ResearchPDF Available

Application of Magnetic Stirrer for Influencing Extraction Method on Tectona grandis as Analgesic Activity

Authors:
  • D.S.T.S Mandal'S College of Pharmacy, Solapur

Abstract

The aim of the current study was to show the application of magnetic stirrer for influence of extraction methods on plant material. To achieve maximum possible extraction efficiency, it becomes necessary to optimize the extraction methodology. Magnetic stirrer, which possess certain advantages, these are, the reduction in organic solvents consumption, improvement in extraction efficiency. Tectona grandis is commonly known as "teak" belongs to verbenaceae family. The whole plant is medicinally important and many reports claim to cure several diseases according to Indian traditional system of medicines. The different extracts from various parts of teak shows expectorant, anti-inflammatory, anthelmintic properties. In proposed work apply magnetic stirrer for influencing extraction method to evaluate analgesic activity on Tectona grandis extract.
Available online at www.ijpcr.com
International Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research 2017; 9(9): 634-637
ISSN- 0975 1556
Research Article
*Author for Correspondence: yashashri2102@gmail.com
Application of Magnetic Stirrer for Influencing Extraction Method on
Tectona grandis as Analgesic Activity
Hingmire Yashashri R1*, Javalgikar Akshay S2, Mane Laxmi B3, Kale Sagar S1, Chikodi
Prmod B1
1Department Of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Sahyadri College Of Pharmacy, Methwade, Solapur, Maharashtra, India
2Department of Pharmacology, D.S.T.S Mandal’s College of Pharmacy, Solapur-413004.
3Department Of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Appasaheb Birnale College Of Pharmacy, Sangli, Maharashtra, India
Available Online:25th September, 2017
ABSTRACT
The aim of the current study was to show the application of magnetic stirrer for influence of extraction methods on plant
material. To achieve maximum possible extraction efficiency, it becomes necessary to optimize the extraction
methodology. Magnetic stirrer, which possess certain advantages, these are, the reduction in organic solvents consumption,
improvement in extraction efficiency. Tectona grandis is commonly known as “teak” belongs to verbenaceae family. The
whole plant is medicinally important and many reports claim to cure several diseases according to Indian traditional system
of medicines. The different extracts from various parts of teak shows expectorant, anti-inflammatory, anthelmintic
properties. In proposed work apply magnetic stirrer for influencing extraction method to evaluate analgesic activity on
Tectona grandis extract.
Keywords: Tectona grandis
INTRODUCTION
There are certain general techniques of medicinal plant
extraction used in different areas such as Pharmaceutical
industries, herbal industries, research laboratories include
Soxhlet extraction ultrasonic extraction, microwave-
assisted extraction & magnetic stirrer. Among them
magnetic stirrer possess advantages the reduction in
organic solvents consumption, improvement in extraction
efficiency. A magnetic stirrer is equipment used to create
rotating magnetic field. It is designed such that there is a
small bar magnet and stand or plate containing the rotating
magnet. In general, the bar magnet is coated with plastic
and plate contains rotating magnet. It is possible to create
a rotating magnetic field with the help of a rotating magnet.
There are several types of magnetic stirrer available and it
all depends on your selection of size, application and
configuration. Extracting methods and solvents are
important for quantity and quality of the extracts.
Appropriate extraction method for each plant should be
investigated in order to promote the higher amount of
active components1,2.
Classic techniques for solvent extraction of active
constituents from medicinal plant matrices are based on the
choice of solvent coupled with the use of heat or agitation.
Soxhlet extraction is a general and well-established
technique, which surpasses in performance other
conventional extraction techniques except for, in limited
fields of application, the extraction of thermo labile
compounds.
Advantages and Disadvantages of Soxhlet Extraction
Advantages
The displacement of transfer equilibrium by repeatedly
bringing fresh solvent into contact with the solid matrix.
Maintaining a relatively high extraction temperature with
heat from the distillation flask.
No filtration of the extract is required.
Disadvantages
Agitation is not possible in the Soxhlet device.
The possibility of thermal decomposition of the target
compounds cannot be ignored as the extraction usually
occurs at the boiling point of the solvent for a long time6.
Tectona grandis is commonly known as “teak” belongs
to verbenaceae family. The whole plant is medicinally
important and many reports claim to cure several diseases
according to Indian traditional system of medicines. The
uses of traditional medicinal plants for primary healthcare
have steadily increased worldwide in recent years.
Traditional plant medicines serve as a source of various
types of active principle and WHO estimates 70 % of the
World population still relies on the herbal medicines. Out
of the total 2, 25,000 species of plants, only less than10 %
have been studied so far for their medicinal uses. The plant
under investigation is Tectona grandis survey reveals that
the plant is used in the treatment of Urinary discharge,
bronchitis, cold and headache. In scabies, used as a
laxative and sedative, as diuretic, anti diabetic, analgesic
and anti-inflammatory. In the present study we isolated 19
phytochemicals qualitatively from various extracts.
Isolated 19 secondary metabolites from the leaves extract
of Tectona grandis Linn. Namely Steroids, Tannin,
Hingmire et al. / Application of Magnetic…
IJPCR, Volume 9, Issue 9: September 2017 Page 635
Table 1: Taxonomy of T. grandis.
Kingdom
Plantae
Super division
Angiosperms
Division
Eudicots
Class
Asterids
Order
Lamiales
Family
Verbenaceae
Genus
Tectona
Species
Grandis
Saponin, Anthocyanin, Coumarins, Emodins, Alkaloids,
Proteins, Amino Acids, Carbohydrate, Flavonoids,
Diterpenes, Physterol, Phenol, Phlobatannin,
Leucoanthocyanin, Anthraquinone, Cardial Glycosides
and Chalcones3.
This work was part of the scientific validation of the ethno
pharmacological claim about the analgesic and properties
of leaves extracts. To the best of our knowledge, there are
no reports of leaves bark extract of T. grandis as analgesic.
Hence, we evaluated the analgesic activities of ethanol &
chloroform mixture as solvent extracts of T. grandis in
Albino Wistar rats using hot-plate. The proposed work
evaluate analgesic activity on Tectona grandis leaves by
applying magnetic stirrer as extraction method for
influencing extraction. Ethanol & chloroform used as
solvent in 6:4 proportion.
MATERIAL AND METHODS
Collection of Plant Material
The plant leaves were collected from Sahyadri College of
Pharmacy Methwade Campus area and authenticated by
local Botanist from Sangola Mahavidaylay Sangola . The
plant materials were washed under running tap water to
remove the surface pollutants and the air dried under the
shade. The dried sample was powdered and used for
further studies.
Magnetic stirrer extraction (ME)
Five gram of fine powder of plant material was extracted
with 100 ml of an appropriate solvent in a round bottom
flask with magnetic stirrer for 24 hours at room
temperature. The leaves extract were then centrifuged at
5000 rpm for 15 min. An external magnetic field is applied
to the magnetic stirrer to mix the solution which facilitates
the rotating of the small magnetic bar placed in the mixture
of interest.
Solvent
Ethanol & chloroform mixture used as solvent in 6:4
proportion of ratio.
Selection of Experimental Animals
Wistar albino rats weighing between 200-250 g were
procured from animal house, Sahyadri College of
Pharmacy, Methwade. They were acclimatized for one
week to the laboratory condition in well ventilated room at
temperature 25 ± 2°C and relative humidity of 30-70%
with a 12:12 light-dark cycle, and fed with standard pellet
supplied by Hindustan lever. Co. Mumbai with water ad
libitum throughout the course of study. The animals were
fasted for 18 h prior to the experiment. All the animal
experiments were conducted according to the ethical
norms approved by CPCSEA, and ethical clearance was
granted by institutional ethical animal committee. The
present study was conducted in Dept. of Pharmaceutical
Chemistry Sahyadri College of Pharmacy, Methwade.
Experimental Design
Twenty Five albino rats of either sex were taken and
divided into 4 groups, each consisting of 5 rats each. Drugs
were administered to all the groups (control, tests and
standard) through p.o. route, Sodium carboxyl methyl
cellulose (CMC) did not produce evident changes in
activity response.
Group I (control group): 0.5% sodium CMC in distilled
water at 10 mL/kg body weight.
Group II (standard group) for analgesic activity:
Diclofenac Sodium (10 mg/kg) suspension in 0.5% sodium
CMC served as standard drug at 10 mL/kg body weight.
Group III (EETG 250 mg/kg b.w) suspension in 0.5%
sodium CMC (250 mg/kg) at 10 mL/kg
Group IV (EETG 500 mg/kg b.w) suspension in 0.5%
sodium CMC (500 mg/kg) at 10 mL/kg.
Preparation of drugs and Chemical solutions
EETG (250mg/kg body weight) was dissolved in sufficient
quantity of solvent in normal saline and use in the
treatment. EETG (500mg/kg body weight) and Diclofenac
Sodium(10mg/kg body weight) was dissolved together in
sufficient quantity of solvent(normal saline) & Sodium
CMC was prepared by using normal saline of strength of
1%v/v.
Acute oral toxicity studies
Acute oral toxicity studies were performed according to
OECD-423 guidelines (acute toxic class method). Wistar
Albino rats (n = 3) of either sex selected by random
sampling technique were employed in this study. The
animals were fasted for 4 h with free access to water only.
The Ethanolic extract of T. grandis was administered
orally at a dose of 5 mg/kg initially and mortality was
observed for 3 days. If mortality was observed in 2/3 or 3/3
animals, then the dose administered was considered as
toxic dose. However, if the mortality was observed in only
one rat out of three animals then the same dose was
repeated again to confirm the toxic effect. If mortality was
not observed, the procedure was then repeated with higher
doses such as 50, 300 and 2000 mg/kg5.
Evaluation of Analgesic Activity
Hot Plate Method
Groups of Wistar Albino Rats of either sex weighing
between 200-250g were used. Rats were placed on a hot
plate maintained at 55±0.5oC. The reaction time was taken
as the interval from the instant animal reached the hot plate
until the moment animal licked its feet or jumped out. A
screening was done and only those rats which react in 15s
were selected to avoid thermal injury. The latency is
recorded before and after 15, 30, 45, 60 and 90 min
following oral administration of the test compounds and
the standard drug. The rats was not placed on hot plate for
more than 15 seconds to avoid thermal damage to the paw.
Statistical Analysis
All the results were expressed as mean ±standard error
mean (S.E.M.). Data were analyzed using one-way
ANOVA followed by Dunnett’s t-test. The analysis was
Hingmire et al. / Application of Magnetic…
IJPCR, Volume 9, Issue 9: September 2017 Page 636
carried out using Graph pad software. P <0.05 was
considered as statistically significant.
RESULT AND DISCUSSION
The result of the hot plate method is given in [Table 2].
From 15 min to 90 min it was found that the group ranks
were significantly (P < 0.01, P < 0.05, P < 0.001) different.
At each time interval from 15 min onward the standard
drug diclofenac sodium showed the highest mean rank
ranging from 6.2 to 8.8, whereas ETG at 500 mg/kg was
the second mean rank ranging from 4.2 to 7.1 following
diclofenac. The results showed that there is no significant
(P > 0.05) difference between the two from 15 min to 90
min. In Eddy's hot plate test the predicted onset time of
ETG was found to be at 45 min. The results of this study
showed that T. grandis can be effective in analgesic
disorder.
For evaluating any specific property in plant extracts,
selection of most appropriate extraction method is required
because all the methods and solvents differ in mechanism
of extraction from each other. Any one method cannot be
said as universally applicable for extraction of all types of
bioactive metabolites. To achieve maximum possible
extraction efficiency, it becomes necessary to optimize the
extraction methodology. Magnetic stirrer, which possess
certain advantages, these are, the reduction in organic
solvents consumption, improvement in extraction
efficiency.
CONCLUSION
As per the given data showed, it is concluded that,
magnetic stirrer apply for influence of extraction methods
on plant material. Magnetic stirrer influence extraction
efficiency of T. grandis. The study showed that there is no
significant (P > 0.05) difference between the two from 15
min to 90 min. The study showed that T. grandis effective
in analgesic disorder.
ACKNOWLEDGMENT
I would like to express my deep sense of gratitude to our
Honorable President, Dr. Ingawale D. M., Sahyadri
College of Pharmacy, Methwade, Solapur, provided the
laboratory facility to carry out this work. I would also like
to thank my family and our college staff members who
helped me a lot in this work.
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Table 2: Analgesic effect of ethanolic extract of Tectona Grandis (250 & 500mg/kg), leaves on heat stimulating response
in the hot plate test in Wistar albino rats.
Groups
Dose (mg/kg)
Reaction Time (in Min)
30
60
90
Control (Vehicle)
10 mL/kg
2.8 ± 0.2a
2.1 ± 0.1a
1.6 ± 0.2
Standard Drug (Diclofenac Sodium)
10 mg/kg
6.8 ± 0.6a
7.9 ± 0.2b
8.8 ±0.3c
Extract of Tectonia Grandis
(ETG)
250 mg/kg
3.9 ± 0.2
5.0 ± 0.1c
5.6 ± 0.7a
Extract of Tectonia Grandis
(ETG)
500 mg/kg
4.9 ± 0.2b
6.2 ± 0.6b
7.1 ± 0.5c
The data represent the Mean ± SEM (n=6), p<0.05 (a), p<0.01 (b), p<0.001 (c) compared to corresponding control.
Figure 1: Analgesic Activity of Tectona Grandis Plant Extracts.
0
1
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Hingmire et al. / Application of Magnetic…
IJPCR, Volume 9, Issue 9: September 2017 Page 637
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Green technology: Economically and Environmentally Innovative Methods For Extraction Of Medicinal & Aromatic Plants (MAP) in Egypt
  • A Khaled
  • Shams
Khaled A. Shams et.al, Green technology: Economically and Environmentally Innovative Methods For Extraction Of Medicinal & Aromatic Plants (MAP) in Egypt, J of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Research, 2015; 7(5):1050-1074.