ArticlePDF Available
THAI FOREST BULL., BOT. 45(2): 125–133. 2017.
DOI https://doi.org/10.20531/tfb.2017.45.2.08
© 2017 The Forest Herbarium
INTRODUCTION
Alysicarpus Neck. ex Desv. (Desmodieae,
Leguminosae) comprises about 30 species distributed
in tropical and subtropical regions in Africa, Asia
and Australia, with maximum diversity in India,
South Africa and Australia (Pedley, 2001; Adema,
2003; Huang & Ohashi, 2008; Lewis et al., 2005;
Pokle, 2017). The genus derives from two Greek
words, ‘hylysis’ meaning chain and ‘carpos’ meaning
fruit, in reference to the segments of the pods (Lewis
et al., 2005). Necker (1793) separated out Alysicarpus
from Hedysarum and was later validly published by
Desvaux (1813). The generic name and type of
genus, Alysicarpus bupleurifolius, proposed for
conservation were given in the St. Louise Code
(Greuter et al., 2000).
In Thailand, Alysicarpus has been listed in two
checklists by Craib (1928) and Pooma & Suddee
(2014) with four and three species, respectively.
However, valid scientic names and comprehensive
information on the morphology, distribution and
ecology of this genus in Thailand are needed for the
forthcoming Flora of Thailand account.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Fresh eld collections in Thailand and specimens
from the following herbaria were consulted: AAU,
The genus Alysicarpus Neck. ex Desv. (Leguminosae) in Thailand
CHARAN LEERATIWONG1,*, JIRATTHI SATTHAPHORN1 & PRANOM CHANTARANOTHAI2
ABSTRACT
The three species of Alysicarpus known from Thailand are described with notes on their distribution and ecological data, vernacular
names and photographs. They are Alysicarpus bupleurifolius, A. rugosus and A. vaginalis. A key for the identication of the three
species is provided. A lectotype for Alysicarpus wallichii is selected here.
KEYWORDS: Desmodieae, Fabaceae, lectotypication, revision.
Published online: 4 December 2017
1 Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Prince of Songkla University, Hatyai, Songkhla 90112, Thailand.
2 Department of Biology and Center of Excellence on Biodiversity (BDC), Faculty of Science, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen
40002, Thailand.
* Corresponding author: charan.leeratiwong@gmail.com
ABD, BCU, BK, BKF, BM, C, CMU, CMUB, E,
K, KKU, L, P, PSU, QBG and SING (herbarium
acronyms follow Thiers, 2016). Morphological,
ecological and distribution data, vernacular names
and illustrations are also provided.
TAXONOMIC TREATMENT
ALYSICARPUS
Neck. ex Desv., J. Bot. Agric. 1: 120. 1813, nom.
cons.; DC., Prodr. 2: 352. 1825; Benth., Fl. Austr.
2: 239. 1864; Benth. & Hook.f., Gen. Pl. 2: 450.
1865; Oliv., Fl. Trop. Afr. 2: 169. 1871. Baker in
Hook.f., Fl. Brit. India 2: 157. 1876; Gagnep. in
Lecomte, Fl. Indo-Chine. 2: 555. 1916; Backer &
Bakh.f., Fl. Java 1: 609. 1963; Ridl., Fl. Malay
Penins. 1: 604. 1967; Verdc., Fl. Trop. E. Afr., Leg.
Pap. 1: 491. 1971; Polhill in Polhill & Raven, Adv.
Legume Syst.: 292. 1981; Nguyen in Morat, Fl.
Cambodge, Laos & Vietnam 23: 128. 1987; Prain
in King, J. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, Pt. 2, Nat. Hist. 66
(2): 132. 1987; Huang & Ohashi in Wu et al., Fl.
China 10: 290. 2008.— Hedysarum L., Sp. Pl. 2:
745. 1753. pro parte. Type species: Alysicarpus
bupleurifolius (L.) DC. (typ. cons.).
Herbs, annual or perennial. Stems creeping or
ascending, simple or branched, glabrous or with
hooked hairs and patent straight hairs, rarely with
THAI FOREST BULLETIN (BOTANY) VOL. 45 NO. 2
126
appressed hairs. Leaves 1-foliolate, chartaceous or
subcoriaceous, alternate, stipulate and stipellate;
stipules free or connate; venation reticulate.
Inorescence a pseudoraceme, terminal or axillary,
each node on rachides usually with two flowers.
Flowers bisexual, zygomorpic, pedicellate; bracts
scarious, early caducous; bracteoles usually early
caducous. Calyx campanulate, 4-lobed, glumaceous,
striate with strong veins proliferated from base of lobes,
rigid, persistent; lobes imbricate at base or valvate,
dorsal lobes bid at apex. Corolla 5, papilionaceous,
not or slightly longer than calyx; standard broad,
obovate or nearly orbiculate, bi-lobed at apex, incurved,
clawed; wings oblong-obovate or spathulate,
rounded or obtuse at apex, incurved, clawed, slightly
shorter than keel; keel adhering to wings, partly
connate along lower margin, boat-shaped, slightly
incurved, obtuse or rounded at apex, clawed.
Stamens
10, diadelphous (9+1); anthers
uniform
.
Pistil
1-carpellate, 1-locular; ovary superior, sub-sessile
or shortly stalked, 2- to many-ovuled, glabrous to
hairy; style liform, incurved; stigma capitate. Pods
a legume, indehiscent, swollen, constricted or not
between articles; articles 2–8, quadrangular, broadly
oblong or rarely ovate to sub-orbicular, surface
smooth or with transversely ridged or with reticulate
veins, 1 seed per article, glabrous to sparsely straight-
hairy or with hooked hairs. Seeds 2–8, asymmetry,
cubic, oblong-ellipsoid, ellipsoid or obloid, light
brown to black; hilum circular.
A genus of about 30 species, widely distributed
in tropical regions of Africa, Asia and Australia.
Three species are native to Thailand.
KEY TO THE SPECIES
1. Calyx lobes valvate; corolla blue, pink, purple, reddish-pink or rarely orangish-yellow; pod not or slightly constricted between
articles
3. A. vaginalis
1. Calyx lobes imbricate at base; corolla yellow, orangish-yellow, greenish-yellow, pale yellow or white; pod constricted between
articles
2. Pods with transversely ridged veins and hooked hairs; inorescences with owers densely arranged; calyx outside with hooked
hairs
;
leaets
oblong
,
oblong-obovate
,
oblong-oblanceolate
,
linear-lanceolate
or rarely broadly ovate to
orbicular
2. A. rugosus
2.
Pods without transversely ridged veins and hooked hairs; inorescences with owers laxly arranged; calyx outside without
hooked hairs; leaets linear to linear-lanceolate
1. A. bupleurifolius
1. Alysicarpus bupleurifolius (L.) DC., Prodr. 2:
352. 1825; Wight & Arn., Prodr.: 233. 1834; Miq.,
Fl. Ind. Bat. 1: 232. 1855; Baker in Hook.f., Fl.
Brit. India 2: 158. 1876; Gagnep. in Lecomte, Fl.
Indo-Chine. 2: 557. 1916; Craib, Fl. Siam. 1(3):
431. 1928; Meeuwen et al., Reinwardtia 6(1): 88.
1961; Backer & Bakh.f., Fl. Java 1: 610. 1963;
Huang & Ohashi, Fl. Taiwan 3: 168. 1977; Nguyen
in Morat, Fl. Cambodge, Laos & Vietnam 23: 130.
1987; Pedley in Dassan. & Clayton, Revis. Handb.
Fl. Ceylon 10: 153. 1996 & Austrobaileya 6(1):
110. 2001; Huang & Ohashi in Wu et al., Fl. China
10: 291. 2008.— Hedysarum bupleurifolium L.,
Sp. Pl. 2: 745. 1753; Burman, Fl. Ind.: 163. 1768;
Roxb., Fl. Ind. 3: 346. 1832. Type: India, Plukenet,
Amalth. Bot., t. 443, g. 4. 1691 (lectotype, selected
by Ali (1966)). Fig. 1.
Hedysarum gramineum Retz., Observ. 5: 26.
1789; Willd., Sp. Pl. 3: 1172. 1803; Roxb., Fl. Ind.
3: 346. 1832. Type: Indonesia, Java, H. Zollinger
2352 (holotype P 03114398!).
Annual herb 25–120 cm tall. Stem erect or
ascending, much branched, glabrous or with straight
hairs. Leaves: petioles 1–4 mm long, grooved, covered
with straight hairs; stipules triangular-linear, 3–3.3
by 0.5–1 mm, scarious; leaflets linear to linear-
lanceolate, chartaceous, 1–7 by 2–5 mm, apex acute,
apiculate, base rounded or cuneate, margin entire
with appressed straight hairs; adaxial surface glabrous
or with sparsely appressed straight hairs; abaxial
surface with sparsely appressed straight hairs; lateral
veins 7–22 pairs; petiolule 0.5–1 mm long, hairy;
stipels triangular, ca 0.7 by 0.2 mm, scarious.
Pseudoraceme terminal or axillary, 3–18 cm long,
glabrous; internode 0.5–2 cm long; peduncle 0.6–2 cm
long; owers 20–40-owered, laxly arranged; bracts
ovate or elliptic-ovate, 6–8 by 2–2.5 mm, apex
acuminate; pedicels 1–2.5 mm long or sub-sessile,
grooved, covered with straight hairs; bracteoles early
caducous. Calyx green or brownish-green, 7–8 mm
long; tube 2–2.2 mm long; lobes imbricate, dorsal
lobes lanceolate, 4.7–6 mm long, apex bid, other
lobes lanceolate to ovate, 5–6 mm long, apex
THE GENUS ALYSICARPUS NECK. EX DESV. (LEGUMINOSAE) IN THAILAND (C. LEERATIWONG, J. SATTHAPHORN & P. CHANTARANOTHAI)
127
acuminate, outside glabrous, except with
straight
hairs margin, inside glabrous. Corolla yellow
to
orangish-yellow or greenish-yellow, sometimes with
red blotch inside at base, glabrous; standard obovate
or orbicular, 7–8 by 4.5–5.5 mm, apex emarginate,
base attenuate, claw 0.5–2 mm long; wings oblong-
obovate, 4–7 by 1–2 mm, apex rounded, base
attenuate,
sometimes slightly auriculate
dorsally,
claw 1–2 mm long; keel obovate, 5–8 by 1–1.5 mm,
apex rounded, slightly incurved, base attenuate, claw
1–3 mm long. Stamens 6–6.5 mm long, staminal
tube 5–5.5 mm long, free part of laments 1–1.2 mm
long; anthers yellow, oblong, 0.3–0.4 mm long.
Ovary narrowly oblong, 1–2 mm long, glabrous or
with sparse, short appressed hairs; ovules 3–8; style
3–4 mm long, incurving upward ca ⅙ of its length,
with sparse long straight hairs at lower part. Pods
cylindrical, 5–15 by 1.5–2 mm, glabrous to very
sparsely hairy at margin, smooth, without transversely
ridged vein and hooked hairs,
acuminate at apex,
light green when young, becoming
brown, exserted
from persistent calyx, constricted between articles;
Figure 1. Alysicarpus bupleurifolius (L.) DC.: A. habit; B. owers; C. young fruits; D. dried fruit (Satthaphorn & Leeratiwong 73);
E. fruit surface showing smooth area (Satthaphorn & Leeratiwong 73). Photos: A–C by C. Leeratiwong and D–E by
J. Satthaphorn.
THAI FOREST BULLETIN (BOTANY) VOL. 45 NO. 2
128
articles 3–8, ovate to sub-orbicular or quadrangular,
1.5–2.5 by 1.5–2 mm, smooth or rarely with obscurely
reticulate veins; stipe 9.5–12.7 mm long; persistent
calyx clearly longer than rst article of pod. Seeds
cubic to ellipsoid, 0.8–1 by 0.8–1 mm, glossy, brown.
Thailand.— NORTHERN: Mae Hong Son [Tham
Pla-Namtok Pha Suea NP, 19 Nov. 2013, Lakoet 423
(QBG)]; Chiang Mai [Doi Sutep, 12 Sept. 1909,
Kerr 808 (BM, K); Op Luang NP, 11 Oct. 1996,
Maxwell 96-1327 (BKF, CMUB); Doi Sutep, 28
Sept. 1958, Sørensen et al. 5306 (BKF), 30 Sept.
1958, Larsen 5342 (C, E), 21 Oct. 1987, Maxwell
87-1242 (BKF, CMUB), 14 Oct. 2016, Satthaphorn
& Leeratiwong 73 (PSU); Fang, 8 Oct. 1973,
Boonkerd 27 (BK); Mae Rim, 11 Nov. 2001,
Maxwell 01-606 (CMUB); San Kamphaeng, 12 Oct.
1989, Maxwell 89-223 (CMU, E, L); Mae Taeng, 6
Oct. 1994, BGO. sta 2332 (QBG)]; Lamphun [Doi
Khun Tan NP, 29 Nov. 1994, Maxwell 94-1146
(BKF, CMUB)]; Phrae [Mae Yom NP, 14 Nov. 1991,
Maxwell 91-1052 (CMUB)]; Tak [Thararak waterfall,
21 Nov. 2005, Pooma et al. 5747 (BKF); Umphang
WS, 17 Oct. 2014, Middleton et al. 5739 (BKF);
Wang-Djao, 14 Oct. 1904, Hosseus 102 (K), Hosseus
109 (C)]; Sukhothai [Muang, 6 Nov. 1971, Maxwell
71-744 (BK)]; Phitsanulok [Bang Tang, 7 Dec. 1905,
Hosseus 703 (K), Thung Saleang Luang NP, 22 Oct.
1984, Murata et al. T-38492 (BKF); Kaeng Chet
Khwae NP, 4 Oct. 2006, Maknoi & Pongsattayapipat
1150 (QBG)]; Nakhon Sawan [Khao Takhli, 17 Jan.
1975, Sathasen 3150 (BK)]; NORTH-EASTERN:
Phetchabun [Nam Nao NP, 3 Nov. 2003, Sawai 443
(KKU), 17 Nov. 2013, Maknoi 4487 (QBG)]; Sakon
Nakhon [Phu Phan NP, 1 Nov. 1998, Leeratiwong
98-31 (KKU), 25 Sept. 1999, Leeratiwong 99-107
(KKU), Chantaranothai et al. 831 (KKU)]; Kalasin
[Phu Phan NP, 23 Oct. 1975, Sathasen 3497 (BK)];
Khon Kaen [Phu Khiao, 8 Nov. 1984, Murata et al.
T-41782 (BKF, L)]; EASTERN: Chaiyaphum [Phu
Khieo WS, Oct. 1999, Phengklai et al. 12336
(BKF)]; Nakhon Ratchasima [Pak Thong Chai, 10
Nov. 1963, Pradit 520 (BK)]; Buri Ram [26 Nov.
1976, Phengklai et al. 3440 (BKF), 27 Nov. 1976,
Phengklai et al. 3488 (BKF)]; SOUTH-WESTERN:
Kanchanaburi [Salak Phra WS, 28 Nov. 1971,
Beusekom et al. 4014 (BKF); Si Sawat, 16 Nov.
1971, Beusekom et al. 3807 (BKF, C, K, P)];
Phetchaburi [Bo Fai, 8 Nov. 1931, Marcan 2730
(ABD, BM, C)]; Prachuap Khiri Khan [Hua Hin,
11 Nov. 1918, Kerr 16207 (BK, BM, K), 11 Nov.
1928, S.N. ( C)]; SOUTH-EASTERN: Chon Buri
[Sattahip, 4 Nov. 1972, Maxwell 72-584 (BK)].
Distribution.— Mauritius, Pakistan, Sri Lanka,
India, Nepal, Bangladesh, Myanmar, China, Taiwan,
Southeast Asia through Australia.
Ecology.— In mixed deciduous, dry dipterocarp,
dipterocarp-oak or scrub forest, especially along
roadsides, in grass elds, disturbed, degraded, re-
damaged or edge area, open sandy or rocky places,
limestone or granitic bedrock, cultivated grounds
and often on heavy soils, in sunny places subject to
a pronounced dry season; 0–850 m alt. Flowering
and fruiting: September to January.
Vernacular.— Non plong () (General).
Note.— Alysicarpus bupleurifolius is charac-
terized by having linear to linear-lanceolate leaets,
calyx outside without hooked hairs, yellow to
orangish
-
yellow
or greenish-yellow corolla,
persistent
calyx which is clearly longer than the rst article of
fruit and smooth fruit surface.
2. Alysicarpus rugosus (Willd.) DC., Prodr. 2: 353.
1825; Miq., Fl. Ind. Bat. 1(1): 233. 1855; Benth.,
Fl. Austr. 2: 239. 1864; Oliv., Fl. Trop. Afr. 2: 170.
1871; Baker in Hook.f., Fl. Brit. India 2: 159. 1876;
Gagnep. in Lecomte, Fl. Indo-Chine. 2: 555. 1920;
Craib, Fl. Siam. 1(3): 432. 1928; Meeuwen,
Reinwardtia 6: 87. 1961; Backer & Bakh.f., Fl. Java
1: 610. 1963; Verdc., Fl. Trop. E. Afr., Leg. Pap. 1:
495. 1971; Nguyen in Morat, Fl. Cambodge, Laos &
Vietnam 23: 132. 1987; Huang & Ohashi in Wu et al.,
Fl. China 10: 291. 2008.— Hedysarum rugosum
Willd.,
Sp. Pl. 3: 1172. 1803. Type: Guinea,
Herb.
Willdenow (holotype B B-W13757-010!). Fig. 2.
Alysicarpus wallichii Wight & Arn., Prodr.: 234.
1834; Craib, Fl. Siam. 1(3): 432. 1928. Type: India,
Wallich Numer. List. 5761f (lectotype K-W
K001122048!, selected here).
Perennial herb 0.4–1 m tall. Stems erect,
branched, glabrous or with straight hairs. Leaves:
petioles 2–10 mm long, glabrous or with straight
hairs; stipules triangular, 4–16 by 2–2.5 mm, scarious,
striate with parallel-veins, persistent; leaets oblong,
oblong-obovate, oblong-oblanceolate, linear-
lanceolate, or rarely broadly ovate to orbicular,
subcoriaceous, 1–5 by 0.2–2.5 cm, apex acute,
acuminate or obtuse, apiculate, base rounded or
cordate, margins entire with appressed straight hairs;
THE GENUS ALYSICARPUS NECK. EX DESV. (LEGUMINOSAE) IN THAILAND (C. LEERATIWONG, J. SATTHAPHORN & P. CHANTARANOTHAI)
129
adaxial surface glabrous; abaxial surface covered
with pilose or slightly straight hairs especially on
veins; lateral veins 6–8 pairs; petiolules 0.5–1 mm
long with straight hairs; stipels triangular or rounded
0.5–1.5 mm long. Pseudoraceme terminal or axillary,
2–12 cm long, covered with hooked hairs; peduncle
1–4.7 cm long; flowers 10–24-flowered, densely
arranged; bracts ovate to triangular, 1.5–5 by
0.5–3 mm, caducous; pedicels 2–4 mm long with
hooked hairs; bracteoles early caducous. Calyx light
green, 7–10 mm long; tube 1–2 mm long; lobes
imbricate, dorsal lobe lanceolate to ovate, 6–9 mm,
apex bifid, other lobes lanceolate to triangular,
7–8 mm, apex acute or acuminate, margins with long
straight hairs, ca 1 mm long, outside with sparse
hooked hairs, inside glabrous. Corolla white to pale
yellow, orangish-yellow or pinkish-white, glabrous;
standard obovate 4.5–5 by 2–3 mm long, apex retuse,
base attenuate, claw 0.7–1 mm; wings oblong, 4–5 by
0.8–1, apex obtuse, base attenuate, claw 0.5–1 mm
long; keel boat-shaped, 4.5–5 by 0.8–1.5 mm,
incurved, apex obtuse, base attenuate, claw 1–1.5 mm
long. Stamens 4.5–5.5 mm long, staminal tube
4–5 mm long, free part of laments ca 0.5 mm long,
anthers yellow, oblong, 0.3–0.4 mm long. Ovary
narrowly oblong, 1–2 mm long, glabrous or with
sparsely hooked hairs at upper part; ovules 2–6; style
4 mm long, incurved at right angle. Pods narrowly
oblong, 6–9 by 0.2–0.3 cm, covered with hooked
hairs, laterally attened, included or slightly exserted
from persistent calyx, constricted between articles;
articles 2–6, quadrangular, 2.5–3 by 2–3 mm, surface
with prominently and transversely ridged veins;
persistent calyx longer than rst article of pod. Seeds
cubic to ellipsoid, 0.9–1.5 by 1–1.2 mm, brown.
Thailand.— NORTHERN: Chiang Mai [Bo
Luang-Bo Kaw, 23 Nov. 2005, Sawai 996 (KKU);
Chiang Kham, 26 Dec. 1967, Prayad 1152 (BK);
Doi Sutep, 13 Nov. 1922, Kerr 6673 (ABD, BK,
BM, K); Doi Inthanon, 4 Oct. 1971, Murata et al.
T-15772 (BKF); Mae Cham, 7 Dec. 1998, Maxwell
98-1432 (BKF, CMUB); Mae Rim, 21 Nov. 1996,
BGO. sta 7855 (QBG)]; Lampang [Chae Son NP,
29 Oct. 1995, Banoc 29 (BKF, CMUB)]; Tak [Doi
Din Gi, 9 Nov. 1988, Paisooksantivatana Y2290-88
Figure 2. Alysicarpus rugosus (Willd.) DC.: A. habit (Smitinand 4894); B. dried fruit with persistent calyx (BGO. sta 7855); C. fruit
surface showing transversely ridged veins (BGO. sta 7855). Photo by J. Satthaphorn.
THAI FOREST BULLETIN (BOTANY) VOL. 45 NO. 2
130
(BK); Doi Musoe, 30 Oct. 1962, Kasem 221 (BK);
Mae Sot, 24 Apr. 2004, Pooma et al. 4654 (BKF),
5 Nov. 2012, Pooma et al. 7490 (BKF)]; NORTH-
EASTERN: Phetchabun [Lom Sak, 11 Oct. 1979,
Shimizu et al. T-18326 (BKF)]; Loei [Wang Saphung,
21 Nov. 1958, Smitinand 4894 (BKF, K)]; Nong
Khai [Ta Dua, 26 Oct. 1911, Kerr 2199 (ABD, BM,
E, K)]; CENTRAL: Saraburi [Muak Lek, 9 Nov. 1924,
Marcan 1851 (ABD, BK, BM)].
Distribution.— Africa to India, Nepal, Myanmar,
China, Taiwan, Laos, Vietnam, Malaysia, Indonesia
(Java, Bali) and Australia (Queensland).
Ecology.— In open, degraded or disturbed
place in mixed deciduous, dry dipterocarp or dry
evergreen forests, often occurring along roadsides,
grassy or bamboo fields, sunny places, bound to
limestone areas, granitic bedrock or agricultural
areas; 300–1800 m alt. Flowering and fruiting:
October to December.
Vernacular.— Non plong wai ()
(General).
Note.— Alysicarpus rugosus diers from the
other members of this genus in having pods with
strongly transversely ridged veins on the surface.
Alysicarpus wallichii, a synonym of A. rugosus,
there was no designation of the holotype, but six
specimens; Wallich Numer. List. 5761f, 5762f,
5763a-c & 5764, at K-W were listed in the protologue.
Wallich Numer. List. 5761f is in good condition and
therefore it is chosen here as the lectotype.
3. Alysicarpus vaginalis
(L.) DC., Prodr. 2: 353.
1825; Wight & Arn., Prodr.: 233. 1834; Miq., Fl.
Ind. Bat. 1(1): 231. 1855; Oliv., Fl. Trop. Afr. 2:
170. 1871; Baker in Hook.f., Fl. Brit. India 2: 158.
1876; Gagnep. in Lecomte, Fl. Indo-Chine. 2: 556.
1920; Craib, Fl. Siam. 1(3): 432. 1928; Meeuwen,
Reinwardtia 6: 87. 1961; Backer & Bakh.f., Fl. Java
1: 610. 1963; Ridl., Fl. Malay Penins. 1: 604. 1967;
Verdc., Fl. Trop. E. Afr. Leg. Pap. 1: 493. 1971;
Huang & Ohashi, Fl. Taiwan 3: 168. 1977; Nguyen
in Morat, Fl. Cambodge, Laos & Vietnam 23: 128.
1987; Prain in King, J. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, Pt. 2,
Nat. Hist. 66 (2): 132. 1987; Pedley in Dassan. &
Clayton, Revis. Handb. Fl. Ceylon 10: 152. 1996 &
Austrobaileya 6(1): 115. 2001; Huang & Ohashi in
Wu et al., Fl. China 10: 291. 2008.— Hedysarum
vaginale L., Sp. Pl. 2: 746. 1753; Willd., Sp. Pl.: 354.
1821; Roxb., Fl. Ind. 3: 345. 1832. Type: Sri Lanka,
Herb. Hermann vol. 1: 27, no. 287 (lectotype BM
000621319!, selected by Verdcourt (1997). Fig. 3.
A. nummularifolium auct. non DC.: Craib, Fl.
Siam. 1(3): 432. 1928.
Perennial herb, ascending or often prostrate,
usually up to 60 cm tall. Stems robust, simple or
copiously branched from the base, glabrous or with
hooked hairs and patent straight hairs, rarely with
appressed straight hairs. Leaves: petioles 2.5–15 mm
long, grooved, glabrous or with sparsely straight
hairs; stipules lanceolate-triangular, scarious or
subcoriaceous, 1.3–15 by 1–4 mm, acuminate, with
parallel veins, persistent; leaflets ovate-oblong,
oblong-obovate or oblong-lanceolate to lanceolate
on upper stem, nearly orbicular or ovate on lower stem,
chartaceous to coriaceous, 0.5–6.5 by 0.2–2.5 cm,
apex acute or rounded, apiculate, base cordate,
subcordate or obtuse, margins entire with appressed
straight hairs; adaxial surface glabrous; abaxial
surface with appressed straight hairs or hooked hairs,
sometimes only on veins; lateral vein 6–15 pairs;
venation reticulate; petiolules 0.3–3 mm long with
straight hairs; stipels triangular or rounded, 1–2 by
ca 0.4 mm, scarious, glabrous or hairy. Pseudoraceme
terminal or axillary, 1.5–7 cm long, with sparse or
dense hooked hairs; internodes 2–5(–9) mm long;
peduncle 1.2–2.3 cm long; owers 6–13-owered,
laxly to densely arranged; bracts ovate to lanceolate,
2–4 by 0.5–1 mm, acuminate at apex, scarious or
subcoriaceous with parallel veins, persistent; pedicels
1–4 mm long with hooked hairs; bracteoles linear-
triangular 1.6–1.8 by 0.1–0.2 mm. Calyx green to
yellowish-green, sometimes with pink at upper part,
4–6 mm long; tube 1–2.5 mm long; lobes valvate,
dorsal lobe triangular to lanceolate, 1.5–4 mm long,
apex slightly bid to long bid, other lobes triangular
or lanceolate, 1.2–1.5 mm long, apex acute or
acuminate, outside covered with both straight and
hooked hairs, inside glabrous. Corolla blue, pink,
purple, mauve to red or rarely orangish-yellow,
glabrous; standard obovate, 5–7 by 4–5.5 mm, apex
retuse, base attenuate, claw 0.4–1.5 mm long; wings
oblong, 4–6.5 by 1–1.6 mm, apex obtuse, slightly
incurved towards apex, base attenuate, claw 1.5–2 mm
long; keel 5–7 by 0.7–1.8 mm, incurved, apex obtuse,
base attenuate with dorsal auricle, claw 1.5–2 mm
long. Stamens 5.5–6.5 mm long, staminal tube
4.5–6 mm long, free part of filaments 0.5–1 mm
THE GENUS ALYSICARPUS NECK. EX DESV. (LEGUMINOSAE) IN THAILAND (C. LEERATIWONG, J. SATTHAPHORN & P. CHANTARANOTHAI)
131
long; anthers yellow, oblong to ovate, 0.2–0.3 mm
long.
Ovary oblong, 2–3 mm long, with hooked hairs,
stipe 0.4–0.5 mm long; ovules 4–7; style 3.5–4 mm
long, incurved at right angle. Pods cylindrical, 1–2.5
by 1.1–3 mm, terete, covered with sparely to densely
hooked hairs, acuminate at apex, green when young,
becoming black, exserted from persistent calyx, not
or slightly constricted between articles; articles 4–7,
quadrangular to broadly oblong, 2.3–3.5 mm long,
surface obscurely and coarsely reticulate veins; stipe
2–3 mm long; persistent calyx shorter to slightly
longer than first article of pod. Seeds oblong-
ellipsoid
to suboblong, 1–2 by 0.6–2.5 mm, slightly
compressed.
Thailand.— NORTHERN: Mae Hong Son [9 Sept.
1974, Larsen & Larsen 34278 (L, P)]; Chiang Mai
[6 Nov. 1910, Kerr 1535 (BM); Doi Sutep, 14 Nov.
1911, Kerr 1535B (ABD, BM, K), 4 Nov. 1958,
Sørensen et al. 6046 (C); Chom Thong, 3 Dec. 1991,
Maxwell 91-1081 (E); Samoeng, 3 Oct. 1996, BGO
sta 7697 (QBG); Fang, 22 Feb. 1958, Sørensen et al.
1517 (C, E); Hot, 23 Sept. 1958, Sørensen et al.
Figure 3. Alysicarpus vaginalis (L.) DC.: A. habit; B. inorescence showing purplish pink owers; C. orangish-yellow owers;
D. young fruits; E. dried fruit with persistent calyx (Satthaphorn & Leeratiwong 74); F. fruit surface showing obscurely coarsely
reticulate veins (Satthaphorn & Leeratiwong 74). Photos: A–B & D–F by J. Satthaphorn and C by C. Leeratiwong.
THAI FOREST BULLETIN (BOTANY) VOL. 45 NO. 2
132
5196 (BKF, C); San Pa Tong, 16 Mar. 1981,
Hawnjahn 45 (CMUB); Ban An, S.N. (K)]; Phayao
[Kwan Phayao, 2 Jul. 1994, BGO sta 1061 (QBG)];
Lamphun [Doi Khun Tan NP, 30 Oct. 1994, Maxwell
94-1152 (BKF, CMUB); Pa Sang, 12 Oct. 1996,
BGO sta 7728 (QBG)]; Lampang [Thoen, 8 Nov.
2010, Pooma et al. 7646 (AAU, BKF); Mae Tha,
15 Jan. 2012, Maxwell 12-29 (CMUB, QBG)]; Tak
[Mae Sot, 25 Nov. 1995, Pooma & Maxwell 1294
(BKF, CMUB); 25 Aug. 1996, BGO staff 223
(QBG)]; Sukhothai [Thung Saliam, 18 Nov. 2015,
Maknoi 8421 (QBG)]; Phitsanulok [Ban Rom Klao,
17 Nov. 2009, Norsaengsri & Intamusik 6088
(QBG); Chat Trakan; Pha Mo I Daeng, 31 Jan. 2012,
Maknoi 4530 (QBG)]; Nakhon Sawan [23 Sept.
1971, Murata et al. T-14824 (BKF)]; NORTH-
EASTERN: Phetchabun [Lom Sak, 4 Nov. 1966,
Prayad 515 (BK); Nam Nao NP, 19 Aug. 2004,
Sawai 646 (KKU)]; Loei [Huai Nam Phak, 1 Sept.
2008, Maknoi 2729 (BKF)]; Nong Khai [Tha Bo,
17 Dec. 2015, Muangyen et al. 552 (QBG)]; Sakon
Nakhon
[
Nam
Pung
Dam
, 17
Oct
.
1990
,
Chantaranothai
& Parnell 90/870 (K, KKU); Phu Phan NP, 1 Nov.
1998, Leeratiwong 98-31 (KKU), 15 Nov. 1999,
Leeratiwong 99-66 (KKU)]; Kalasin [Ban Non Buri,
11 Nov. 2014, Kertsawang 3389 (QBG)]; Khon
Kaen [30 Oct. 1973, Boonkerd 52 (KKU); More Din
Daeng, 13 Aug. 1975, Hormchurn 101 (KKU);
KKU campus, 10 Nov. 2001, Namdaeng 49 (KKU);
12 Nov. 1976, BR s.n. (KKU), 12 Aug. 1985,
Thaownonggiw s.n. (KKU)]; EASTERN: Chaiyaphum
[Ban Lad, 11 Oct. 1965, Sithisan 500 (BK),
Sutheesorn 590 (BK)]; Nakhon Ratchasima [Khao
Yai NP, 20 Jul. 1973, Murata et al. T-16512 (BKF,
K); Pak Thong Chai, Charoenphol et al. 4534 (BKF,
L, K, KYO, P), 2 Sept. 1948, Prapat 176 (BKF)];
Buri Ram [Khao Phanom Rung, 3 Oct. 1984, Murata
et al. T-37246 (BKF, L), 3 Oct. 1984, Murata et al.
T-37268 (BKF)]; SOUTH-WESTERN: Kanchanaburi
[Ban Sadao, 2 Nov. 1979, Shimizu et al. T-21374
(BKF); Hui Dok, 26 Nov. 1957, Smitinand 3867
(BKF); Salak Phra WS, 28 Nov. 1971, Beusekom et
al. 3996 (BKF, C, K, KYO, P); Don Slab, 15 Oct.
2014, Tanming 650 (QBG); 3 Sept. 1926, Tikyu s.n.
(BKF)]; Ratchaburi [29 Nov. 1970, Maxwell 70-97
(BK)]; Prachuap Khiri Khan [Klong Wan, 21 Nov.
1964, Chermsirivathana 129 (BK)]; CENTRAL: Sing
Buri [12 Dec. 1952, Saisithi 3 (BCU)]; Lop Buri
[20 Oct. 1984, Murata et al. T-38224 (BKF)]; Ang
Thong [25 Dec. 1828, Put 2555 (BK, BM, C, E, K,
P)]; Saraburi [Praputtachay NP, 24 Oct. 2004,
Petrmitr 580 (BKF, CMUB)]; Pathum Thani [12
Mar. 1958, Smitinand 438 (K)]; Bangkok [26 Nov.
1918, Kerr s.n. (BM), 6 Oct. 1919, Kerr 3805 (K),
1 Jan. 1923, Kerr s.n. (BM), 8 Aug. 1928, Kerr s.n.
(BM, BK), 26 Nov. 1928, Kerr s.n. (K); Bang Khen,
12 Nov. 1954, Boonbrahm 11 (BK), 3 Nov. 1982,
Paisooksantivatana 1184-82 (BK); Chulalongkorn
University, 22 Oct. 1954, Boonkong 19 (BCU); Phra
Khanong, 3 Aug. 1961, Pantuwatana 52 (BCU); 7
Mar. 1958, Sørensen et al. 1990 (C, P); 12 Mar.
1958, Sørensen et al. 2065 (C); 29 Oct. 1922,
Marcan 1039 (ABD, BM, C), 13 Nov. 1927, Kerr
13525 (BK, BM, K), 8 Oct. 1928, Kerr s.n. (BK),
26 Nov. 1928, Kerr s.n. (BK), Smith 206 (BK), Nov.
1931, Smith 183 (BK), 10 Oct. 1958, Smitinand 5402
(BKF), 12 Mar. 1958, Smitinand 4439 (BKF), 13
Mar. 1958, Smitinand 4438 (BKF) 12 Mar. 1958,
Sørensen et al. 2065 (BKF)]; SOUTH-EASTERN: Sa
Kaeo [Aranyaprathet, 14 Sep. 1930, Put 3114 (BK,
BM, C, K, P)]; Prachin Buri [Khao Yai NP, 13 Jul.
1966, Larsen et al. 372 (BKF, C, P)]; Chon Buri
[Ang Sila, 5 Sept. 1958, Wisessan 9 (BCU); Si
Racha, 5 Sept. 1958, Tosumtara 7 (BCU); 16 Nov.
1926, Put 478 (ABD, BK, BM, E, K)]; Rayong [30
Aug. 1969, Maxwell s.n. (E, L); Phae Arboratum,
23 Nov. 1979, Shimizu et al. T-23327 (BKF); Phak
Chong, Wessumritt & Norsaengsri 9 (QBG), 23 Oct.
2007, Wessumritt 28 (QBG); 19 Nov. 1987,
Smitinand s.n. (BKF)]; Chanthaburi [Khao Soi Dao,
21 Mar. 2011, Pruesapan KP-2011-36 (BK)];
PENINSULAR: Phuket [Kamala beach, 8 Jul. 1979,
Niyomdham 233 (BKF, C)]; Trang [Khao Chong,
15 Jan. 2003, Chantaranothai s.n. (KKU)]; Songkhla
[Hatyai, 8 Sept. 1991, Tuntibunpakul 4 (PSU); Kao
Seng, 20 Sept., Kumlungdee 15 (C); Muang, 28 Aug.
1995, Heedkeaw 8 (PSU), 19 Sept. 1997, Pulsak 13
(PSU); Prince of Songkla University, 4 May 1986,
Maxwell 86-278 (BKF, CMU, PSU); Rattaphum,
15 Oct. 2012, Jamnongjit 52 (PSU); Satingpra, 18
Dec. 1983, Sirirugsa 729 (PSU)].
Distribution.— Tropics to subtropics of the
Old World, introduced in tropical America and
Australia.
Ecology.— Weedy on waste grounds, roadsides,
agricultural areas, grassy fields, disturbed areas,
re-damaged areas, preferring rather dry soil and
appearing in natural forest areas; 0–1000 m alt.
Flowering and fruiting: throughout the year.
THE GENUS ALYSICARPUS NECK. EX DESV. (LEGUMINOSAE) IN THAILAND (C. LEERATIWONG, J. SATTHAPHORN & P. CHANTARANOTHAI)
133
Vernacular.— Khat saek () (Prachin
Buri), thua lisong na () (Bangkok), ya klet
hoi yai () (Ang Thong), ya plong wai
() (Chon Buri).
Note.— Alysicarpus vaginalis is easily
recognized by its valvate calyx lobes, colour of the
corolla which are blue, pink, purple, reddish-pink
or rarely orangish-yellow, pods without or with
slightly constricted between articles and persistent
calyx which is shorter to slightly longer than rst
article of pod.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
The authors are grateful to the curators and sta
of the herbaria cited. We would like to thank Mr
Witsanu Saisorn for the photographs of some dried
specimens. This research was nancially supported
by Science Achievement Scholarship of Thailand and
Plant Genetic Conservation Project under the Royal
Initiation of Her Royal Highness Princess Maha
Chakri Sirindhorn (RSPG) and Center of Excellence
on Biodiversity (BDC-PG3-160013).
REFERENCES
Adema, F. (2003). Note on Malaysia Fabaceae
(Leguminosae-Papilionoideae). The genus
Alysicarpus. Blumea 48: 145–152.
Ali, S.I. (1966). A taxonomic study of the genus
Alysicarpus Desv. from west Pakistan. Biologia
12(2): 31–36.
Craib, W.G. (1928). Florae Siamensis enumertio.
Vol. 1. part 3. Siam Society, Bangkok.
Desvaux, N.A. (1813). Alysicarpus Neck. Journal
de Botanique, Appliquée à l’Agriculture, à la
Pharmacie, à la Médecine et aux Arts 1(3):
120–121, pl. 4, f. 8.
Greuter, W., MacNeill, J., Barrie, F.R., Burdet, H.M.,
Demoulin, V., Filgueirsas, T.S., Nicolson, D.H.,
Silva, P.C., Skog, J.E., Trehane, P., Turland, N.J.
& Hawksworth, D.L. (2000). International Code
of Botanical Nomenclature (Saint Louis Code).
Koeltz Scientic Books, Königstein, Germany.
Huang, P. and Ohashi, H. (2008). Alysicarpus. In:
Z.Y. Wu, P.H. Raven & D.Y. Hong (eds), Flora
of China 10: 290–292.
Lewis, G.P., Schrire, B., Mackinder, B. and Lock,
M. (2005). Legumes of the World. The Bath
Press, UK, 577 pp.
Necker, N.J. de (1790). Elementa Botanica. Vol. 3.
Apud Bossange et Soc. Bibliopol., Paris, p. 15.
Pedley, L. (2001). Alysicarpus (Leguminosae:
Desmodieae) in Australia: a taxonomic revision.
Austrobaileya 6(1): 107–116.
Pokle, D. (2017). Genus Alysicarpus Desv. in India.
Printwell International, India.
Polhill, R.M. and Raven, P.H. (1981). Advances in
Legume Systematics. Part 1. Royal Botanic
Gardens, Kew, UK.
Pooma, R. & Suddee, S. (eds) (2014). Tem
Smitinand’s Thai Plants Names, revised edition
2014. Oce of the Forest Herbarium, Department
of National Parks, Wildlife and Plant
Conservation, Bangkok. 826 pp.
Thiers, B. (2016). [continuously updated]. Index
Herbariorum: A global directory of public her-
baria and associated sta. New York Botanic
Garden’s Virtual Herbarium. http://sweetgum.
nybg.org./ih/. June 14, 2016.
Verdcourt, B. (1997). Typification of Linnaean
specic and varietal names in the Leguminosae
(Fabaceae). In: N.J. Turland & C.E. Jarvis (eds),
Taxon 46(3): 457–485.
... The genus Alysicarpus Necker ex Desvaux (1813: 120) belongs to the subfamily Papilionoideae, tribe Desmodieae of the Leguminosae. It includes about 35 species and 20 infra specific taxa (Pedly 2001, Lewis et al. 2005, Huang & Ohashi 2010, Hassemer et al. 2017, Leeratiwong et al. 2017, Pokle 2017, Dalavi et al. 2019, distributed in almost all tropical and subtropical regions of the Old World. Alysicarpus is represented in India by about 18 species and nine infra specific taxa, of which seven species and eight infra specific taxa are endemic (Sanjappa 1992, Pokle 2002, Dhabe 2013, Singh et al. 2015, Gholami et al. 2017, Pokle 2017, Dalavi et al. 2019. ...
Article
The taxonomic identity of recently described Alysicarpus pokleanus is resolved here as synonym of A. hamosus. The image of type specimen of A. hamosus and A. pokleanus along with colour photographs of fresh collection of A. hamosus from the type locality are also provided. Further, the inconsistencies in the protologue of A. pokleanus are discussed in the present paper.
... The genus Alysicarpus Necker ex Desvaux (1813: 120) belongs to the subfamily Papilionoideae, tribe Desmodieae of Leguminosae. It comprises about 34 species and 20 infra specific taxa, widely distributed in tropical and subtropical regions in Africa, Asia and Australia, with maximum diversity in India (Pedley 2001, Adema 2003, Lewis 2005, Huang and Ohashi 2010, Hassemer et al. 2017, Leeratiwong et al. 2017, Pokle 2017. Approximately 17 species and 9 infraspecific taxa of Alysicarpus occur in India, of which seven species and eight infraspecific taxa are endemic (Sanjappa 1992, Pokle 2002, Dhabe 2013, Singh et al. 2015, Gholami et al. 2017, Pokle 2017. ...
Article
Alysicarpus procumbens (Desmodieae, Leguminosae/Fabaceae), is a for the genus highly unique species. It resembles Desmodium in its peculiarly compressed pod, but is similar to Alysicarpus in having uni‐foliolate leaves (sometimes mixed one and three‐foliolate), scarious stipules, ebracteolate flowers, scarious persistent calyx and by the nature of the flowers. Still, A. procumbens has been treated as synonym A. hamosus. After examination of type material, the protologue and a large number of specimens deposited in different herbaria, as well as fresh collections of both species, it is concluded that A. procumbens distinctly differ from A. hamosus not only in the compressed pod, but also in the shape of leaves, broadness of pod joints, internally septate pods, the nature of pod breakage and shape of seeds. Based on these distinct morphological characters, A. procumbens is reinstated as a species. A colour drawing is designated as the lectotype of A. procumbens. A detailed description along with an illustration, color photographs of live plant and a comparison with A. hamosus are provided.
... In India, the genus has maximum diversity and is represented by 17 species and 9 varieties, of which, 8 species and 4 varieties are endemic (Pokle 2017). However, just 7 taxa are reported to be endemic to India by Gholami & Pandey (2016), Gholami et al. (2017) and Leeratiwong et al. (2017). ...
Article
Alysicarpus bhuibavadensis is described here as a new species from Sindhudurg district of Maharashtra state, India. Alysicarpus bhuibavadensis is close to A. tetragonolobus and A. gracilis in its morphology but distinct by means of pubescent leaves, axillary lax racemes, included pods with thickened beak.
Article
Alysicarpus Desv. is revised for the Flora Malesiana area. The recently described species A. aurantiacus Pedley is recorded for several localities in Papua New Guinea. Alysicarpus monilifer L. is recorded for Luzon (Philippines). The variability of A. vaginalis is discussed. A key for the Malesian species is presented.
Article
Lectotypes, neotypes and epitypes are designated by 31 specialists for 213 previously untypified Linnaean plant names (including one by the younger Linnaeus) belonging to the family Leguminosae (Fabaceae). These newly proposed types support the current usage of the names concerned. Earlier but ineffective or supersedable type statements are discussed.
Article
"Held under the auspices of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, the Missouri Botanical Garden, and the University of Reading." Incluye bibliografia e indice
5-2.5 by 1.5-2 mm, smooth or rarely with obscurely reticulate veins; stipe 9.5-12.7 mm long; persistent calyx clearly longer than first article of pod. Seeds cubic to ellipsoid, 0.8-1 by 0.8-1 mm, glossy, brown. Thailand
3-8, ovate to sub-orbicular or quadrangular, 1.5-2.5 by 1.5-2 mm, smooth or rarely with obscurely reticulate veins; stipe 9.5-12.7 mm long; persistent calyx clearly longer than first article of pod. Seeds cubic to ellipsoid, 0.8-1 by 0.8-1 mm, glossy, brown. Thailand.-NORTHERN: Mae Hong Son [Tham Pla-Namtok Pha Suea NP, 19 Nov. 2013, Lakoet 423 (QBG)]; Chiang Mai [Doi Sutep, 12 Sept. 1909, Kerr 808 (BM, K);
  • E Septc
Sept. 1958, Sørensen et al. 5306 (BKF), 30 Sept. 1958, Larsen 5342 (C, E), 21 Oct. 1987, Maxwell 87-1242 (BKF, CMUB), 14 Oct. 2016, Satthaphorn & Leeratiwong 73 (PSU); Fang, 8 Oct. 1973, Boonkerd 27 (BK);
  • Wang-Djao
Wang-Djao, 14 Oct. 1904, Hosseus 102 (K), Hosseus 109 (C)]; Sukhothai [Muang, 6 Nov. 1971, Maxwell 71-744 (BK)]; Phitsanulok [Bang Tang, 7 Dec. 1905, Hosseus 703 (K), Thung Saleang Luang NP, 22 Oct. 1984, Murata et al. T-38492 (BKF);
Maknoi & Pongsattayapipat 1150 (QBG)]; Nakhon Sawan [Khao Takhli Sathasen 3150 (BK)]; NORTH-EASTERN: Phetchabun [Nam Nao NP Maknoi 4487 (QBG)]; Sakon Nakhon
  • Kaeng Chet Khwae
Kaeng Chet Khwae NP, 4 Oct. 2006, Maknoi & Pongsattayapipat 1150 (QBG)]; Nakhon Sawan [Khao Takhli, 17 Jan. 1975, Sathasen 3150 (BK)]; NORTH-EASTERN: Phetchabun [Nam Nao NP, 3 Nov. 2003, Sawai 443 (KKU), 17 Nov. 2013, Maknoi 4487 (QBG)]; Sakon Nakhon [Phu Phan NP, 1 Nov. 1998, Leeratiwong 98-31 (KKU), 25 Sept. 1999, Leeratiwong 99-107 (KKU), Chantaranothai et al. 831 (KKU)]; Kalasin [Phu Phan NP, 23 Oct. 1975, Sathasen 3497 (BK)];
  • Si Sawat
Si Sawat, 16 Nov. 1971, Beusekom et al. 3807 (BKF, C, K, P)];
231. 1855; Oliv., Fl. Trop. Afr. 2: 170. 1871
  • Ind
Ind. Bat. 1(1): 231. 1855; Oliv., Fl. Trop. Afr. 2: 170. 1871; Baker in Hook.f., Fl. Brit. India 2: 158.