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Tsiperifery, the wild pepper from Madagascar, emerging on the international spice market whose exploitation is unchecked: Current knowledge and future prospects

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Introduction -A new spice on the international market. Tsiperifery is a wild pepper from Madagascar belonging to the genus Piper. This new culinary spice, which is gaining gourmet notoriety due to its unique organoleptic properties and its endemic and exotic origin, is attracting a growing number of actors to harvest and trade it. Scientific challenges -This growing appetite for tsiperifery is making collection of the plant unsustainable and contributing to the degradation of Malagasy forests with the felling of lianas, as well as host trees, and subsequent deforestation. Little is known about the plant, and its trade has developed in the relative absence of any scientific knowledge. There is not even the most basic of information available regarding its geographic distribution, taxonomy, ecology or reproductive mode. Moreover, tsiperifery is regarded simply as black pepper by Malagasy and international regulations. Socio-economic challenge -Poorly paid harvesters. The peppercorns are harvested by pickers from the poorest sector of the local population, earning them a valued income, which is nonetheless derisory compared to the gains made by the other market players. Results and discussion -Lay the bases for a sustainable management of tsiperifery. This finding indicates that scientific backing aimed at reducing uncertainties about the biology, exploitation and transformation of the plant is required to establish the bases for sustainable management of the plant. We suggest supporting the sector in producing sustainably exploited tsiperifery by exploring different innovations, which would include creating a 'label' that guarantees the product's quality through association with its origin and implementing a participative process for domesticating the plant. Conclusion -Advocating for the involvement of all stakeholders. Research has limited impact in a context devoid of economic and political partners, and funders. Without the involvement of major stakeholders, it will be no time before tsiperifery finds its way into the CITES Appendix II.
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Volume 72 | Issue 6 | November/December 2017 331
 72
Tsiperifery, the wild pepper from Madagascar, emerging on the
international spice market whose exploitation is unchecked:
current knowledge and future prospects
1,2,31,21,22,a4,
M. Weil, R. Randrianaivo2,63,7, J. Queste2,82,82,10
1
2
3
4

6

7
8

10

Original article
Summary
Introduction – A new spice on the international
market. Tsiperifery is a wild pepper from Madagascar
belonging to the genus Piper. This new culinary spice,
which is gaining gourmet notoriety due to its unique
organoleptic properties and its endemic and exotic
origin, is attracting a growing number of actors to
harvest and trade it. Scientific challenges – This grow-
ing appetite for tsiperifery is making collection of the
plant unsustainable and contributing to the degrada-
tion of Malagasy forests with the felling of lianas, as
well as host trees, and subsequent deforestation. Lit-
tle is known about the plant, and its trade has devel-
  -
edge. There is not even the most basic of informa-
tion available regarding its geographic distribution,
taxonomy, ecology or reproductive mode. Moreover,
tsiperifery is regarded simply as black pepper by Mal-
agasy and international regulations. Socio-economic
challenge Poorly paid harvesters. The peppercorns
are harvested by pickers from the poorest sector of
the local population, earning them a valued income,
which is nonetheless derisory compared to the gains
made by the other market players. Results and discus-
sion – Lay the bases for a sustainable management
of tsiperifery     
backing aimed at reducing uncertainties about the
biology, exploitation and transformation of the plant
is required to establish the bases for sustainable
management of the plant. We suggest supporting the
sector in producing sustainably exploited tsiperifery
by exploring different innovations, which would in-
clude creating a ‘label’ that guarantees the product’s
quality through association with its origin and imple-
menting a participative process for domesticating
the plant. Conclusion – Advocating for the involvement
of all stakeholders. Research has limited impact in
a context devoid of economic and political partners,
and funders. Without the involvement of major stake-
holders, it will be no time before tsiperifery 
way into the CITES Appendix II.
Keywords
Madagascar, tsiperifery, wild pepper, Piper spp., sustain

Résumé
tsiperifery, le poivre sauvage de Madagascar.
Introduction – une épice nouvelle sur le marché
international. Le tsiperifery est un poivre sauvage de
Madagascar appartenant au genre Piper. Ses qualités

What is already known on this subject?
Tsiperifery, wild pepper of Madagascar, is a new spice


What are the new findings?


exploitation.
What is the expected impact on horticulture?
Tsiperifery
vation in Madagascar, once its domestication is mas
tered.
a Corresponding author: leong@cirad.mg.
332 International Journal of Tropical and Subtropical Horticulture
et al. | Tsiperifery, the wild pepper from Madagascar
A new culinary spice on the international
market
 tsiper-
ifery, or better still voatsiperifery, the most common com

         
      
  

      
   

   
   

Since 2010, this spice has therefore been the object of
particular interest and growing demand on the interna
    tsiperifery is

 
delectable dishes served in the most celebrated restaurants,
at the other end of the value chain, in the eastern forests of
Madagascar, it is the object of unchecked collection, contrib



       
 
       
         


         
     

  
tsiperifery. In so doing,
   
able exploitation of this remarkable pepper, taking consider
ation of the ecological, social and economic imperatives of its

      tsiperifery
from scratch and to draft from it a research project which the
authors intend to implement. It draws on the earliest scien

      
    
        
     et al. (2014), that has been supple


Abusive exploitation of a traditional
forestry product
Tsiperifery, an old familiar of the Malagasy people
Whilst the organoleptic properties of tsiperifery are

 

        

from the capital – who collect and use tsiperifery tradition
       


  
    




the motivations are different.
  

prevalent, as this pepper is used in place of the traditional
sakay  sakaiala (forest chilli) and saka-
rivonala (forest ginger), sakarivondambo (bushpig ginger).
         
are also detectable in indigenous names for the plant: va-
hibe (great liana), tsimahalatsaka (which wards off rainfall
  

for this spice, as well as its commercial name, is associated
with its wound healing properties: tsiperifery, meaning liter

voatsiperiferytsiperifery
organoleptiques uniques, son origine endémique
et exotique lui ont conféré, récemment, une forte
notoriété sur le marché international et ont incité
nombre d’acteurs à s’investir dans sa récolte et son
commerce. Enjeux scientifiques – En conséquence de cet
engouement, la collecte du tsiperifery est un facteur
de dégradation des forêts malgaches: abattage des
lianes, voire des arbres-support, déforestation. La
    -
     -
tions aussi basiques que son aire de répartition, sa
taxonomie, son écologie, ses modes de reproduction
ne sont pas actuellement disponibles. Par ailleurs,
aucune réglementation malgache ne reconnaît le tsi-
perifery, assimilé au poivre noir. Enjeux socio-écono-
miques   
locaux. La récolte est réalisée par les populations lo-
cales (parmi les plus pauvres de Madagascar) qui en
retirent un revenu appréciable, même s’il est faible
       -
 Résultats et discussion – poser les bases d’une
gestion durable du tsiperifery. Ce constat nous sug-

visant à réduire les incertitudes sur la biologie de la
plante, son exploitation, sa transformation. Nous pro-

durable en explorant différentes innovations: une dé-
marche de création d’un signe de qualité et d’origine
et la mise en œuvre d’un processus participatif de do-
mestication. Conclusion – plaidoyer pour l’implication
de tous les acteurs. Toutefois, sans appui ou relais po-
litique, des partenaires économiques ou des grands
bailleurs, la recherche ne pourra pas éviter que le
tsiperifery    
la CITES.
Mots-clés
Madagascar, tsiperifery, poivre sauvage, Piper spp.,

Volume 72 | Issue 6 | November/December 2017 333
et al. | Tsiperifery, the wild pepper from Madagascar
 1.tsiperifery with online prices of tsiperifery.
Gérard Vives (Vives, 2010):
“[…] its aroma bears hints of black pepper and cubeb with woody and earthy notes but with added fresh citrusy and minty notes. Its avour is
very crisp and lingering. It’s got a bite which isn’t erce but piercing and tenacious. It’s a rare product!”
Bien Manger, http://www.bienmanger.com/ (accessed Feb. 29, 2016):
“Its name comes from ‘Voa’ which means fruit and ‘tsiperifery which is the name of a plant in Madagascar. This wild-tailed pepper has a
complex woody nose, and bitter, spicy aromas. A climber growing up big trees in the tropical rainforest in the South East of the island, it’s
picked entirely by hand by communities of villagers. [...] It’s the ideal accompaniment for grilled red meats, enhanced by its woody aroma! It’s
marvellous with pork and lamb, foie gras mi-cuit, and even red fruit salad or a moelleux of chocolate.”
Price: 87 to 174 € kg-1 according to the packaging.
Epices Roellinger, http://www.epices-roellinger.com/ (accessed Mar. 1, 2016):
Piper borbonense, of the same family as Piper nigrum, voatsiperifery is a real pepper found in the south of Madagascar. It grows between
10 to 20 metres on creepers in the crown of big trees. Its harvest is so difcult and dangerous that sometimes pickers prefer to cut the trees
down... It’s a gentle and aromatic pepper, and suits those who don’t like the ‘meaty’ side to Piper nigrum. I like to use it with sea food, steamed
vegetables and fruit. It can be eaten whole.”
Price: 202 € kg-1.
Les épices rient!, http://www.lesepicesrient.fr/ (accessed Feb. 29, 2016):
“[...] This little peppercorn is full of surprises, a real pepper of distinction! Its nose takes you on a veritable plant journey which begins on a
blend of full bodied notes of freshness and warmth. The journey continues on the taste buds with the nest of aromatic but the lightest of spicy
hints. Wild pepper from Madagascar has no bite: an exquisite spice, full of nesse, it tickles the tongue artfully. We can’t get enough of it!”
Price: 197 € kg-1.
Spice Trekkers, http://spicetrekkers.com/ (accessed Mar. 23, 2016):
“A truly unique wild cubeb sourced from Madagascar. Its growing notoriety amongst Western chefs testies to the incredibly aromatic prole
of this pepper. Ready to take the world by storm. Like cubeb, black and long peppers, voatsiperifery is a true pepper. The woody and oral
fragrance of these dense red-brown peppercorns evokes citrus. It has been called upon in Madagascar’s culinary culture for centuries and is
ideal for seasoning sh and seafood recipes. Its subtle sweetness and moderate heat are great for desserts and chocolate. For a great red
meat seasoning, blend voatsiperifery pepper with other varieties. At one time this was an extremely rare spice. But it is gradually becoming a
staple spice for adventurous and inventive cooks.”
Price: 250 US$ kg-1.
Sous Chef, http://www.souschef.co.uk/ (accessed Feb. 22, 2016):
Voatsiperifery is an incredibly rare pepper with a strong, pine forest nose, and medium heat – distinguished by light, zesty avours.
Voatsiperifery pepper grows in the hot and humid South-Eastern Madagascan rainforests, where the pepper vines can reach 20 m tall, and
only grow in the wild, making picking very difcult.
The unripe berries are all hand-harvested by local village communities, and left to dry in the sun which turns the berries black […].
Voatsiperifery is a beautiful pepper – and a great to lift any dish, whether meat or sh, particularly rich oily sh, or pork. The pepper is also
good in sweet dishes, whether sprinkled over a fruit salad, or used to cut through the richness of a chocolate cake.”
Price: 100 to 133 £ kg-1.
 2.    tsiperifery              

 
Usages Parts of plant used Preparations Uses
Culinary Fruits Paste of fresh crushed fruit
blended with oil
– ingredient of sakay (chilli pepper)
– spice of ravitoto (traditional dish of crushed manioc leaves)
– curry substitute
Whole or ground dried fruit – spice for enhancing meats, sausages and sh
Pharmacopoeia Leaves Ground – poultice for wound healing
Fruits Whole or crushed – antitussive, bronchial infections
Ground only – for treating male sexual disorders (generic use for sakay)
Stems Infusion of stems – used externally for gangrene, scabies and skin lesions
– for post–natal infections
Herbal tea – for treating venomous animal bites
– restoring liver function
Esoteric Leaves Ground leaves – wards off lightning strikes provoked by an ombiasy (sorcerer)
Stems and roots Herbal tea – ingredients for potions and ointments against magical spells
Leaves Leaf thrown in the air – prevents rainfall
334 International Journal of Tropical and Subtropical Horticulture
et al. | Tsiperifery, the wild pepper from Madagascar
 1. Mapping trial of the sites where tsiperifery was present, and the gathering spots and sampling points of specimens

Volume 72 | Issue 6 | November/December 2017 335
et al. | Tsiperifery, the wild pepper from Madagascar
It is sold on local markets (small markets neighbouring


and Fianarantsoa).
A wild liana of the rainforest


   
aries of tsiperifery
    

and the collection points of specimens deposited in Mada



that tsiperifery


 
         
that certain species of tree take prevalence over others as
supports Peponidium buxifolium, Bremeria trichophlebia, Di-
chaethantera arborea, Cryptocarya spp., Ocotea spp., Syzyg-
ium      
   


thotropic stems growing from the collar bear cordate leaves
(Figure 2c) whilst the plagiotropic branches in the crown

    
  

        
    



     tsiperifery be
longs to the Piper     
contains more than 2,000 known species throughout the
  et al   et al., 2008),
less than 600 of which have been described (Jaramillo and
      
tsiperifery 
  
   tsiperifery
into three species: Piper borbonense  Piper pyrifolium
Vahl, and Piper pachyphyllum 
named Piper borbonense, what produces “a sort of cubeb
et
al.

cies of Piper in Madagascar including P. pachyphyllum, P. bor-
bonense, P. heimii
 2 tsiperifery

336 International Journal of Tropical and Subtropical Horticulture
et al. | Tsiperifery, the wild pepper from Madagascar
correspond to descriptions of tsiperifery. It is obvious from
Piper genus in
Madagascar that “tsiperifery 

        
 
to: whether the variations observed represent infrageneric
    tsiperifery  
       
tsiperifery is with P. borbonense    



domestication of tsiperifery.
A recent and systematic operation
     
the economic potential of tsiperifery and snapped it up.
Since its inception in 2004, the export sector has been

       

         
businesses, a number of foreign companies have developed
their own sectors, trading nonetheless in what seems to be


tsiperifery

       
participants. Since wild pepper is at present unregulated,
         

         
exported, which show that the trade in tsiperifery addresses
        
et al., 2014).
It seems nevertheless that picking exceeded the
      
      
 
       
        
     


Within these collecting areas, and external to the local
traditional market, the tsiperifery operation is organized
          
tsiperifery

        
are local peasant farmers with meagre earnings, who live
in or bordering on the forest, and subsist on food crops,
        
         
beginning of the picking season, the pickers are approached

       

(chilli peppers, guavas, ginger...) selling them on to exporters



across the island and exported on the international market.
    

fresh tsiperifery to their clients because of the increasing
       
       
 
cheaper to transport, sell for more and are easier to keep.

 3. Progression in the number of exporters of tsiperifery

19
F
IGURE
3. Progression in the number of exporters of tsiperifery supplied by the catchment area of Anjozorobe-
Angavo from 2006 to 2015.
Number of exporters
Years
Number of exporters
Years
Volume 72 | Issue 6 | November/December 2017 337
et al. | Tsiperifery, the wild pepper from Madagascar
     
    
batches can be sold to a higher bidder, not to mention an

the possibilities for technical support, which might result
in improvements to the technical, environmental and social



(Figure 4). It apportions the smallest earnings to the poorest
located at the upper reaches of the operation and generates


       
  
  tsiperifery    tsiperifery in Europe and
  in
   

is a rough calculation, it shows that the operators upstream

other export operations, such as the clove sector, in which

     
 on the European wholesale
et al
       

        

resource, but also the distribution of earnings between the
different participants should be ascertained.
A resource faced with multiple threats
Environmental risks associated with destructive
picking practices
 tsiperifery would have been picked at an
opportune time whilst out in the forest for other activities
(hunting, collecting other produce), but now it is collected
       
destructive method of picking, which consists in ripping
         
     
picking method leads to the rarefaction of female rootstock
in the growing zones. Whilst it endangers the resource itself,


Moreover, the abundance of tsiperifery vines is viewed
        
sign that the soil is right for slash and burn (tavy
       
et al
     tsiperifery either stripped
       
       
     
       
the shade essential for the growth of the vine, resulting in
         

      

of tsiperifery.
Variations in the product quality, a threat to the
reputation of tsiperifery
    tsiperifery is considered
       
       
      
    
tsiperifery

      
       
        
     et al. (2014). However, there
         
  

    
 
   
       
      



hour now takes more than six, and in order to ensure a good
crop, some pickers in certain zones now spend four to seven


         et al.
      

tsiperifery vines
 4. Structure of the sector and retail price scale
tsiperifery in the picking catch

338 International Journal of Tropical and Subtropical Horticulture
et al. | Tsiperifery, the wild pepper from Madagascar



Research implicated in the development
of a sustainable sector

     tsiperifery exploitation in
Madagascar. Information and data collected to date lead us to
conclude that the various stakeholders in the sector, pickers,
handlers, economic operators and public authorities operate
 
of real stock, the sustainable level of picking, the different
     
     
of knowledge and the absence of some form of coordination





However, at its current rate of degradation, the resource
        
before the process of circulating innovations is implement
ed. It seems imperative to accelerate the innovation process
tsiperifery in a combined part
nership between scientists, economic operators, administra
       
      
       

researchers collaborate with all stakeholders should bring


   et al.,
2003) in the tsiperifery sector.

waite et al.    



evaluation of adoption, refusal or adaptation of these techni
cal solutions will feed into the recurring innovation process.
    
authors to consider implementing the concept at a local lev


tsiperifery, and (ii) a process of domestication drawn from a
pool of selected plant matter.



    


    
  
         
       



the upstream element (pickers/collectors).
A process for creating a ‘label’ of quality and origin,
the basis for sustainable management


 
      

of Madagascar.

whose origin is known to the consumer coincides with the
emergence of societal concerns such as environmental con
servation, fair trade and enhancement of cultural heritage.
 
tsiperifery



       

  
an consumers are, for example, the labels of origin such as



   
et al

social and economic.
      

      

market opportunities and increasing incomes for the differ
ent participants in local operations, including the pickers
  tsiperifery
from Madagascar.
   
well established and, as applied to tsiperifery, would consist

 tsiperifery
(ii) 
ties (means of harvesting, postharvest treatments, etc
(iii) 
ment, good picking practices, processing and preserv
ing related regulations, etc
(iv) 
(v) 

(vi) 
lating the label.
However, there are potential obstacles inherent in the
process, such as the fact that Madagascar is not a member
 

thermore, providing for a geographical indication process
        
       
 
et al

link sustainable production and processing methods with


Volume 72 | Issue 6 | November/December 2017 339
et al. | Tsiperifery, the wild pepper from Madagascar


       et al.,

With regard to tsiperifery wild pepper, the entire process
     
         
   
delimitation of the production zone, all of which depend on
further research. However, some promising assets are pres


  
 


tsiperifery pickers.

        
proposes to open up is the domestication of tsiperifery

          
and reduce the rate of picking from the natural environment.
In the long run, domestication enables a process of improve

However, the domestication of a forest species is a com
       tsiper-
ifery      
   


      



tsiperifery operation.

     et al.

   
added important consideration is that it will also bring about


novation process should makes it possible to anticipate these


Advocacy for involving all players of the tsiperifery
sector
  


such as Euphorbia intisythet
alPrunus africana
        


        
       

     
  
  
tsiperifery is heading in the same direction.
In the face of these observations and in order to establish
the bases for sustainable exploitation of wild pepper in Mad

and fair earnings for all the operators, research would be
organised around three axes: (i) improve knowledge of the
  
tation of its distribution area, the evaluation of its total stock
and the characterisation of the transformation procedures
         

     
(iii) support the coordination of the sector via a process of

    

thorities and local communities is proposed in order to test,

        

support the project. Without proactive support from govern
ment authorities, professional stakeholders and internation
al organisations, tsiperiferyEu-
phorbia intisy, Prunus africana

Acknowledgments
         

        

       


       
translation.
References
        
      




        

des tavy


  

Pygeum africanum.


Ceuppens, Q. (2014). Madagascar wild pepper at risk. http://www.




org/fra/app/appendices.php (accessed Mar. 20, 2016).
    
        
    50  

340 International Journal of Tropical and Subtropical Horticulture
et al. | Tsiperifery, the wild pepper from Madagascar





320
    


      
328, 27–43.
   Piperacearum clavis analytica. Candollea 1,

          
    26  


    
    

          
the commons. Science 302  


      

Soc. 5 (accessed Mar. 21, 2016).
        
       
50

         
normal age. Futures 25  

         
         
        


 Piper 
33, 647–660. https://

    
 Piper 88, 706–


Prunus africana
Environ. 3, 118–130.
        
       
   255  

       
      
        
Sustain. 3
          
œuvre sur le Tsiperifery    

        
  Piper   
46, 284.


47
     

Piper 33, 1266–1278. https://doi.

   
tsiperifery

Master, 144 p.
      
du poivre sauvage ou voatsiperifery, Piper sp. (tsiperifery)
        
      

       
76 pp.

Tsiperifery (Piper 
durable    

        
    61, 167–181. https://doi.

      Prunus africana):
       
   89, 3–13. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.
jep.2003.08.002.
         
         
    
     




pepper (Piper spp.) in Madagascar. Fruits 68, 371–380. https://doi.

Received: Jul. 26, 2016

... Le Tsiperifery, un poivrier sauvage endémique de Madagascar, produit des baies suscitant l'intérêt de nombreux consommateurs sur le marché international (Razafimandimby et al., 2017) ; mais il fait l'objet de pratiques de cueillette non durables. Dans l'objectif d'assurer la durabilité de son exploitation, un collectif de chercheurs auquel appartiennent plusieurs co-auteurs de cet article, a initié en 2016 un programme de recherche participative visant à aboutir à la domestication de cette espèce. ...
... Ce PFNL n'est pas encore soumis à une réglementation spécifique et est actuellement exporté en tant que poivre noir. Environ 50 t ont été exportées en 2011 et 25 t en 2014, à un prix de 100 à 200 €/kg (Razafimandimby et al., 2017). La demande élevée a engendré une surexploitation de l'espèce et expose son habitat forestier à des risques de dégradation. ...
... Les lianes adultes fructifient à plus de 10 m de hauteur. Pour atteindre les grappes de Tsiperifery, les cueilleurs coupent les tuteurs ou arrachent la liane (Razafimandimby et al., 2017). En conséquence, les pratiques de cueillette portent atteinte à la population des lianes, à la forêt qui les héberge et aux autres espèces endémiques qui s'y trouvent. ...
Article
Full-text available
À Madagascar, le Tsiperifery , une espèce de poivrier sauvage endémique de l’île, est actuellement soumis à une surexploitation. Un programme participatif de domestication de cette plante a été lancé pour assurer la durabilité de son exploitation. Des techniques de culture sont co-construites par des chercheurs et des paysans sur trois sites pilotes. Cette étude s’intéresse aux facteurs influençant la propension des paysans à co-construire et expérimenter ces techniques. Les données collectées via 90 entretiens semi-dirigés ont été traitées en suivant les principes de l’approche « grounded theory ». Les principaux déterminants influençant le comportement des paysans sont (i) la logique économique, (ii) le contexte informationnel, (iii) l’accès au marché, (iv) les capacités productives de l’exploitation et (v) l’esprit de conservation de la nature. À partir de ces déterminants, nous avons pu définir cinq types de stratégies paysannes : les « homo-economicus » ; les « conservationnistes » ; les « opportunistes », les « exclus » et les « suiveurs ». Cette meilleure compréhension des stratégies paysannes permet d’améliorer la conception et la conduite des programmes de recherche participative.
... Tsiperifery is the endemic wild pepper of Madagascar, also known as voatsiperifery, its most common commercial name. Some Malagasy people have been using this spice tra-the sector to new forest areas and threatening the long-term durability of the supply chain (Razafimandimby et al., 2017). ...
... Since its popularity rise, traditional low-intensity sustainable harvesting of tsiperifery has turned into uncontrolled systematic collection, which endangers both tsiperifery and the whole rainforest (Razafimandimby et al., 2017). Forest dwellers no longer refrain from cutting the supports on which tsiperifery grows when they are too high to be climbed on to collect the bunches. ...
... Forest dwellers no longer refrain from cutting the supports on which tsiperifery grows when they are too high to be climbed on to collect the bunches. Consequently, both the support and tsiperifery are killed, and the surrounding vegetation is damaged (Razafimandimby et al., 2017). In addition, the collection of both ripe and unripe fruits prevents the regeneration of the species (Razafimandimby et al., 2017). ...
Article
Introduction - Since the international popularity of tsiperifery, the Malagasy wild pepper (Piper sp.) from Madagascar started to grow, traditional low-intensity harvesting has turned into uncontrolled systematic collection, which is environmentally and socioeconomically unsustainable. Domestication could be key for sustainable exploitation of tsiperifery. Here we collated information from comparable domesticated Piper species to identify pathways to accelerate the domestication of tsiperifery. Materials and methods - We conducted a literature review, upon four steps: (1) identification of the already domesticated Piper species; (2) analysis of their domestication history and cultivation methods to highlight the common critical points for domestication; (3) comparison of these information with the limited ones available on tsiperifery; and (4) provision of preliminary recommendations on a possible domestication pathway for tsiperifery. Results and discussion - We identified and analyzed 22 domesticated Piper species. We found nine critical issues, the most important being: (i) genotype selection; (ii) procedure for vegetative propagation; (iii) reproduction of the mi-croclimatic and edaphic conditions of the rainforest understory; (iv) choice of the best supports and cultivation system; (v) reduction of the delay before entry into production; and (vi) control of plant height. For each critical issue, we suggested preliminary recommendations. Conclusion - This paper provides baseline information towards the domestication of tsiperifery. Further on-field and molecular experiments are needed to confirm these findings and identify suitable management practices.
... Malagasy wild pepper, or Voatsiperifery, is endemic spice of Madagascar that was "discovered" by French chefs less than 10 years ago and has since then been gaining a growing gourmet notoriety due to its unique organoleptic properties and its exotic origin (Razafimandimby et al. 2017). ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In recent years, the dynamics of transnational commodity chains have not only greatly intensified but it has been the subject of powerful forces of integration and normalization. From the purely economically motivated view of business potential to the new rhetoric of responsible capitalism, the African peasant, the shopkeeper or the trader become coveted partners in the building of new global trading routes. Such global chains are often confronted with challenges of articulating heterogeneous economic spaces, rules and regulations. This calls for more studies on their connections and the way they are (or not) more or less actually articulated. Our paper seeks to expand upon the notion of ‘market boundaries’ and how they contribute to shape processes of formality/informality in the development, adaptation and performing of global networks of trade. In particular, we are interested to understand how global trade combines together through the formal and informal; what ‘boundary work’ or ‘translation work’ is required over time for this to happen; and what implications the notion of market boundaries may open up for market studies. We draw upon different exemplars of ethnographic fieldwork to explore: a) how both localized and international transactional chains are comprised of different layers of formality and informality that combine or compete; and b) what processes of boundary work are required. Ethnography is particularly useful here as this method can be located between structure and process to help us to illustrate how complex processes of boundary work go underway to navigate between both informal/formal worlds.
... Wild peppers represent an extremely low amount of trade, but their high sensory characteristics put them in a prominent place regarding their commercial value. For instance, black pepper is sold for around 30 euros per kg, when Tsiprifery, a wild Malagasy pepper, reaches 200 euros/kg in French delicatessens (Razafimandimby et al., 2017). Piper borbonense, the wild pepper from Reunion Island, though offering worthwhile potential regarding its original chemical composition (Weil, Shum, Meot, Boulanger, & Bohuon, 2017) is not cultivated, neither processed, nor commercialised yet. ...
Article
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Piper is one of the largest genera of flowering plants. The uniformity of its small flowers and the vast number of species in the genus has hindered the development of a stable infrageneric classification. We sampled 575 accessions corresponding to 332 species of Piper for the ITS region and 181 accessions for the psbJ-petA chloroplast intron to further test previous hypotheses about the major clades within Piper. Phylogenetic analyses were performed for each marker separately and in combination. The ITS region alone resolves eleven major clades within Piper, whereas the psbJ-petA intron fails to recover four of these major groupings and provides no resolution at the base of the phylogeny. The combined analysis provides support for ten monophyletic groups and offers the best hypothesis for relationships in Piper. Our massive ITS dataset allows us to assign confidently a large number of species in this "giant" genus to a major clade. Piper is here divided into ten major clades for which we provide a morphological description. Various clades and subclades are newly identified here: Peltobryon, Schilleria, Isophyllon, P. cinereum/P. sanctum. The clades described here provide a solid framework for future, and more focused, evolutionary studies. New names and combinations proposed herein include Piper bullulatum, P. hooglandii, and P. melchior.
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Introduction. A study on postharvest treatments of wild peppers was carried out in Madagascar with the aim of describing the local practices and measuring their impacts on the quality of the products. Materials and methods. Four distinct pepper production systems (PPS) were observed, described and compared in two separate areas in East Madagascar. Major quality characteristics (piperine and essential oil) of the peppercorns were assessed in samples collected in the four systems. Results and discussion. Two main postharvest processes (dry and wet) were identified. The wet process differed from the dry one in that it involved two specific operations, blanching and sweating. The processes influenced the color of the pepper. Piperine contents were not affected by any of the pepper production systems, whereas essential oil contents were reduced by up to 27% by the wet process. After processing, piperine contents were up to eight times lower, whereas essential oil contents were up to six times higher than the specifications of the standard ISO 959-1 for black pepper ready for commercialization. Conclusion. Two main processes (dry and wet) for treatment of peppercorns in Madagascar were identified and described. The dry process, with two steps less, appeared to be easier to implement and more respectful to the product. Improving maturity control and processing according to the quality expected by the markets will be necessary to promote Malagasy peppers.
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Geographical Indications in Cambodia There are numerous traditional food products in Cambodia whose qualities are connected to the land of origin : Battambang rice, Kampot pepper and Kampong Speu sugar are all “terriory brands ” that already have a degree of notoriety. Cambodian society is showing a definite interest in these products, both among consumers who are willing to pay more for them and among the national and regional authorities who see these products as vectors to project a positive image of the country or region and generate economic wealth. Following its adhesion to the World Trade Organization (WTO), Cambodia is preparing regulations on geographical indications (GIs) to protect these “territory brands ” to benefit economic actors in the commodity chains. The article attempts to evaluate the benefits of such regulations for Cambodia.
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Aim The study aimed to establish areas of endemism and distribution patterns for Neotropical species of the genus Piper in the Neotropical and Andean regions by means of parsimony analysis of endemicity (PAE) and track-compatibility analysis. Location The study area includes the Neotropical region and the Northern Andean region (Páramo-Punan subregion). Methods We used distribution information from herbarium specimens and recent monographic revisions for 1152 species of Piper from the Neotropics. First, a PAE was attempted in order to delimit the areas of endemism. Second, we performed a track-compatibility analysis to establish distribution patterns for Neotropical species of Piper. Terminology for grouping Piper is based on recent phylogenetic analyses. Results The PAE yielded 104 small endemic areas for the genus Piper, 80 of which are in the Caribbean, Amazonian and Paranensis subregions of the Neotropical region, and 24 in the Páramo-Punan subregion of the Andean region. Track-compatibility analysis revealed 26 generalized tracks, one in the Páramo-Punan subregion (Andean region), 19 in the Neotropical region, and six connecting the Andean and Neotropical regions. Both the generalized tracks and endemic areas indicate that distribution of Piper species is restricted to forest areas in the Andes, Amazonia, Chocó, Central America, the Guayana Shield and the Brazilian Atlantic coast. Main conclusions Piper should not be considered an Andean-centred group as it represents two large species components with distributions centred in the Amazonian and Andean regions. Furthermore, areas of greater species richness and/or endemism are restricted to lowland habitats belonging to the Neotropical region. The distribution patterns of Neotropical species of Piper could be explained by recent events in the Neotropical region, as is the case for the track connecting Chocó and Central America, where most of the species rich groups of the genus are found. Two kinds of event could explain the biogeography of a large part of the Piper taxa with Andean–Amazonian distribution: pre-Andean and post-Andean events.