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Leptoglossus occidentalis Heidemann, 1910 (Heteroptera: Coreidae) in Bosnia and Herzegovina - Current distribution and the earliest documented records

  • National Museum of Bosnia and Herzegovina

Abstract and Figures

Leptoglossus occidentalis Heidemann, 1910 is an invasive bug species native to the western part of North America and one of 16 alien Heteroptera species in Europe. After it was first found in Italy in 1999, the species spread fast across the continent, including the Balkan Peninsula. Our study confirms the species presence in Bosnia and Herzegovina and gives data on its distribution, including the earliest records for the country. Up untill now the species is found at nine different locations in the period from 2008 to 2016. The record from early spring 2008 suggests that the species was already present in Bosnia and Herzegovina in 2007 or even earlier. Most records pertain to overwintering adults. For the first time the species is reported from Bosnian pine (Pinus heldreichii H. Christ). The species is also reported from Klek village in Dubrovnik region, south Croatia.
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UDK 630* 453 Prethodno priopćenje – Preliminary communication
Šumarski list, 11–12 (2017): 577–582
Leptoglossus occidentalis Heidemann, 1910 is an invasive bug species native to the western part of North America
and one of 16 alien Heteroptera species in Europe. Aer it was rst found in Italy in 1999, the species spread fast
across the continent, including the Balkan Peninsula. Our study conrms the species presence in Bosnia and
Herzegovina and gives data on its distribution, including the earliest records for the country. Up untill now the
species is found at nine dierent locations in the period from 2008 to 2016. e record from early spring 2008
suggests that the species was already present in Bosnia and Herzegovina in 2007 or even earlier. Most records per-
tain to overwintering adults. For the rst time the species is reported from Bosnian pine (Pinus heldreichii H.
Christ). e species is also reported from Klek village in Dubrovnik region, south Croatia.
KEY WORDS: alien species, Balkan Peninsula, conifers, Hemiptera, insect, invasive species, Pinus heldreichii, true
bugs, western conifer seed bug
Leptoglossus occidentalis HEIDEMANN,
1910 (Heteroptera: Coreidae) IN BOSNIA
Leptoglossus occidentalis HEIDEMANN, 1910
(Heteroptera: Coreidae) U BOSNI I HERCEGOVINI – RECENTNA
True bugs (Heteroptera) are one of the most diverse groups
of insects with approximately 40.000 described species
(Schuh and Slater 1995), out of which about 3.000 occur in
Europe (Aukema and Rieger 1995–2006). Protić and Stan-
ković (2015) estimated that the number of Heteroptera spe-
cies currently known to occur in Bosnia and Herzegovina
is roughly 750.
Leptoglossus occidentalis Heidemann, 1910, known also as
western conifer seed bug, is an invasive bug species native
to the area of North America west of Rocky Mts., from Bri-
tish Columbia to North Mexico (McPherson et al. 1990). It
belongs to the family Coreidae, commonly called leaf-foo-
1 Dejan Kulijer, dipl. biolog, National Museum of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Zmaja od Bosne 3, 71000 Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina. E-mail:
2 Prof. dr. sc. Mirza Dautbašić, Doc. dr. sc. Osman Mujezinović, Faculty of Forestry, University of Sarajevo, Zagrebačka 20, 71000 Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina.
3 Prof. dr. sc. Boris Hrašovec, Department of Forest Protection and Wildlife Management, University of Zagreb, Faculty of Forestry, Svetošimunska 25, 10002 Zagreb,
Croatia. E-mail:
4 Doc. dr. sc. Adi Vesnić, Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, University of Sarajevo, Zmaja od Bosne 33-35, 71000 Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina.
5 Šemso Šarić, šum. teh. Public Forest Enerprise of Zenica – Doboj Canton, Alije Izetbegovića 25, 72220 Zavidovići, Bosnia and Herzegovina.
578Šumarski list, 11–12, CXXXXI (2017), 577–582
ted bugs due to the presence of a attened, leaf-like expan-
sion on the hind legs. It is up to 2 cm long and conspicuous
in terms of coloration, characterized with reddish-brown
body, transverse white zigzag line across the centre of its
wings and leaf-like expansions of the hind tibiae (Fent and
Kment 2011).
L. occidentalis feeds on developing seeds in cones of die-
rent conifer species, with a preference for Pinaceae. It can
cause signicant damage on seeds by reducing seed fertility
(Fent and Kment 2011). In its native range, L. occidentalis
is classied as pest in conifer seed orchards (Mitchell 2000)
that has a direct impact in reduction in the yield and qua-
lity of conifer seed crops (Connely and Schowalter 1991;
Bates 2000). As the weather cools in autumn, L. occidenta-
lis searches for sheltered places suitable for hibernation and
oen hides in human dwellings. In some cases they can ag-
gregate in large numbers and become nuisance to people
in their homes (Wheeler 1992).
Western conifer seed bug is one of 16 alien Heteroptera spe-
cies introduced in Europe, 10 of which originate from North
America (Rabitsch 2010). is extremely invasive insect
species was introduced to Europe in 1999. Aer rst disco-
very in northern Italy, near Vicenza (Taylor et al. 2001) the
species spread fast throughout the country, and from Italy
to neighboring countries: e.g. Switzerland in 2002 (Co-
lombi, Brunetti, 2002), Slovenia in 2003 (Gogala 2003),
Croatia in 2004 (Tescari 2004). Few years later it was recor-
ded at several other, quite distant localities, like Barcelona-
Spain in 2003 (Ribes and Escola 2005), Le Havre-France in
2006 (Dusoulier et al. 2007), Weymouth-UK in 2007 (Ma-
lumphy and Reid 2007) and Ostend-Belgium in 2007 (Au-
kema and Libeer 2007). ese discoveries are probably re-
sult of separate introductions, possibly via sea transport
from USA, as all these observations were made in close
proximity of local ports (in Le Havre insects were discove-
red in the shipment of oak from the USA) (Dusoulier et al.
2007). Within only 15 years the western conifer seed bug
practically conquered the whole Europe. By 2013 it was re-
ported as far as Portugal, England, Norway, Turkey, Ukra-
ine and Russia (Fent and Kment 2011).
In short time L. occidentalis also has spread all over Balkan
Peninsula, reaching European part of Turkey in 2009 (Fent
and Kment 2011). It probably spread to the western Balkans
from Italy, via Slovenia (Jurc and Jurc 2005) or Croatia. In
Croatia the species was rst recorded in 2004 (Tescari 2004)
and spread fast, particularly in the southern Mediterranean
Figure 1 The distribution of
Leptoglossus occidentalis in
Bosnia and Herzegovina. Red
dots represent new localities,
yellow dot denotes the location
of one male L. occidentalis re-
corded in 2014 and published by
Protić and Stanković (2015).
Slika 1. – Nalazi Leptoglossus oc-
cidentalis u Bosni i Hercegovini.
Crvene točke označavaju do sada
neobjavljene, nove lokalitete na-
laza, žuta točka označava publici-
rani nalaz jednog mužjaka iz 2014.
godine (Protić i Stanković 2015).
KULIJER, D. ET AL.: Leptoglossus occidentalis HEIDEMANN, 1910 (Heteroptera: Coreidae) IN BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA ...
region of the country (Kment and Baňař 2008; Hrašovec
2013; Matošević and Pajač Živković 2013; Pajač Živković et
al. 2013). Soon it was also discovered in other countries:
Serbia in 2006 (Protić 2008); Bulgaria (Simov 2008), Bosnia
and Herzegovina (this paper), Montenegro (Hradil 2008)
and Greece (Petrakis 2011) in 2008; and recently in 2015 in
Macedonia (Kulijer 2016) and Kosovo (Kulijer and Ibra-
himi 2017).
First report on the species presence in BiH was presented
by Dautbašić et al. (2014). In 2015 additional record from
South Herzegovina was published by Protić and Stanković
(2015). In this paper we present the oldest documented n-
ding of L. occidentalis in Bosnia and Herzegovina and the
current knowledge on its distribution in the country.
L. occidentalis adults were collected from eight new locali-
ties in period between 2008 and 2016 (Fig. 1). ey were
observed casually and collected by hand. e collected spe-
cimens were preserved in 80 % ethanol. Specimens from
Zvijezda Mt., Duboštica and Igman Mt., Veliko polje, Čavle
are deposited at the Faculty of Forestry, University of Sara-
jevo, while the specimens from National Museum, Visoko
and Klek are deposited in the collections of the National
Museum of Bosnia and Herzegovina in Sarajevo.
Material examined: L. 1.: Sarajevo, National Museum
building, dead specimen in a window frame, N 43.854240°
E 18.402890°, 532 m a.s.l., 26/IV/2008, 1 adult, leg. & det.
D. Kulijer; 15/X/2015, 532 m a.s.l., 1 adult, leg. & det. D.
Kulijer; L. 2.: Ruište, Prenj Mt., at the edge of Bosnian pine
forest, N 43.464740° E 17.926777°, 1044 m a.s.l., 14/XI/2010,
1 adult, leg. & det. D. Kulijer; L. 3.: Sarajevo, Faculty of
Science building, dead specimen in an oce, N 43.854470°
E 18.395708°, 531 m a.s.l., III/2015, 1 adult, leg. & det. A.
Vesnić; L. 4.: Visoko, Monestery, dead specimen in a win-
dow frame, N 43.992843° E 18.185500°, 419 m a.s.l., 18/
VII/2013, 1 adult, leg. & det. D. Kulijer; L. 5.: Zvijezda Mt.,
Duboštica, (living specimen on leaf and caught in bottle),
N 44.238056° E 18.377500°, 562 m a.s.l., 22/VIII/2013, 1
adult, leg. & det. M. Dautbašić; L. 6.: Igman Mt., Veliko
polje, Čavle, (living specimen on stem and caught in bot-
tle), N 43.748889° E 18.268056°, 1202 m a.s.l., 15/VIII/2016,
1 adult, leg. & det. O. Mujezinović; L. 7.: Neum, city, N
42.926791° E 17.614584°, 74 m a.s.l., 30/IX/2016, 1 adult,
leg. & det. D. Kulijer; L. 8.: Banja Luka, Lauš, N 44.775735°
E 17.171385°, 175 m a.s.l., 05/XI/2016, 1 adult, leg. & det.
D. Kulijer;
Published records: L. 9.: Berkovići, Dobro Polje, Mt.
Straževica, 28/VIII/2014, 1 adult, leg. M. Stanković, det. Lj.
Protić (Protić & Stanković, 2015).
Chronologically, the rst record of L. occidentalis in the
country was one dead adult found in early spring (April
26th) 2008 in the city center of Sarajevo, in the oce of Nat-
ural History department building of the National Museum
of Bosnia and Herzegovina. e specimen was well pre-
served but seemed to be dead for some time. e fact that
it was found indoors in early spring, suggest that it entered
the building in autumn, probably seeking for suitable over-
wintering shelter. is also suggests that the species was
present in BiH at least as early as 2007. To our knowledge,
this is the oldest documented record of the species presence
in the country. In the period between 2008 and 2016 single
specimens were occasionally encountered in the buildings
of the National Museum of Bosnia and Herzegovina and in
the botanical garden surrounding the building, but the ex-
act dates were not recorded.
Figure 2 Leptoglossus occidentalis found on Bosnian pine (Pinus hel-
dreichii H. Christ) at Ruište, Mt. Prenj (left) (Photo: D. Kulijer) and L.
occidentalis from Duboštica, Mt. Zvijezda, (right) (Photo: Š. Šarić)
Slika 2 Leptoglossus occidentalis nalaz na munjiki (Pinus heldreichii H.
Christ) na lokaciji Ruište, u masivu Prenja (lijevo) (Foto: D. Kulijer) i L. occi-
dentalis snimljen u Duboštici, u području masiva Zvijezda planine (desno)
(Foto: Š. Šarić)
580Šumarski list, 11–12, CXXXXI (2017), 577–582
from BiH, among which eight (app. 10%) are considered
new for the country. is clearly illustrates a still insucient
knowledge of the BiH fauna of Heteroptera.
In the following years target research and survey of L. oc-
cidentalis in the country is needed in order to determine
the distribution, population status and potential damaging
threat to the conifer forest ecosystems and the seed produc-
tion in forestry. e monitoring program for this species
should be urgently established in Bosnia and Herzegovina
to estimate the potential risks of mass expansion in the
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sive species of western conifer seed bug Leptoglossus occidenta-
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e second oldest record originates from Ruište, Prenj Mt.
A single specimen (Fig. 2 le) was collected on November
14th 2010 within the stand of endemic Bosnian pine (Pinus
heldreichii H. Christ). is nding site was surrounded by
Bosnian pines, the tree species native to mountainous areas
of the Balkans and southern Italy (Farjon 2013). Based on
published data this is the rst time that L. occidentalis is as-
sociated to this pine, this is not to big suprise as Pinaceae
are known to be its preferred host tree group..
In March 2013 dead adult was found in the building of the
Faculty of Science in Sarajevo, located in the Sarajevo city
center, while the second observation in this year was made
in August when a single specimen (Fig. 2 right) was found
at Duboštica, Zvijezda Mt. within a mixed stands of Euro-
pean black pine (Pinus nigra J. F. Arnold) and Scots pine
(Pinus sylvestris L.).
In 2016, a new observation was made near Veliko polje on
Igman Mt. at the locality mostly populated by Norway
spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) and European silver r
(Abies alba Mill.) forest. On September 23, 26 and 28 single
adults were also observed in Klek, small settlement on the
Adriatic coast in Croatia, less than 2 km from the border
with Bosnia and Herzegovina, and on September, 30 one
specimen was found on the building wall in Neum city in
Bosnia and Herzegovina. At the margin of the Klek settle-
ment, Aleppo pine forest is present, as well as in Neum and
its vicinity. According to available published data (Tescari,
2004; Kment & Baňař, 2008; Pajač Živković et al. 2013) the
record from Klek represents the southernmost observation
of the species in Croatia so far. e most recent of the nd-
ings in BiH dates from November 2016 in urban part of
Banja Luka city and represents an overwintering individual
that was found in one apartment building in Lauš settle-
Both our ndings plus the review of published cases of L.
occidentalis appearance and spread in Balkan Peninsula
demonstrate a signicant lack of spatial data connected with
the lack of collecting eort. It is therefore hard to establish
exact routes and times of invasions of alien species. As a
consequence, in some areas the species are discovered only
aer they become well established and common. e oc-
currence of L. occidentalis in BiH is probably a result of
natural spread from Croatia and/or Serbia where it was doc-
umented earlier, in Croatia in 2004 (Tescari 2004) and in
Serbia in 2006 (Protić 2008). In Bosnia and Herzegovina
little attention is given to invasive insect species and the di-
coveries are mainly accidental (e.g. Kulijer 2010). Most re-
cords of L. occidentalis from BiH refer to overwintering in-
dividuals, majority from Sarajevo, where most of the authors
reside. ese records refer to accidental discovery of adults
found in or near buildings in autumn/spring. e paper
from Protić and Stanković (2015) reported 77 bug species
KULIJER, D. ET AL.: Leptoglossus occidentalis HEIDEMANN, 1910 (Heteroptera: Coreidae) IN BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA ...
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dae), a new alien species in Montenegro. Acta entomologica
serbica, 13(1/2): 77–79.
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sus occidentalis, Hemiptera: Coreidae) is quickly spreading
across Slovenia. Gozdarski vestnik, 63(2): 59–67.
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nearctic bug Leptoglossus occidentalis (Heteroptera: Coreidae)
in Croatia. Natura Croatica, 17(2): 141–147.
Kulijer, D., Ibrahimi, H., 2017: First report of invasive species
Leptoglossus occidentalis (Heteroptera: Coreidae) in Kosovo, (in
prep.). Acta Entomologica Slovenica, 25(1): 115–118.
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yridis (Pallas, 1773) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) in Bosnia and
Herzegovina. Acta Entomologica Serbica, 15(1): 141–143.
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dae) and Harmonia axyridis (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), two
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2007. Het News, 10: 2–4.
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Sjeverno-američka stjenica, Leptoglossus occidentalis Heidemann, 1910, jedna je od 16 neeuropskih vrsta
stjenica do danas unešenih u Europu, od kojih 10 potječe upravo iz Sjeverne Amerike (Rabitsch, 2010). Zbog
svojeg prirodnog područja pridolaska u Sjevernoj Americi, područja Pacičke obale omeđena lancem Stjen-
jaka na zapadu, Amerikanci su je nazvali „zapadnom stjenicom sjemena četinjača” (western conifer seed bug),
čime su, uz područja pridolaska, naznačili i njenu štetnost za sjeme drvenastih vrsta iz porodice Pinaceae.
Zbog osobite morfološke značajke, spljoštenog proširenja goljenice stražnjih nogu, također je poznata i kao
„stjenica listolikog stopala“ (leaf-footed bug). Slovenski autori iskoristili su ovaj naziv kao predložak i dodali
mu češer kao objekt prehrane, pa su je nazvali „storževa listonoška“ (Jurc & Jurc, 2005). U svakom slučaju,
ova se stjenica nakon dolaska na europski kontinent u Italiji 1999. godine (Taylor et al. 2001.) vrlo brzo širila
Europom, pa je u nepunih 10 godina prodrla u velik broj europskih zemalja, od Velike Britanije na zapadu,
do Ukrajine i Rusije na istoku, od Norveške na sjeveru do Turske na jugu (Malumphy & Reid, 2007; Fent &
Kment, 2011; Gapon, 2013). Među zemljama juga Europe, kojima se proširio ovaj novi invazivni štetnik, našla
se i Bosna i Hercegovina. U radu su prikazani svi provjereni i dokumentirani nalazi L. occidentalis na području
BiH, od prvog pronalaska i do sada neobjavljenog nalaza iz travnja 2008. godine (zgrada Zemaljskog muzeja
BiH u Sarajevu), pa do najsvježijih nalaza ljeti i ujesen 2016. godine (Igman, Neum, Banja Luka). Recentno
područje na kojemu je evidentirana ova nova invazivna stjenica u BiH, pregledno je prikazano prostorno
označenim podacima nalaza na slici 1. Iako očekivan, značajan je i prvi nalaz ove nove invazivne stjenice u
582Šumarski list, 11–12, CXXXXI (2017), 577–582
reliktnim sastojinama bora munjike (Pinus heldreichii H. Christ) u masivu Prenja u studenom 2010. godine.
Uvid u kronološki slijed i prostornu distribuciju nalaza L. occidentalis u Bosni i Hercegovini od 2008. do 2016.
godine ukazuju na razmjerno brzo širenje ovog štetnika i vjerojatno lokalno povećanje populacije, što je za-
sigurno rezultiralo i njenom lakšom detekcijom. Nalaze se ipak treba shvatiti u kontekstu u kojem su nastali,
a to su u velikoj većini bili neciljani, slučajni nalazi entomologa tijekom nekih drugih terenskih istraživanja.
Radi uočljivosti i krupnoće same stjenice i činjenice da se ujesen zavlači u ljudske nastambe, nije rijetkost da
se često i građanstvo pojavljuje kao „dojavljivač“ novih invazivnih vrsta. Važno je stoga ukazati na neposto-
janje sustavnog praćenja pojave i širenja L. occidentalis na ovim prostorima. Uspostava ciljanog monitoringa
i praćenja pojave, a posebice potencijalnog štetnog utjecaja L. occidentalis u borovim sastojinama i sjemen-
skim objektima u Bosni i Hercegovini, nužan su preduvjet potrajnog gospodarenja šumskim bogatstvom i
kvalitetniju organizaciju i učinkovitost sustava zaštite šuma od ovog novog invazivnog štetnika.
KLJUČNE RIJEČI: strane vrste, Balkanski poluotok, četinjače, Hemiptera, kukac, invazivni štetni organizam,
Pinus heldreichii, stjenice, stjenica listolikog stopala

Supplementary resource (1)

... Adding to the risk of PPC spread in the Central zone, L. occidentalis has recently colonized suitable habitats also in this region of Europe (e.g., [120,136,137]). In Bosnia and Herzegovina, the species has been found on Pinus heldreichii Christ, a rare mountainous pine species with a restricted natural distribution. ...
... Adding to the risk of PPC spread in the Central zone, L. occidentalis has recently colonized suitable habitats also in this region of Europe (e.g., [120,136,137]). In Bosnia and Herzegovina, the species has been found on Pinus heldreichii Christ, a rare mountainous pine species with a restricted natural distribution. ...
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Pine pitch canker (PPC), caused by the pathogenic fungus Fusarium circinatum (Nirenberg and O' Donnell), is a serious threat to pine forests globally. The recent introduction of the pathogen 2 of 34 to Southern Europe and its spread in Mediterranean region is alarming considering the immense ecological and economic importance of pines in the region. Pines in forests and nurseries can be infected, resulting in severe growth losses and mortality. The pathogen is known to spread in plants for planting and in seeds, and results from recent studies have indicated that F. circinatum may also spread through phoretic associations with certain insects. With this review, we aim to expand the current understanding of the risk of insect-mediated spread of PPC in different parts of Europe. Through the joint action of a multinational researcher team, we collate the existing information about the insect species spectrum in different biogeographic conditions and scrutinize the potential of these insects to transmit F. circinatum spores in forests and nurseries. We also discuss the impact of environmental factors and forest management in this context. We present evidence for the existence of a high diversity of insects with potential to weaken pines and disseminate PPC in Europe, including several common beetle species. In many parts of Europe, temperatures are projected to rise, which may promote the activity of several insect species, supporting multivoltinism and thus, further amplifying the risk of insect-mediated dissemination of PPC. Integrated pest management (IPM) solutions that comply with forest management practices need to be developed to reduce this risk. We recommend careful monitoring of insect populations as the basis for successful IPM. Improved understanding of environmental control of the interaction between insects, the pathogen, and host trees is needed in order to support development of bio-rational strategies to safeguard European pine trees and forests against F. circinatum in future.
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Leptoglossus occidentalis is reported for Israel. Information on the distribution of the species in the Mediterranean Region, in particular in its eastern part, is summarized.
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Information on the hibernation of Leptoglossus occidentalis Heidemann, 1910 (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Coreidae) is provided. The presence of the species in Morocco is confirmed.
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In this paper Leptoglossus occidentalis (Heteroptera: Coreidae) and Harmonia axyridis (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), two new invasive alien species are reported for insect fauna of Macedonia.
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Three species of alien phytophagous true bugs and one that is expanding the area of its distribution (Corythucha ciliata, Leptoglossus occidentalis Tuponia brevirostris and Oxycarenus lavaterae) present in Croatia are discussed in this paper. For each species, information about the distribution in the European continent, the distribution within Croatia, feeding habits and damages caused is given. None of the identified species represents an economic threat to agricultural or forestry production in Croatia, although the species L. occidentalis shows a potential for being an economically important pest due to its rapid expansion and successful breeding in Europe. Considering the upward trend of the introduction of alien true bug species in Europe, we can expect the entry and distribution of new alien species of true bugs in Croatia in the future.
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Additional records of the invasive Nearctic true bug Leptoglossus occidentalis Heidemann, 1910 (Heteroptera: Coreidae: Coreinae: Anisoscelini) from Croatia are given from the islands of Rab, Brač, and Hvar. A new host plant, Pinus halepensis, is reported.
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The harlequin ladybird Harmonia axyridis (Pallas, 1773) is an invasive species native to east and central Asia (BROWN et al., 2008). It was deliberately introduced as a biological control agent of aphids and coccids in Europe, North America, South America and Africa (KOCH et al., 2006). The first known record of this species in natural environments in Europe is from France in 1991. BROWN et al. (2008) reported that H. axyridis is established in France, Germany, Belgium, the Netherlands, Spain, Switzerland, Luxembourg, the United Kingdom, Italy, the Czech Republic, Austria, Denmark and Liechtenstein. The presence of H. axyridis in the wild is also reported from Poland (PRZEVOŹNY et al., In Europe H. axyridis has spread very rapidly, particularly since 2002. In Hungary after one year it became one of the most common ladybird species (MARKÓ & POZSGAI, 2009). H. axyridis is a polyphagous species preying mainly on aphids and other tree-dwelling hemipterans (e.g. psyllids and scale insects), but can also feed on eggs and larvae of other insects. It feeds not only on pests but also on beneficial insects such as other coccinellids, lacewings, hoverflies, etc. (KOCH, 2003). It is able to out-compete and displace native aphidophagous species through predation and competition over food (KOCH, 2003; ALYOKHIN & SEWELL, 2004; ROY & WAJNBERG, 2008). Because of its large prey-range, H. axyridis occurs in a wide variety of natural, semi-natural and anthropogenic habitats. The body of H. axyridis is 5-8 mm long, oval and convex in shape. The colour of the elytra is highly variable ranging from yellow-orange to red with 0-19 black spots, or it can be black with red spots. The head, antennae and mouthparts are generally straw-yellow sometimes with two triangular black spots on head. The pronotum is yellowish with black markings that can be up to five black spots and usually they are joined to form two curved lines, an M-shaped mark or a solid trapezoid (ANDRIAENS et al., 2003; PRZEVOŹNY et al.,
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Alien species are defined as species living outside of their natural range and outside of their natural dispersal potential. When an alien species enters a novel environment and has negative ecological and economical impact it becomes invasive species. Alien species are considered as one of the major threats to biodiversity after habitat destruction and enormous damage is done by them to ecosystems and economies. They have been described as an outstanding global problem. Economic damages associated with alien species in several countries in the world amount to about 5 % of the world GNP. Numerous alien insect species, many introduced only in the last 200 years, have become successfully established in various ecosystems in Europe, 1541 species of alien invertebrates are already present, 94 % of them are arthropods and 90 % of them are insects. More than half of the alien invertebrates are phytophagous (52 %) and 30 % of them infest trees and shrubs. Basic knowledge of the identity, origin, pathway, time of introduction of alien species is essential for assessing the threats from alien species and the first requirement when assessing the impact of alien species on ecosystems is to make an alien species inventory of a certain territory or country. Such studies are needed to assess which taxonomic or bio-ecological groups of alien insects are more successful invaders or more harmful to environment and economy. Croatia lacks such an inventory. Even though Croatia was included in most recent and comprehensive study of alien terrestrial arthropodes in Europe, Croatian references with first records were totally missing. There is no up-to-date list of phytophagous alien insect species on woody plants in Croatia. The aim of this paper is to provide up-to-date comprehensive list of known phytophagous alien insect and mite species on woody plants in Croatia with all relevant Croatian references. The starting point for compiling the list of alien species of phytophagous insects on woody plants in Croatia was a book "Alien Terrestrial Arthropodes of Europe" and database DAISIE. These are primary online resources on alien insect species available to the public and first qualified reference system on invasive alien species for the European region. We compiled the list by searching many sources of forestry, agricultural and taxonomic entomological peer-reviewed literature in Croatia, checklists and primary research publications on alien insect species. The references in these sources were examined for additional relevant publications. A total of 101 phytophagous alien species (98 insect species from 6 orders and 3 mite species form subclass Acarina) on woody plants were recorded (Table 1) and they are already present in Croatian entomofauna. They were dominated by Hemiptera (56.4 %), Lepidoptera (14.9 %), Hymenoptera (12.9 %), followed by Diptera (5.9 %) and Coleoptera (5.9 %), Acarina (3 %) and T ysanoptera (1 %)(Figure 1). One third (33.7 %) of the alien species in Croatia originate from Asia, 26.7 % from North America while 12.9 % are of tropical origin (Figure 2). From the 101 established alien insect species in Croatia, an increase in the number of introductions can be noted in the first decade of 21st century (Figure 3). Agricultural lands are the most frequently invaded habitats by alien phytophagous insects in Croatia (56.4 %), followed by parks and gardens (28.7 %) and woodlands and forests (14.9 %)(Figure 4). Order Hemiptera clearly dominates as it includes some of the most successful invaders (57 %) on woody plants in Croatia. Similar results were obtained at a country level for Hungary, Great Britain, Italy, Slovenia and Europe in general. T is outcome can be attributed to the fact that species of this order remain undetected and are easily transported due to their tiny size in concert with the intensive trade in agricultural commodities. The occurrence of other orders (Lepidoptera 14 %, Hymenoptera 13 %, Diptera 6 %, Coleoptera 6 %, and T ysanoptera 1 %) is slightly different from other European countries. Results from several investigations have shown strong positive correlations between the number of alien insects per European country and the volume of manufactured and agricultural imports, road network size, the GDP and the geographic size. In contrast, alien species richness was not correlated with the total or percentage of forest cover. The number of alien insects is positively correlated with country surface area, and bordering the sea does not influence the number of alien insect species which is quite important for Croatia. There is a strong correlation between the number of alien insect species and the total amount of imports and level of international trade of the country. It can be predicted that the number of established alien insect species will grow as Croatia shows constant increase of traded commodities with other European and non-European countries. In this review we have listed alien insect species that have not yet been recorded for Croatia on European level. These are Oxycarenus lavaterae; Massilieurodes chitendeni; Adelges (Dreyfusia) nordmannianae; Pineus (Eopineus) strobi; Protopulvinaria pyriformis; Dryocosmus kuriphilus; Platygaster robinae; Aproceros leucopoda; Rhyzobius lophanthae; Rodolia cardinalis; Harmonia axyridis; Xylosandrus germanus; Caloptilia roscipennella; Caloptilia azaleella; Phyllocnistis citrella; Argyresthia thuiella; Cydalima perspectalis; Dasineura gleditchiae; Ceratitis capitata; Rhagoletis cingulata and Drosophila suzukii. Some of them are novel and only recently introduced alien species whereas some of them are present for decades in Croatia but due to the lack of a comprehensive and regularly updated inventory of alien species they have not been listed before. T is also makes this up-to-date list of alien phytophagous insects in Croatia valuable. Our results have shown that Asia is the main region of origin of alien insects established in Croatia (33 %), followed by North America (27 %). The trends are similar in other European countries and Europe in general. A rapid increase in the number of new alien species introduction per year in Croatia is noticeable from the years 2007-2012 (6.4 species/year) compared to 2002-2007 (1.8 species/year) (Figure 3). In Europe, an average of 17.5 new species of insects per year was recorded between 2000 and 2007, while this value was only 8.1 from 1950 to 1974. In Europe twice as many new insect species were observed per year on trees and shrubs during the period 2000-2007 (6.3 species) compared to 1960-1979 (3.4 species). The differences between the number of new alien species/year in Europe and Croatia are probably due to differences in sampling efforts, country surface, volume of traded goods etc but the rapidly increasing trend is obvious. More than 80 % of alien insect species in Croatia (57 % on agricultural lands and 28 % in parks and gardens) have been established in man-made habitats (Figure 4). Only 15 % of alien insect species in Croatia have established themselves in natural environments (forests and woodlands) which is almost the same percentage as on European level. It is a common observation that simple, disturbed, man-made habitats are more easily invaded by insects and other invaders than complex, undisturbed, natural habitats. Alien insects linked to human environments and activities (e.g. ornamental plants, bonsais, seeds, large potted trees, cut flowers, vegetables, fruits) are more likely to be carried by human transports into a new region than insects living in natural areas. A study has shown that bonsais carry a more diverse alien insect fauna then timber and that ornamental plants constitute "miniature" ecosystems which may host a large variety of insects that have the potential to damage other woody plants as well. Almost 90 % of alien invertebrates in Europe were introduced unintentionally through human activities, mostly as contaminants of a commodity. In Europe, ornamental plant trade contributes significantly more than forestry products to the invasion of alien forest insects. As interception data have not been analysed in this paper, a research of such data for alien insect species and trade volumes in horticultural plants in Croatia isstrongly needed. There is a strong suspicion that ornamental plants are one of main pathways of introduction of alien insects to Croatia due to the increase of the imported volumes from year to year. Alien insect species are known for being serious pests worldwide and they can impact habitats which they invade in several ways. Alien insects can affect native biodiversity through direct actions: phytophagous insects feeding on plants, a predator or a parasitoid attacking host, an alien species hybridizing with a native species or indirect actions: vectoring diseases, competing for food, or sharing natural enemies with native species. T is research has shown that dangerous pests that can cause direct economic costs have invaded and are spreading in Croatia (Table 1). Due to high percentage of alien insect on agricultural lands (outdoor and in glasshouses) in Croatia (Figure 4) the yield losses of alien insect species on agricultural crops in Croatia must be considerable. Alien insects can have serious negative impact on forests, woodlands and urban parks. Some potentially damaging forest and urban pests have already established themselves in Croatia. In countries where the percentage of forest cover is high (Croatia around 44 %) the damage from alien insects is expected to be considerable. Most introductions of alien insects are unintentional and unpredictable.
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The inventory of the alien Heteroptera of Europe includes 16 species alien to Europe, 25 species alien in Europe and 7 cryptogenic species. This is approximately 1.7 % of the Heteroptera species occurring in Europe. Most species belong to Miridae (20 spp.), Tingidae (8 spp.), and Anthocoridae (7 spp.). The rate of introductions has exponentially increased within the 20th century and since 1990 an approximate arrival rate of seven species per decade has been observed. Most of the species alien to Europe are from North America, almost all of the species alien in Europe originate in the Mediterranean region and were translocated to central and northern Europe. Most alien Heteroptera species are known from Central and Western Europe (Czech Republic, Germany, Netherlands, Great Britain). Ornamental trade and movement as stowaways with transport vehicles are the major pathways for alien Heteroptera. Most alien Heteroptera colonize habitats under strong human influence, like agricultural, horticultural, and domestic habitats, parks and gardens. A few species prefer woodland including plantations of non-native forest trees. Impacts of alien Heteroptera in Europe are poorly investigated. A few species are considered pests in agriculture, forestry, or on ornamentals. More research is needed for a better understanding of the ecological and economic effects of introduced Heteroptera.
Data on 77 species of Heteroptera collected in 2013 and 2014 from 21 localities in Bosnia-Herzegovina are presented. Eight new species are recorded in Bosnia-Herzegovina for the first time: Gerris costae costae (Herrich-Schaeffer), Myrmecoris gracilis (Sahlberg), Pithanus maerkeli (Herrich-Schaeffer), Aradus obtectus Vásárhelyi, Rhopalus subrufus (Gmelin), Stictopleurus punctatonervosus (Goeze), Leptoglossus occidentalis Heidemann and Trochiscocoris rotundatus Horváth.
English article. ; Publisher Name: American Entomological Society, 1900 Benjamin Franklin Parkway, Philadelphia, PA 19103-1195 USA