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The Lusitanian Basin (Central Portugal) is a recurring subject of study within different disciplines of Earth Sciences, mainly because of the excellent stratigraphical and paleontological record, as well as the world class quality of outcropping elements of petroleum systems and salt tectonics geometries. In fact, in the Lusitanian Basin three global stratigraphic references were defined for the Jurassic System – the Toarcian Global Stratotype Section and Point (GSSP), the Bajocian GSSP and the Bathonian Auxilliary Stratigraphic Section and Point (ASSP) –, but the sedimentary record of the Lusitanian Basin includes a set of geosites that provide favorable conditions for educational activities, in the frame of the Portuguese educational system, which are increasingly being sought for the development of advanced training activities in the context of the hydrocarbon exploration models. This paper presents the main reasons that attract this particular public, which includes geo-specialists and geo-experts, to the Lusitanian Basin outcrops, as well as the geosites that are currently visited for advanced training purposes by different oil companies. As so, the geological heritage of the Lusitanian Basin represents a paradigmatic example of the relevance of enlarging the traditional vision that confines technical applications of geoconservation to scientific research, education and geotourism, the last one considered in the sense of an activity intended exclusively for geo-amateurs and/or to people who are either unaware or interested in learning about geological issues.
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... It is possible to analyse in detail a large slice of the only existing basin within the North Atlantic margin containing a wide surface exposure, allows the access of certain historical testimonies of Earth's span, that by its preservation and representation of the geological systems' dynamics which generated them, has a worldwide patrimonial value and recognition. These testimonies are essential to attract a considerable number of curious people, as well as teams of professionals and specialists within a whole variety of fields to perform investigations at national and international levels [34]. ...
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Through the awareness of the geological heritage, a UNESCO Global Geopark provides the region’s inhabitants an opportunity to develop cohesive partnerships and to enhance creative initiatives as a means to stimulate a sustainable local economy. In order to achieve it, UNESCO claims that the geoparks’ communities should be engaged in a bottom-up process. Through the explanatory method, two phases of research were traced. In the first phase, questionnaires, online and in person, were applied to 503 respondents born, resident and/or worker in Figueira da Foz older than 18 years old. The research was undertaken in order to understand the level of engagement with the aspiring geopark, the recognition of the geological heritage of Figueira da Foz, as well as the impact of a geopark on the region. In the second phase, outlined from the quantitative analysis of the previous data, a semi-structured interview was applied to the interlocutor of the aspiring Jurassic Geopark of Figueira da Foz, a researcher in geoparks and one representative of each of the five national geoparks. A content analysis of the interviews was done. The analysis of data related to the engagement activities implemented to promote the recognition of the appliance of Figueira da Foz to a UNESCO Global Geopark, indicates they were mainly informative and consultative (as it happens in other established Portuguese geoparks). The results seem to suggest that the initiatives undertaken allowed the population to feel engaged in the application process of Figueira da Foz to be recognised as a UNESCO Global Geopark.
... Moreover, the geographical and geological position of the Araripe Geopark means its fossils are key elements for the paleoenvironmental interpretation of rocks related to the marine ingression and formation of the South Atlantic Ocean. In the frame of basin analysis procedures, they display an enormous economic importance, associated with the Brazilian oil and gas deposits, namely, through the development of advanced training activities in the context of the hydrocarbon exploration models (Fig. 10, Henriques et al. 2020;Pena dos Reis and Henriques 2018). ...
Article
The territory of the Araripe Geopark, located in Northeast Brazil, covers a wide range of aspects related to earth and life sciences, as well as other aspects in the socio-cultural sphere that result from a complex interaction linked to the geology of the region. A key element for this diversity is the paleontological heritage that exists in the area and which was one of the bases for the creation of this geopark. The knowledge of the diversity and exquisite preservation of the fossils from the Araripe Geopark results from a long history of prospection of natural resources, starting in the eighteenth century. Since these first discoveries, the records of life in the area of the Araripe sedimentary basin were exceptional. To this day, the first natural resources prospected by João da Sylva Feijó transcend the perception of fossils as mere remains of past life on Earth. The excellent quality of these paleontological records enables new understanding of organic matter preservation processes. This knowledge built over 200 years of research and results in a new perception of the relevance of the Araripe Geopark fossils. Thus, the history of paleontology in this geopark intertwines with the history of scientific knowledge since the eighteenth century. Observation and exploration of natural resources have led to the first discovery of fossils in the region, as well as the scientific understanding of the importance of these records of past life on Earth. Additionally, that increase in scientific knowledge about nature enabled solutions to political and economic problems. Two centuries after their first discovery, the fossils belonging to Araripe Geopark are part of the main paleontological collections of universities and museums around the world. We evaluate how the ex situ paleontological heritage, resulting from the long history of studies in this geopark, may drive the economic development of the region through geotourism activities. The fossil heritage represented by the museum collections in exhibition or those in research collections, whether or not located in the Araripe Geopark region, should be considered as potential paths for disseminating information and encouraging geotourism. The possibility of learning the geological history of the area's landscape, fossils, and human interactions, by means of the various museum collections, represents an enormous potential to stimulate visits to the Araripe Geopark, thereby assisting in the economic development of the region.
... The Araripe Geopark extends over six municipalities of State of Cear� a (Crato, Juazeiro do Norte, Barbalha, Missão Velha, Nova Olinda and Santana do Cariri); there are nine geosites in this territory that are open to the public for visitation and display relevant geological, paleontological, archaeological and historical value. Moreover, the Araripe Basin besides attracting general visitors, also attracts a particular group of geotourists, that is, geospecialists and geoexperts in explorationoriented training activities focused on petroleum system elements and processes, thus displaying geological heritage of economic type (Ruban, 2010;Ruban and Kuo, 2010;Pena dos Reis and Henriques, 2018). ...
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After being exploited from the Earth’s crust, raw materials and geodiversity elements of economic value are traditionally used for the benefit of society. However, geodiversity elements may provide other types of benefits to society, namely scientific, cultural, educational, and tourist services, as they currently happen in geoparks. Geoparks can be seen as a culturally differentiated way of transferring scientific insights into social practice and vice versa, as well as an effective path of achieving global sustainability. This work aims at contributing and analyzing the role played by geoparks to improve the living conditions of local populations. The research is qualitative in nature, a study case type, which describes and assesses a pioneering experience developed at the Casa da Pedra (“Stone House”) Reference Center. Built in 2014, Casa da Pedra is located in Inhumas, the municipality of Santana do Cariri which integrates the UNESCO Araripe Global Geopark (State of Ceará; NE Brazil). The activities performed at this center aim to bridge academic knowledge and responsibility to a low density region subject to arid climate conditions. By fulfilling the social needs of a low-income community, the project results provide positive social impacts in the Inhumas community, and can inspire similar initiatives in other geoparks and/or other low density territories displaying relevant geological heritage. Moreover, by integrating natural, social and humanistic scientific awareness with non-scientific and non-Western forms of knowledge, these also serve as a catalyst tool to achieve global sustainability.
... In the nearest past, this resource was exploited, and it valued economically. This implies the economical type recognized by Ruban (2010) and later proven, particularly, by Pena dos Reis and Henriques (2018) and Molchanova and Ruban (2019). Third, quarrying since the very ancient times reflects the history of geological exploration and mining through the lens of civilizations' development, which is the evidence of the geohistorical type (sensu Habibi et al. 2018). ...
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Caves are commonly used for the purposes of geological conservation and tourism, but such experience is very limited in desert areas of northeastern Africa. The Sannur Cave discovered near Beni Suef in Egypt a few decades ago has been investigated in order to judge about its importance as geological heritage. It is established that the study territory contains three principal elements that can be attributed to geological heritage. These are the Sannur Cave itself, two quarries of the so-called Egyptian alabaster (recrystallized Eocene limestones used for ornamental stones and sculptures), and the geological landscape in the vicinities of the cave with some outcrops of Cenozoic rocks representing various facies and bearing numerous fossils. Two dominant geological heritage types of the study territory are geomorphological and sedimentary types, which represent globally and nationally unique phenomena. The Sannur Cave and the relevant features can be used for the purposes of geological conservation, research, education, and tourism, which make it an important natural resource. Geopark creation can help in efficient exploitation of the latter.
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The Zagros Mountains is a geologically rich domain, but the knowledge of its geoheritage resource remains restricted. Investigations in its southern part reveal uniqueness of the Jashak Mountain, which is a huge landform representing head of a salt diapir. Effective management of such localities requires their proper description and interpretation in the terms of geoheritage resources. Geomorphological, stratigraphical, sedimentary, tectonic, mineralogical, and paleogeographical features are found there. This locality represents a typical diapir of the Hormuz Series. This piece of geoheritage is proposed as the Jashak salt diapir geosite, which is classified as a global, complex, and areal geosite. This is simultaneously geomorphosite, and availability of panoramic views makes it also viewpoint geosite. The information from this locality is useful for further geoscience research, educational excursions for university students, and (geo)tourists. Managing such geoheritage resources can be linked to regional economical initiatives, which is important to attract tourist flows and to obtain some administrative and financial support.
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The relatively well-studied Lusitanian Basin in coastal west-central Portugal can be used as an analogue for the less well-known Peniche Basin in the deep offshore. In this paper the Lusitanian Basin is reviewed in terms of stratigraphy, sedimentology, evolution and petroleum systems. Data comes from published papers and technical reports as well as original research and field observations. The integration and interpretation of these data is used to build up an updated petroleum systems analysis of the basin. Petroleum systems elements include Palaeozoic and Mesozoic source rocks, siliciclastic and carbonate reservoir rocks, and Mesozoic and Tertiary seals. Traps are in general controlled by diapiric movement of Hettangian clays and evaporites during the Late Jurassic, Late Cretaceous and Late Miocene. Organic matter maturation, mainly due to Late Jurassic rift-related subsidence and burial, is described together with hydrocarbon migration and trapping. Three main petroleum systems may be defined, sourced respectively by Palaeozoic shales, Early Jurassic marly shales and Late Jurassic marls. These elements and systems can tentatively be extrapolated offshore into the deep-water Peniche Basin, where no exploration wells have so far been drilled. There are both similarities and differences between the Lusitanian and Peniche Basins, the differences being mainly related to the more distal position of the Peniche Basin and the later onset of the main rift phase which was accompanied by Early Cretaceous subsidence and burial. The main exploration risks are related to overburden and maturation timing versus trap formation associated both with diapiric movement of Hettangian salt and Cenozoic inversion. ON-LINE FULL VERSION http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/jpg.12648/epdf
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