exclusivity that limits access of lower status groupings, even where pools and programs are available. In turn, the authors argue that participation in swimming and where that activity occurs (pool versus open water) affect life chances (accidental drowning rates) across status groups. Multiple data sources were used to operationalize measures of swimming participation, social exclusivity, conditions associated with the development of swimming infrastructure, risk for a place to drown, and age, sex, and racial accidental drowning and submersion rates. Given that some progress has been made toward lessening social exclusivity with lower status groups now participating in many sports, and the under-reporting of deaths from accidental drowning and submersion, the authors believe that the confirmation of their hypotheses is conservative.
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Fishing from rocky shorelines is one of New Zealand's most dangerous pastimes, with 63 fatalities from 1980 to 1995. Little is known about the characteristics of these fishers, their perceptions, and their water-safety practices. We selected four high-risk rock-based fishing locations on Auckland's west coast as sites to conduct a survey and safety campaign during the summer months of 2005–06. One third (n = 81, 32%) of fishers estimated that they could swim 25 m or less nonstop. Almost half (n = 120, 48%) had gone to the water's edge to retrieve a snagged line or engaged in other unsafe practices. Most agreed that wearing a buoyancy aid makes fishing a lot safer (n = 177, 71%), but almost three quarters (n = 180, 72%) admitted that they never wore one. The results indicated that many fishers have limited safety skills combined with an overly optimistic view of their survival skills. Based on our findings, we recommend widespread posting of fishing-safety messages along the New Zealand west coastline that emphasize the twin dangers of overestimation of ability and underestimation of risk.
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To estimate the association between swimming lessons and the risk of drowning among children aged 1 to 19 years. Case-control study. Cases were identified from medical examiners'/coroners' offices between mid-2003 and mid-2005. Jurisdictions included the states of Maryland and North Carolina, 14 districts (33 counties) in Florida, 3 counties in California, 1 county in Texas, and 1 county in New York. Cases were children and adolescents aged 1 to 19 years who died of unintentional drowning. Interviews were conducted with 88 families of children who drowned and 213 matched controls. Main Exposure Swimming lessons. Main Outcome Measure Death due to unintentional drowning. Drownings that were intentional, of undetermined intent, or that occurred under conditions in which swimming ability was unlikely to impact risk (eg, in ice water or bathtubs) were excluded. Of the 61 cases in the 1- to 4-year age group, 2 (3%) had participated in formal swimming lessons vs 35 of 134 matched controls (26%) (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 0.12; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.01-0.97). Among the 27 cases aged 5 to 19 years, 7 (27%) had ever taken formal swimming lessons vs 42 of 79 matched controls (53%) (adjusted OR, 0.36; 95% CI, 0.09-1.51). In adjusted analyses, there was no statistically significant association between informal instruction and drowning risk. Participation in formal swimming lessons was associated with an 88% reduction in the risk of drowning in the 1- to 4-year-old children, although our estimates were imprecise and 95% CIs included risk reductions ranging from 3% to 99%.
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We conducted a population-based study of drownings in Minnesota from 1980 through 1985. Five hundred and forty-one drownings (2.1 per 100,000 person-years) were identified from death certificates and from incident reports filed with the Minnesota Department of Natural Resources. Most drownings (334, 62 percent) occurred during summer months (May-August) and involved boating (42 percent) and swimming (35 percent) events. However, 62 drownings (11 percent) occurred during winter months (December-February) and primarily involved snowmobiles and motor vehicles (71 percent) breaking through ice on lakes and waterways. The risk of drowning, estimated by the ratio of drownings to number of water-related activities, was highest during March and April, when the ice on lakes and waterway surfaces is melting, and during October and November, when lake and waterway surfaces are starting to freeze. Drowning rates were highest for males (3.7 per 100,000 person-years), persons 15 to 25 years of age (3.3 per 100,000 person-years), and children less than 5 years of age (2.5 per 100,000 person-years). These data can be used to target prevention strategies, particularly in northern climates.
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Statewide surveillance in California determined that the highest drowning rate from 1980 through 1989 was for the rural, desert county of Imperial (21.9 drownings per 100,000 population). To identify activities associated with drowning in this county, the authors abstracted data from the county sheriff-coroner's reports. From 1980 through 1990, there were 317 unintentional drownings; 85 percent occurred in irrigation canals. The activity prior to drowning was known for 262 persons (83 percent), and the most common activity was illegal entry into the United States. Overall, 140 persons (53 percent) were illegal entrants. Ninety-three percent of illegal entrants drowned in the All American Canal; the monthly drowning rate increased as the monthly average water velocity in the canal increased (r = 0.36; P < 0.001). Forty-eight persons (18 percent) drowned while riding in or on a land vehicle (automobile, pick-up truck, motorcycle, dune buggy, or tractor), the second most common activity associated with drowning. Seventy percent of the 23 drivers had an alcohol concentration of 100 milligrams per deciliter or more, California's limit for intoxication. To reduce drownings in Imperial County, prevention strategies should target persons engaged in at-risk activities near bodies of water. These strategies should include the identification and use of effective canal safety devices.
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Men have higher drowning rates than women for most age groups. Data from a 1991 national household survey (n = 3042) on aquatic activities were used to examine hypotheses about differential drowning rates by sex. Men and women were compared by (1) exposure to aquatic environments; (2) frequency of aquatic activities involving or potentially involving, submersion; (3) swimming training and ability; (4) aquatic risk-taking behaviors; and (5) alcohol use on or near the water. Men had elevated risks for exposure, risk taking, and alcohol use. It was concluded that several factors contribute to their relatively high drowning rates, including a possible interaction between overestimation of abilities and heavy alcohol use.
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Drowning is the second leading cause of unintentional injury death among adolescents. The authors describe the epidemiology of adolescent drowning and near-drowning; review the literature with emphasis on what is known about risk factors, treatment, and prevention; and identify the gaps in our knowledge on the circumstances surrounding submersion injuries in this age group.
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We examined circumstances surrounding swimming pool drownings among US residents aged 5 to 24 years to understand why Black males and other racial/ethnic groups have high drowning rates. We obtained data about drowning deaths in the United States (1995-1998) from death certificates, medical examiner reports, and newspaper clippings collected by the US Consumer Product Safety Commission. During the study period, 678 US residents aged 5 to 24 years drowned in pools. Seventy-five percent were male, 47% were Black, 33% were White, and 12% were Hispanic. Drowning rates were highest among Black males, and this increased risk persisted after we controlled for income. The majority of Black victims (51%) drowned in public pools, the majority of White victims (55%) drowned in residential pools, and the majority of Hispanic victims (35%) drowned in neighborhood pools (e.g., an apartment complex pool). Foreign-born males also had an increased risk for drowning compared with American-born males. Targeted interventions are needed to reduce the incidence of swimming pool drownings across racial/ethnic groups, particularly adult supervision at public pools.
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From nineteenth-century public baths to today's private backyard havens, swimming pools have long been a provocative symbol of American life. In this social and cultural history of swimming pools in the United States, Jeff Wiltse relates how, over the years, pools have served as asylums for the urban poor, leisure resorts for the masses, and private clubs for middle-class suburbanites. As sites of race riots, shrinking swimsuits, and conspicuous leisure, swimming pools reflect many of the tensions and transformations that have given rise to modern America. © 2007 The University of North Carolina Press. All rights reserved.
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Despite the fact that New Mexico is a desert state, the drowning rate (4.3) is 40% higher than that nationally (3.0). More than half of those who drown are younger than 25 years, toddlers and adolescents being at greater risk than other age groups. In an epidemiologic study of a six-year period, male drowning victims outnumbered female and American Indian and Hispanic victims outnumbered whites. Other major risk factors were epilepsy, mental retardation and alcohol abuse. In most drownings in the under-25 age group, the victim was involved in recreation near the water or swimming, although many were partially or fully clothed. Most drownings occurred in lakes, ditches or rivers. Because New Mexico is not a water-oriented state, public awareness of drowning hazards needs to be increased and more intensive preventive efforts instituted.
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We determined parent recall and perceived usefulness of drowning prevention messages included in routine computer-generated discharge instructions. All pediatric emergency department patients' computerized discharge instructions included 3 prevention messages: wear a life vest, swim in safe areas, and do not drink alcohol while swimming or boating. Parents were telephoned 1 to 2 weeks after the visit and asked to recall the prevention messages and rate the usefulness of the instructions. Responses were linked with patient characteristics and ED visit variables (day and time of visit, duration of ED visit, severity of condition, diagnostic category, number of tests, and treatments). Of 914 parents who were contacted, 795 were eligible. Of those, 619 (78%) completed the interview. Fifty percent of parents recalled receiving drowning prevention information; of these, 41% recalled unaided the life vest messages and 35% of 155 parents who did not own a life vest stated they would subsequently consider buying their child a life vest. Most (88%) rated the prevention information useful or very useful. No patient or visit variables were associated with usefulness ratings. Written injury prevention messages with discharge instructions were well received by parents of children in a pediatric ED. The ED may be a setting where families could receive injury prevention education.
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This study examines situations in which drownings occur (environmental risk factors) and the victims' personal risk factors (age, gender, use of personal flotation device, medical condition, alcohol or drug use) to provide guidance for future drowning prevention efforts. The authors investigated 883 non-bathtub drownings among New York State residents for the years 1988 to 1994 using medical examiner, coroner, police, and/or hospital records in addition to death certificate data. Males, children ages 0-4 years, and African American males ages 5-14 years residing in New York State outside New York City experienced the highest rates of drowning. The majority of drownings occurred in a natural body of water for all age groups, with the exception of children ages 0-4 years. Most drownings among children ages 0-4 years occurred in residential swimming pools. The child usually gained access to the pool via inadequate fencing, an open or ineffective gate, or a ladder (to an above-ground pool) left in the "down" position. Less than 10% of victims of watercraft-related drownings were wearing personal flotation devices. Blood alcohol concentration (BAC) tests were positive for 44% of 250 persons 15 years of age and older for whom valid toxicology results were provided; 30% had BACs of 100 mg/dl or more. Suggested prevention efforts include stricter enforcement of fencing requirements for residential swimming pools and drowning prevention education stressing personal flotation device use while boating and the danger of mixing alcohol and water-related activities.
Prevention of drowning in infants, children, and adolescents
American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on Injury, Violence, and Poison Prevention. (2003). Prevention of drowning in infants, children, and adolescents. Pediatrics, 112(2), 437-439.
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