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TEACHER-CENTERED OR STUDENT-CENTERED LEARNING APPROACH TO PROMOTE LEARNING?

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This study investigates English department students learning needs including their attitudes towards student-centered and traditional teaching approaches, culture learning in English as Foreign Language (EFL) program, attitudes towards authority in class, the main problems encountered in the course in learning English and their practice of language learning strategies. In this empirical study, following Xiao’s (2006) questionnaire, the data are collected from undergraduates and postgraduates students. In analyzing the groups, one-way ANOVA Test is used to identify whether the mean score on a variable differed significantly from one group to another by taking into account variation within groups as well as between groups. The findings of this research provide EFL teachers with insightful information on students’ learning needs as an input to syllabus and material planning, to lesson planning and classroom instruction practice. The study demonstrates the importance of a good understanding of students’ variables in TEFL programs at university level in Indonesia.
Jurnal Sosial Humaniora
[2017], Volume 10, Ed 2.
ISSN Online: 2443-3527
ISSN Print: 1979-5521
59 - JSH
Teacher-centered or Student-centered Learning Approach to Promote
Learning?
Ive Emaliana
Faculty of Cultural Study, Universitas Brawijawa Malang
ive@ub.ac.id
Diterima: 04 April 2017
Direview: 13 Juli 2017
Diterbitkan: 30 November 2017
Hak Cipta © 2017 oleh Penulis (dkk) dan Jurnal
Sosial Humaniora (JSH)
*This work is licensed under the Creative
Commons Attribution International License (CC BY
4.0).
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/
Subject Areas: Education, Culture, Language
Abstract
This study investigates English department students learning needs including
their attitudes towards student-centered and traditional teaching approaches,
culture learning in English as Foreign Language (EFL) program, attitudes
towards authority in class, the main problems encountered in the course in
learning English and their practice of language learning strategies. In this
empirical study, following Xiao’s (2006) questionnaire, the data are collected
from undergraduates and postgraduates students. In analyzing the groups,
one-way ANOVA Test is used to identify whether the mean score on a variable
differed significantly from one group to another by taking into account
variation within groups as well as between groups. The findings of this
research provide EFL teachers with insightful information on students’
learning needs as an input to syllabus and material planning, to lesson
planning and classroom instruction practice. The study demonstrates the
importance of a good understanding of students’ variables in TEFL programs
at university level in Indonesia.
Keywords: learning needs; learning strategies, learner variables
Introduction
To enable students to succeed in learning
English as Foreign Language (EFL), language
teaching and learning has witnessed a number of
paradigm shifts in the areas of teaching
methodology and pedagogic aims. In response to
sustainable development of education for
appropriate English language learning, many Asian
countries, including Indonesia have implemented
some approaches in teaching and learning English,
include Grammar Translation Method, Direct
method, Natural approach, communicative
approach, computer assisted language learning (Al
Rawi, 2013; Mulongo, 2013; Kamai, 2011; Meng,
2009; Kusumoto, 2008). At present, the main foci
of English language teaching in Indonesia is no
longer teacher-centered, but student-centered
teaching approach (Indrianti, 2012; Lestari &
Widjajakusumah, 2009) that gives students
opportunities to improve their analytical skills,
problem solving skills, as well as skills in deep
learning, lifelong learning, self-directed learning,
reflective learning, and motivation. This is aimed to
achieve the learning outcomes that satisfy all the
objectives of the learning process. As this has been
employed, factors which may influence the
implementation are identified (Lestari &
Widjajakusumah, 2009). Besides, some studies have
been done related to the application of student-
centered approach in the teaching of English in
Open Access
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60 - JSH
Indonesia to some level of education (Indrianti,
2012; Kidwell & Triyoko, 2012).
However, the implementation of students-
centered in English language teaching at tertiary
level needs to be seen whether there is a necessary
to modify and update the classroom instructional
practice. Research suggests that, it can be done by
reducing any gap between students and teacher
beliefs through learning need analysis. Xiao (2006:
75) states that preferences, attitude towards student-
centered approach, authority in class, culture
learning in EFL program, students’ motivation, and
main problems encountered in the course of learning
English and practice of language learning strategies
can give insightful information on learners’ learning
needs.
Related to this, this study is aimed to
investigate the learning needs analysis on learning
English that will be used as an input to syllabus and
material planning, to lesson planning and classroom
instruction practice so that objectives and programs
offered to learning English can be modified or
improved. Even though the actual needs of English
language teaching are various across the country,
the applied process of questionnaire design,
validation, and data analysis can serve as a model
for other institutions in Indonesia or in other parts of
the world.
Teacher-centered Learning
In teacher-centered learning, teachers play
important roles in the learning process. Teachers are
information providers or evaluator to monitor
students to get the right answers, yet students are
viewed as learners who passively receive
information. In the teaching of EFL, the main focus
is getting the students to perform well on state-
mandated tests rather than catering to students’ need
(Zohrabi, et al., 2012). The teachers have less
motivation for innovation in teaching. According to
Acat & Dönmez (2009), in teacher-centered
learning, teachers usually use particular textbooks,
which are mostly grammar oriented and to compare
the language structures of native and target
languages. In this situation students tend to be more
competitive and individualistic because they have
less opportunity to think aloud or interact.
As teachers become the most dominant
source of information, in teacher-centered learning,
for example, all questions which are raised by
students, if any, are answered directly by teachers
without students’ involvement. In designing the
class activities, teachers control every single
learning experience. Several advantages of having
teacher-centered learning are it is suitable for large
classes, it takes shorter time to do the class
activities, learning materials can be well prepared,
teachers may feel less nervous, embarrassed or
tongue-tied, teachers can manage the students to
speak more in English because teachers can set the
criteria when students want to communicate in the
class, they should use English (Nagaraju, 2013). In
this way of learning the real important thing os to
transfer the knowledge to the learners.
Student-centered Learning
Student-centered learning becomes a
pioneer of development of learning approach. In this
approach, students activities are important indicators
in learning process and quality of learning product
(Zohrabi, et al., 2012). In the teaching and learning
English, this approach links with flexible learning,
experiential learning, and self-directed learning
(Acat & Dönmez, 2009). Therefore, a student-
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centered classroom is a place where teachers
consider the needs of the students, as a group and as
individuals, and encourage them to participate in the
learning process all the time. The teachers’ roles are
more that of facilitators than instructors. The
students are active participants in the learning
process, and teachers help to guide the students,
manage their activities, and direct their learning.
There are several activities in the learning
process that bring many advantages in the learning
process in English classes. In student-centered class,
students may work alone, in pairs, or in groups
(Zohrabi, et al., 2012). When students are working
alone, they can prepare ideas or make notes before
class discussions, doing listening tasks, do short
written assignments, or doing grammar or
vocabulary exercises. Students can work together in
pairs or groups when they compare and discuss their
answers, or read and react to one another’s written
work and suggesting improvements. Students may
work together in discussions or in role-plays, share
ideas, opinions, and experiences. According to
Nagaraju (2013), these activities bring some
advantages to students such as when students are
working together in English they talk more, share
their ideas, learn from each other, feel more secure
and less anxious, and use English in a meaningful
way.
Research Method
This research carried out over five months
from August 2016 to December 2016, using
quantitative research approach, especially survey
study. In this empirical study, the subjects consisted
140 English department students from University of
Brawijaya Malang in East Java. The questionnaire
data were gathered in the last 20 minutes of the
students’ class time, via prior agreement with the
lecturers. The selection of student informants was
completely random with a view to accessing a large
number of students from different levels.
The research instruments were Xiao’s
(2006) questionnaire, consisted 58 items which were
written in English and five-point Likert scale was
used, and three open-ended questions (See
Appendix 1). Prior to be distributed, the
questionnaires were tried out to measure its
reliability and validity.
The student informants were grouped into
three different subgroups based on their university
year at undergraduate and graduate level. The
purpose of doing this was to identify similarities and
differences between the sub-groups and
subsequently the causes of the variation can be
explored. One-way ANOVA test was used to
identify whether the mean scores on a variable
differed significantly from one group to another by
taking into account variation within groups as well
as between groups. The data collected from
questionnaire were categorized into 12 inter-related
themes. This way of categorization corresponds with
Xiao’s (2006) learning needs analysis questionnaire.
Findings & Discussion
Students’ Attitude towards Group Work in Class
(Questions 1, 2, 3, 4)
The results showed students’ positive
attitude in group work in class. The ANOVA test
indicated that there were no items that show
significant differences among the undergraduate and
postgraduate students (P>0.05), meaning that in
English class students liked to participate in group
work, committed themselves to achieve common
goal with their peers, liked teacher-directed group
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work, and listened to their friends for the English
oral presentation.
Students’ Attitude towards Speaking out in Class
(Questions 5, 6, 7, 9, 57)
On question 5, 6, and 7, the results of the
ANOVA test showed significant differences
between the undergraduates and post graduate
students (P<0.001, 0.002, 0.009). The postgraduate
students tented to show more favorable attitudes
than undergraduates towards speaking out in class in
the form of asking and answering questions, keeping
the discussion atmosphere friendly and harmonious,
and not being ‘stand out’ in voicing opinion or
asking questions. However, undergraduate and
postgraduates indicated more negative attitude in
preparing what to say in English mentally before
speaking and generally they did not like to answer
questions in English in class. Meaning that, asking
and answering questions bring anxiety to them.
Nature and Strength of Motivation among Students
(Questions 10, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17)
The findings indicated that the students
liked to learn English and were interested in
learning about major English-speaking countries.
Their interest focused economic, social, political
and technological developments in other countries
of the world. The results also showed that students’
instrumental motivation to learn English especially
which deals with their desire to work or to get better
work position were high. Moreover, some of the
undergraduates students were eager to pursue higher
education through enrolling higher level of
education or go abroad for advanced study. This
finding indirectly supported students’ responses in
Question 47 about having a clear long-term aim of
learning English.
Students’ Attitudes towards Teacher-centered
Teaching Method in Class (Questions 18, 27)
The result showed that 47% (66)
respondents agreed and 53% (74) respondents
disagreed with teacher centered teaching method.
The students considered this method was effective
in some ways but unhelpful in others. Some reasons
revealed from the open-ended question, Question 27
that the effectiveness is caused by teacher’s
competence, nature of the course taught, and
classroom activities. The ANOVA test resulted that
there was a significant difference between
undergraduate and post graduate students (P<0.007).
Undergraduates students, especially who were in the
fourth-semester mentioned that teacher-centered
teaching method was less effective. Meanwhile, the
postgraduate students appeared to be more agreeable
to this method, for it is assumed that they have
smaller class size and more teacher-initiated or
directed discussion in class. In short, this result
shows that the whole student-groups held a mildly
negative attitude to teacher-centered approach.
Students’ Attitudes towards Student-centered
Teaching Approach (Questions 19, 28)
Different from Question 18, the finding of
Question 19 indicated that the whole student-groups
held positive attitude to student-centered teaching
approach. The result of the ANOVA test shows that
the difference between undergraduate and
postgraduates is statistically significant (P<0.011).
This result was strengthened by students’ answers
on Questions 28. Mostly, they admitted that student-
centered teaching approach led them to master the
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materials in conducive atmosphere of learning,
dynamic classroom activities, and offered
opportunity to do autonomous learning.
Students’ Attitudes to Communicative Activities in
Class (Questions 21, 22, 25)
The findings of Question 25 showed that
students expressed mixed attitudes towards
communicative activity especially when teacher
stimulate their interest to do analytical thinking
ability through thought-provoking questions than
display questions. The ANOVA test showed that the
results of Question 25 were significantly different
between undergraduates and postgraduates
(P<0.002). Unsurprisingly, postgraduate students
show more positive attitude than undergraduate
ones. The assumption Nonetheless, other
communicative activities like discussions on
films/video shows, favorite books, and tips on how
to be better learner of English sustain whole student-
groups’ interests.
Students’ Attitudes towards Non-communicative
Activities in Class (Question 20, 24, 42)
The findings showed that students had
various responses towards non-communicative
activities, like in reading class, for many students
still think that reading activities played important
roles in the teaching and learning English because
they can enhance students’ vocabulary and
grammatical structures, though teacher-centeredness
is commonly found as the teaching method. Because
of these, undergraduate students appeared to feel
comfortable with this traditional teaching method,
while postgraduate students intended to have
negative attitude. Based on ANOVA test, Question
20 (P<0.000) and Question 24 (P<0.028) were
significantly different. Besides, the finding of
Question 42 revealed that whole student-groups held
more to the positive attitudes towards explicit
learning. However, this finding is opposite with
response in Question 19 about student-centered
learning approach.
Culture Learning in EFL (Questions 11, 23, 36, 37)
There were no significant different on the
whole student-groups in responding this variable.
Students’ responses indicated that they liked to learn
about target culture in English class, including
Western people way of life and social custom
especially though text materials.
Students’ Attitudes towards Compensation
Strategies (Questions 29, 31, 32)
The result of Question 31 showed that
students often used gestures as communicative
strategies than depending on the native language nor
using words or phrases that mean the same thing.
On Question 29 and Question 32, the result of
ANOVA test showed significant difference between
the undergraduates and postgraduates (P<0.007);
(P<0.024). From the mean difference, it can be
shown that postgraduates preferred using words or
phrases instead of using Indonesian language as
another communicative strategy than the
undergraduates.
Students’ Attitudes towards Social Strategies
(Questions 33, 34, 35)
Social strategies used by undergraduates
and post graduates showed very highly positive
attitudes. The results of the ANOVA test showed no
significant difference among the undergraduate and
postgraduate student-groups. Most of them have a
peer with whom they often practiced oral English on
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a regular basis, and took part in after-class activities
in which English was practiced, for example English
club, drama group, or newspaper group.
Students’ Attitudes towards Authority (Questions 43,
44, 45, 46, 58)
The findings of Questions 43, 44, 45 and 46
clearly revealed various responses upon teacher
authority in the classes as proven by ANOVA test
result (P<0.008), (P<0.016), (P<0.000), and
(P<0.007). Undergraduate students of the second
semester as well as post graduate students tended to
expect teacher than themselves to be responsible for
evaluating how much they have learnt English.
Different from undergraduate students in the second
semester, the rest of student-groups tended to have
responsibility in gaining knowledge from
themselves rather than seeing teachers as the only
source of knowledge, though they admitted that
teaching method used by teacher is very important
to students’ English study. As indicated in the
open-ended questions on Question 58, most of the
students found that the current teaching methods
used by their teachers of English in English class
were contenting 72% (101) of the students agreed
on the statement under the reasons that teachers had
used student-centered and teacher-centered teaching
approaches appropriately based on the courses.
Meanwhile, only 38% (39) students complained
about the teacher way of teaching, whether it was
too much on student-centered or teacher-centered
approach.
Major Difficulties Encountered in Students’
Learning Process (Questions 26, 30, 38, 39, 40, 41,
47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56)
Dealing with difficulties encountered by
students in learning process, the whole student-
groups indicated that teacher had already helped
student with materials difficulty by explaining them
in Indonesian language. Thus, students had bravery
to do speak in English and had low anxiety in
making mistakes. This finding could be explained
because students usually used new words in
sentences to make them remember them. Some
problems like the availability of learning sources for
instance materials, audio visuals, and textbooks that
are compatible with requirements of student-
centered approach, assurance in getting good
TOEFL scores, and guarantee of obtaining a good
job after graduation from the university exerted
heavy pressure on them. Besides that, some other
problems like students’ learning style, chances to
speak in the class, and teaching methods were
responded differently by the whole student-groups
as shown by the ANOVA test.
Dicussion
Regarding the findings revealed that the
students’ positive attitude towards group work in
class may derive from the assumption that teachers
have highly adopted active learning teaching
methodology as the form of implementing student-
centered teaching approach. As confirmed by
Molungo (2013: 157)’s research findings, group
work can stimulate learning because students are
involved in the class activities. This finding
indicates that it is vital to use teaching technique
that allow student to work in groups.
However, students’ shows various attitudes
towards speaking out in class. Given their advanced
English proficiency and their specialized area of
their study, postgraduate students tend to show more
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positive attitudes than the undergraduate ones.
However, some anxieties are found among the
whole students’ groups when they are asked to
speak out in class. Based on Juhana (2012: 100),
psychological factors like fear of making mistake,
shyness, anxiety, lack of confidence, and lack of
motivation hinder students from speaking in English
class in Indonesia. These factors are commonly
caused by their fear of being laughed at by their
friends. Thus, the possible solution is the teachers
should be more aware of their students’ hindrance to
speak out in class.
Meanwhile, the implication of findings for
the nature and strength of motivation among
students is supported by Emaliana (2011:199) that
instrumental motivation is the major motivational
orientation for the undergraduate students to learn
EFL in Indonesia. It means students need English
for graduation (certificate and title) and higher
studies.
The result of students’ attitudes towards
teacher-centered teaching method and student-
centered teaching approach in class revealed that
both need to be used in combination to suit the
Indonesian EFL context. In other words, no ‘pure’
student-or teacher-centered approach will be
effective in the teaching and learning process.
Harmer (2011) strengthens that no single teaching
method that can possibly ‘cure’, which means that
various teaching methods should be used by
teachers to meet all of students’ needs.
The findings on students’ attitudes to
communicative and non-communicative activities in
class are various. The implications of these findings
are clear; teachers need to make various
communicative and non-communicative class
activities through interesting teaching media.
Emaliana (2011:199) suggests that teachers need to
select teaching media which meet the students’
needs. As stated in the research findings, Indonesian
students like to listen English songs, watch English
movies, and read non-fiction books. Besides,
students expressed a strong desire in culture learning
in EFL. This finding alerts teachers to the need to
develop a pedagogy which can integrate culture into
EFL education.
The findings on students’ attitudes towards
compensation strategies show that communicative
strategies are needed to be taught to EFL students,
like how to use gestures, words or phrases that mean
the same things. The needs to know appropriate
communicative strategies will enhance the teaching
and learning of English. Besides that, the students’
attitudes toward social strategies are highly positive.
Therefore, teachers need to encourage and motivate
the students to improve their involvement in
extracurricular activities or after-class activities to
practice their English.
Regarding to the findings on students’
attitudes towards authority, students respect teachers
based on god quality of teaching performance and
thus, teachers become moral examples to students.
Teachers also need to select appropriate teaching
method that promotes learning, so, they need to be
professional. Therefore, teachers’ awareness on their
professional development is needed to sustain their
professionalism. Hartatik (2011: 422) mentions
teachers are expected to be active in both in-service
training and on-service training programs to
improve their competences and professionalism.
Deal with major difficulties encountered in
students’ learning process, it is obvious that teachers
need to concern with their teaching method.
Appropriate teaching method that can promote
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learning will solve the problems faced by the
students. To select suitable element in determining
the success of English language learning, the
selection and preparation of teaching materials are
important. Materials which tailored to students’
need is effective to facilitate better learning and to
enhance students’ learning experiences (Indrianti,
2012: 380).
Conclusion
The results of the study do show a tendency
that teacher-centered teaching method and student-
centered teaching approach should be implemented
in EFL teaching and learning. Not only one of them,
but both of them can be used to enhance both
effective teaching and learning at different levels. At
tertiary level of education, the ideal way to innovate
English teaching and to meet learner’s needs is by
promoting learning. Teachers have to use student-
centered and teacher-centered approaches
appropriately based on the materials discussed.
Due to the time constraints and scope of the
study, the present study only accesses the learning
needs, future research needs to consider the target
needs to make a complete need analysis in teaching
English in tertiary level of education. The
limitations of the present study leave gaps for other
researchers to fill in through further investigations.
One of suggested future studies is about designing
appropriate curriculum to teach EFL using student-
centered and teacher-centered approaches
appropriately.
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Appendices
Appendix 1. The Questionnaire Indicators
Students’ Attitude towards Group Work in Class
1. In English class, I like to participate in group work with 2-4 people, e.g. English dialogues, group
discussion, role play.
2. In group work, I like committing myself to achieving our common goal with my peers.
3. I like my teacher to divide the whole class into several small groups in which we do teacher-directed
group work.
4. In English class, I like listening to my peers give English oral presentations of interesting stories or
information that are well-prepared outside of class.
Students’ Attitude towards Speaking out in Class
1. In group work, I like to ask and answer questions in English.
2. When working in a group, I like to help keep the atmosphere friendly and harmonious
3. In group work, I do not like to 'stand out' by voicing my opinions or asking questions
4. In class or in group activities, I like to prepare what I want to say in English mentally before I speak
5. I like to answer questions in English in class.
Nature and Strength of Motivation among Students
1. I work especially hard when my own success will benefit me and other people (e.g. my family or my
relatives)
2. I like learning English
3. I am interested in the cultures of major English-speaking nations
4. I learn English because I want to know about the economic, social, political and technological
developments in other countries of the world
5. I learn English because I want to find a good job
6. I want to be enrolled in the Master degree program
7. I want to go abroad for advanced study or work
Students’ Attitudes towards Teacher-centered Teaching Method in Class
1. In English class, I like a teacher-centred teaching method employed by teachers
2. Do you like a teacher-centred teaching method in English class?
Yes No Please state your reasons why you like or do not like it.
Students’ Attitudes towards Student-centered Teaching Approach
1. In English class, I like a student-centred teaching method employed by teachers
2. Do you like a student-centred teaching method in English class?
Yes No Please state your reasons why you like or do not like it.
Students’ Attitudes to Communicative Activities in Class
1. In English class, I like teacher-guided and text-related discussions on such topics as population problems,
my favourite books, films, or how to be a better learner of English
2. In English class, I like to watch English language films or videos, and then discuss them in groups with
teacher' facilitation and guidance
3. In English class, I like my teacher to ask students text-based and thought-provoking questions to keep the
lesson interesting in order that students have chances to practise their spoken English
Students’ Attitudes towards Non-communicative Activities in Class
1. In the English Intensive Reading class, I like my teacher to deal with the text materials in a sentence-by-
sentence way
2. In English class, I like to do simulation test exercises and listen to my teacher' explanations
3. I link its Indonesian meaning to a new word to help me remember the word in English
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Culture Learning in EFL
1. In English class, I like to learn about Western cultures including their way of life, social customs, etc.
2. I learn a lot about western cultures from my English classes
3. My knowledge about Western culture(s) mainly comes from English classroom teaching and learning
4. I like to read English language text materials which cover Western cultures
Students’ Attitudes towards Compensation Strategies
1. If I cannot think of a word during a conversation in English, I depend on my native language to explain it
2. When I can't think of a word during a conversation in English, I use gestures
3. When I can't think of a word during a conversation in English, I use a word or phrase that means the same
thing
Students’ Attitudes towards Social Strategies
1. I have at least one peer with whom I often practise English
2. I like to participate in extra-curricular activities in which I can practise my oral English, e.g. English
corner
3. I like after-class activities in which I can practise my English writing skills, e.g. drama group and
newspaper group
Students’ Attitudes towards Authority
1. I expect my teacher rather than myself to be responsible for evaluating how much I have learnt
2. In class I see the teacher as somebody whose authority should not be questioned
3. I see knowledge, as something that the teacher should pass on to me rather than something that I should
discover myself
4. In English class, the teaching method used by the teacher is very important to students’ English study
5. Are you content with the current teaching methods used by your teachers of English in English class?
Please explain.
Major Difficulties Encountered in Students’ Learning Process
1. In English class, I like my teacher to translate some difficult paragraphs of text materials into Indonesian
to enhance my comprehension and translation skills
2. I try to relax myself whenever I am feeling afraid of using English, especially oral English
3. I encourage myself to speak English even when I am afraid of making a mistake
4. I give myself a reward or treat when I do well in English. For example, I reward myself by going to a
restaurant, etc
5. I remember new words by thinking of relationships between what I already know and new things I learn
in English
6. I use new words in a sentence so I can remember them well
7. I do not have a clear long-term aim of learning English, and lack motivation
8. My learning styles are too rigid and inflexible
9. I have few opportunities to practice my English
10. There is a lack of authentic English materials, audio and visual
11. The idea of finding a good job after graduation from the university exerts heavy pressure on me
12. We lack chances to speak English in class
13. Mid-term tests, Final tests of the courses in the department, and TOEFL test exert heavy pressures on
me
14. Teachers place too much stress on the structure, grammar and reading comprehension in English class
15. The English language textbooks are not compatible with the requirements of the student-centred
approach in English class
16. We have little knowledge or information about Western cultures
Appendix 2. The Mean Value and Standard Deviation of Student
Questionnaire data (N= 140)
Question 1
4.12
.83
Question
15
3.95
.95
Question
31
3.99
.86
Question
45
3.31
.95
Ive Emaliana
70 - JSH
Question 2
3.73
.69
Question
16
4.07
.83
Question
32
4.07
.81
Question
46
4.05
.97
Question 3
3.75
.82
Question
17
4.25
.83
Question
33
3.59
.89
Question
47
2.80
1.1
Question 4
3.82
.82
Question
18
3.24
.98
Question
34
3.45
.97
Question
48
3.04
.98
Question 5
3.67
.82
Question
19
3.67
.78
Question
35
3.45
.95
Question
49
3.12
1.00
Question 6
4.22
.86
Question
20
3.40
.91
Question
36
3.31
.91
Question
50
3.26
1.08
Question 7
2.92
1.03
Question
21
4.02
.79
Question
37
3.5
.96
Question
51
3.39
.95
Question 8
3.69
.98
Question
22
4.22
.82
Question
38
3.80
.84
Question
52
3.15
1.11
Question 9
4.09
.86
Question
23
3.32
.91
Question
39
3.35
1.04
Question
53
3.30
1.03
Question
10
4.18
.85
Question
24
3.75
.80
Question
40
3.93
.69
Question
54
3.06
.96
Question
11
3.65
.88
Question
25
3.86
.76
Question
41
3.90
.85
Question
55
3.08
.96
Question
12
4.37
.75
Question
26
3.84
.91
Question
42
3.70
.92
Question
56
3.22
.90
Question
13
3.82
.89
Question
29
3.70
.94
Question
43
3.52
.94
Question
57
3.53
.90
Question
14
3.46
1.08
Question
30
4.08
.80
Question
44
3.02
.96
Appendix 3. Twenty one Items Showing Significant Differences by
The One-way ANOVA Test
Across three student sub-groups
N=210
Df
F value
ANOVA
Sig. P < 0.05
Question 5
2
7.172
0.001
Question 6
2
6.396
0.002
Question 7
2
4.897
0.009
Question 18
2
5.098
0.007
Question 19
2
4.639
0.011
Question 24
2
3.653
0.028
Question 20
2
13.968
0.000
Question 25
2
6.262
0.002
Question 29
2
5.131
0.007
Question 32
2
3.813
0.024
Question 38
2
3.958
0.021
Question 40
2
4.065
0.019
Question 43
2
4.941
0.008
Question 44
2
4.272
0.016
Question 45
2
18.373
0.000
Question 46
2
5.075
0.007
Question 47
2
3.288
0.040
Question 48
2
5.277
0.006
Question 49
2
6.131
0.003
Question 52
2
8.680
0.000
Question 54
2
3.951
0.021
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Emaliana, Ive (2011) A Survey on the Relationship between Motivation and Achievement of English Department Students of State University of Malang. In Cahyani, Hilda. and Cahyono, Bambang Yudi (Eds.), Best Practices in the Teaching of English. Malang: State University of Malang Press.
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  • Juhana
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