Chapter

"Had enough of experts": Intersubjectivity and the quoted voice in microblogging

Authors:
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the author.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the author.

... Sampling ceased when saturation of description was reached, that is, at the point at which collecting additional data did not appear to modify the description of these relations (i.e., the description of the relations was exhausted). I then began to qualitatively consider how these relations could be integrated with the framework for considering intersubjectivity and the quoted voice in social media developed in Zappavigna (2017). This framework is described in the next section. ...
... For instance, platforms will often incorporate technical affordances that allow the user to republish other people's material within their post, for example, 'retweeting' on Twitter, 're-pinning' on Pinterest, or 're-blogging' on various blog platforms. In addition, social media texts will often quote other texts without using any punctuation resources such as quotation marks, instead relying on the ambient audience's ability to resolve important cultural moments from either their observations of what has been happening in the social stream, or from knowledge of the relevant contextual meaning, particularly in relation to political or crisis events that are prominent at the time (Zappavigna, 2017). ...
... In Zappavigna (2017), I further developed the system of assimilation to distinguish between contextually abduced and co-textually abduced vocalization in order to account for the particular meaning potential afforded by Twitter as a communicative channel. Contextually abduced extra-vocalization implicates a source that is unnamed in the co-text through contextual knowledge (e.g., knowledge that a particular phrasing is an Internet meme). ...
... Using a specialized corpus of 'And then he said…' image macros, this chapter investigates how intersubjectivity (Sumin Zhao & Zappavigna, 2017) is co-construed through visual and verbal meanings. Developing a system network for analyzing the quoted social media voice (Zappavigna, 2017(Zappavigna, , 2018, the chapter explores how these meanings combine to produce different kinds of perspectives/points of view. The aim is to expand social semiotic modelling of intermodal intersubjectivity, as well as to explore how political ideas are negotiated in highly intertextual ambient arenas. ...
... This involved iteratively sampling instances of this image macro for the image-caption-post-tag relations summarized in Figure 4. Sampling ceased when saturation of description was reached, that is, at the point at which collecting additional data did not appear to modify the description of these relations (i.e. the description of the relations was exhausted). I then began to qualitatively consider how these relations could be integrated with the framework for considering intersubjectivity and the quoted voice in social media developed in Zappavigna (2017). This framework is described in the next section. ...
... 'retweeting' on Twitter, 're-pinning' on Pinterest, or 'reblogging' on various blog platforms. In addition, social media texts will often quote other texts without using any punctuation resources such as quotation marks, instead relying on the ambient audience's ability to resolve important cultural moments from, either their observations of what has been happening in the social stream, or from knowledge of the relevant contextual meaning, particularly in relation to political or crisis events that are prominent at the time (Zappavigna, 2017). ...
Preprint
Full-text available
To appear as Zappavigna, M. (forthcoming). “And then he said… no one has more respect for women than I do”: Intermodal relations and intersubjectivity in image macros. In H. Stöckl, H. Caple, & J. Pflaeging (Eds.), Image-Centric Practices in the Contemporary Media Sphere. London: Routledge.
... In tandem with these practices eroding the status of experts are ongoing discourses seeking to destabilise the status of 'facts', as well as counter-discourses ridiculing both of these tendencies (Zappavigna, 2017). For example, frequent hashtags, visible in agnate discourses at the time of the Brexit debate, include #FakeNews and #AlternativeFacts. ...
... Gove's phrasing 'had enough of experts' was heavily quoted on social media platforms. Its prevalence was seen in a previous corpus-based study by the author of the types of voices involved in Brexit discourse about experts (Zappavigna, 2017). The corpus in this present study was created by querying the Twitter API for posts containing one or more of the words 'expert', 'experts' and 'expertise' together with the hashtag '#brexit' from 2 July 2016 to 23 October 2017, resulting in a dataset of 35,020 tweets. ...
... Gove's statement spawned a phrasal template meme, with social media users producing large volumes of posts referencing the phrase via various forms of quotation. Many of these posts humorously mocked the 'had enough of experts' viewpoint (Zappavigna, 2017), for example: (7) So Gove has had enough of experts. I'd love to be his Doctor, "Mr Gove this is Dave, he's a builder, he'll be doing your prostate exam today". ...
Book
Discourses of Brexit provides a kaleidoscope of insights into how discourse influenced the outcome of the EU referendum and what discourses have sprung up as a result of it. Working with a wide variety of data, from political speeches to Twitter, and a wide range of methods, Discourses of Brexit presents the most thorough examination of the discourses around the British EU referendum and related events. It provides a comprehensive understanding of the discursive treatment of Brexit, while also providing detailed investigations of how Brexit has been negotiated in different contexts. Discourses of Brexit is key reading for all students and researchers in language and politics, discourse analysis and related areas, as well as anyone interested in developing their understanding of the referendum.
... In tandem with these practices eroding the status of experts are ongoing discourses seeking to destabilise the status of 'facts', as well as counter-discourses ridiculing both of these tendencies (Zappavigna, 2017). For example, frequent hashtags, visible in agnate discourses at the time of the Brexit debate, include #FakeNews and #AlternativeFacts. ...
... Not for distribution Gove's phrasing 'had enough of experts' was heavily quoted on social media platforms. Its prevalence was seen in a previous corpus-based study by the author of the types of voices involved in Brexit discourse about experts (Zappavigna, 2017). The corpus in this present study was created by querying the Twitter API for posts containing one or more of the words 'expert', 'experts' and 'expertise' together with the hashtag '#brexit' from 2 July 2016 to 23 October 2017, resulting in a dataset of 35,020 tweets. ...
... Gove's statement spawned a phrasal template meme, with social media users producing large volumes of posts referencing the phrase via various forms of quotation. Many of these posts humorously mocked the 'had enough of experts' viewpoint (Zappavigna, 2017), for example: ...
... Users can reply to a tweet, but it is not necessarily expected on this platform. Tweets can also be 're-tweeted' in their original or modified form, which pushes the tweet to their 'followers' news feeds (Zappavigna, 2017). ...
This study investigated the effects of Facebook and Twitter on foreign language (Chinese) learners’ written production in both short- (10 days) and long-term (50 days) pseudo-experimental settings. Adopting two concepts (i.e. symmetric vs. asymmetric) from matrix theory in social network analysis, we categorized Facebook as a symmetric social networking site (SNS) and Twitter as an asymmetric SNS. Results show that Facebook participants were more conservative or not highly engaged in building their social connections. In both settings, Facebook participants posted more sentences than Twitter participants per day, and more posts on Facebook were interactive. The Facebook participants believed more strongly that reading others’ posts improved their reading skills. Facebook also displayed evidence on promoting explicit corrective feedback. More interestingly, Facebook appeared to be a more dynamic system; the quality of writing seemed to change over time. There were more grammatical errors on Facebook than on Twitter in both settings. In the long-term setting (not in the short-term setting), a moderate positive correlation was found between the number of characters and the number of grammar errors for Facebook, but not for Twitter. We conclude that symmetric SNSs facilitate more interactions, potentially providing a more effective platform for peer-to-peer corrective feedback compared to asymmetric SNSs.
Article
Criticizing the discourse of politicians via social media platforms is currently a major way in which people engage with civic and political issues, and foster social alignments around shared values through ambient affiliation. This paper explores the pragmatic and social functions of particular forms of ironic quotation that social media users employ to ridicule political voices. It develops the concept of ‘parodic resonance’ to not only account for the evaluative function of ironic echoic mentions, but also to account for the way in which such quotation proliferates as a kind of semiotic ‘weapon’ within and across social media platforms. A corpus of approximately 150, 000 posts quoting Trump's controversial use of the phrase ‘it is what it is’ during an interview about the US death toll in the coronavirus pandemic is explored. The analysis considers the kinds of linguistic functions construed in ironic quotation and how these operate in the service of ambient affiliation, where social media users align through ridiculing a quoted voice. Attention is given to the function of meta-vocalisation resources such as hashtags, and to the role of visual projection in memes and gifs, in order to account for the kinds of multimodal quotation practices that are possible in social media texts.
Article
Full-text available
This paper explores how ideological positions associated with food are construed multimodally in Instagram posts produced by everyday social media users. Discourse about food choices is an important site for revealing syndromes of values that characterise the ideological positions that are embedded in everyday life. An example of a highly valued food is the avocado which is an important bonding icon in semantic domains from veganism, clean eating, keto/low-carb eating, ethical/sustainable eating to fitness. We explore how values associated with avocado toast are enacted intermodally through the interplay of meanings made in the images, captions, and tags in a corpus of 64,585 Instagram posts tagged #avotoast. The study draws on previous social semiotic work on visual intersubjectivity and everyday aesthetics in social photography ( Zhao and Zappavigna 2018a ) to interpret the visual meanings made in these posts. It also draws on research into intermodal coupling (image-text relations) and ambient affiliation (online social bonding) ( Zappavigna 2018 ) to understand how different values are construed in these texts. A modified grounded theory approach is used to isolate and exemplify the visual and textual features at stake, and then to explore ideological positionings through close multimodal analysis. A particularly interesting pattern in the corpus is the interaction of aesthetic and moralising discourses. For instance, a regulative metadiscourse realised through hashtags is used to project an instructional discourse about how to eat and what is considered ethical, sustainable, and nutritious food consumption. Rather than being directly encoded as judgement of behaviour these assessments tended to be expressed as appreciation of food items and their aesthetics or worth (e.g., clean, healthy, etc.).
Article
Full-text available
This study investigates how speakers of American English use multimodal articulation when quoting characters in personal narratives. We use the concept of role shift, adapted from signed languages, where it refers to a device used to represent one or more characters with one or more bodily articulators, to describe multimodal role shift practices. In a regression analysis, four bodily articulators were found to predict the impression of a role shift: character intonation, character facial expressions, character viewpoint gestures, and changes in body orientation; gaze was not a significant predictor. Most of the 704 quotes in our data are accompanied by activation of two or three articulators (55.3%) and very few (2.6%) occur without any of the articulators we have annotated. The extent of multimodal articulation depends on the type of quoted utterance: quotations of actual, witnessed speech events tend to garner fewer articulators than constructed (‘fictive interaction’) quotations. These findings demonstrate that speakers, like signers, use a range of bodily articulators when they take on another’s role in quotation and thus underpin the importance of investigating the systematic use of the visual modality in quotation and, more generally, in ordinary interaction.
Article
Full-text available
An important dimension of social media discourse is its searchability. A key semiotic resource supporting this function is the hashtag, a form of social tagging that allows microbloggers to embed metadata in social media posts. While popularly thought of as topic-markers, hashtags are able to construe a range of complex meanings in social media texts. This paper uses the concept of linguistic metafunctions, to explore how hashtags enact three simultaneous communicative functions: marking experiential topics, enacting interpersonal relationships, and organizing text. Corpus-based discourse analysis of linguistic patterns in a 100 million word Twitter corpus is used to investigate these functions and how they relate to the notion of social search.
Article
Full-text available
The thesis explores the rhetorical properties of the modern news report. In order to account for the distinctive style of news reporting it extends Systemic Functional Linguistic theories of the interpersonal to develop new analyses of the semantics of attitude, evaluation and inter-subjective positioning. It applies these analyses to identify three distinct interpersonal modes of news reporting style which will be termed journalistic 'voices'. These analyses are used to explicate the rhetorical properties of the voice most typically associated with 'hard news' reporting, to be termed 'reporter voice'. The thesis also examines the textual structure and genre status of two sub-types of news report, those items grounded in material activity sequences and those in communicative events such as speeches and interviews. Several chapters explore the functional connections between these two media text types and traditional narrative and argument genres. The chapters present the argument that linear, syntagmatic models of text structure of the type developed previously for analysis of, for example, the narrative are unable to account for the functionality of these news reports. An alternative 'orbital' model of textuality is presented by which relationships of specification are seen to operate between a central textual nucleus and dependent satellites.
Article
Full-text available
This article explores how language is used to build community with the microblogging service, Twitter (www.twitter.com). Systemic Functional Linguistic (SFL), a theory of language use in its social context, is employed to analyse the structure and meaning of ‘tweets’ (posts to Twitter) in a corpus of 45,000 tweets collected in the 24 hours after the announcement of Barak Obama’s victory in the 2008 US presidential elections. This analysis examines the evaluative language used to affiliate in tweets. The article shows how a typographic convention, the hashtag, has extended its meaning potential to operate as a linguistic marker referencing the target of evaluation in a tweet (e.g. #Obama). This both renders the language searchable and is used to upscale the call to affiliate with values expressed in the tweet. We are currently witnessing a cultural shift in electronic discourse from online conversation to such ‘searchable talk’.
Article
Full-text available
This paper reconsiders the concept of 'evaluation of status' and applies it to visual as well as to verbal texts. The paper explores the relationship between 'status' and other related concepts such as epistemic modality. It is argued that a conceptual notion of status is useful in analysing texts, particularly those which construe knowledge. Examples of texts where the status of propositions has high social significance are discussed. The paper then demonstrates how notions of status may be applied to visual images, taking as an example a television documentary film. The status of the various images in the film, and how those images interact with the concurrent verbal text, is then explored.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The microblogging service Twitter is in the process of being appropriated for conversational interaction and is starting to be used for collaboration, as well. In an attempt to determine how well Twitter supports user-to-user exchanges, what people are using Twitter for, and what usage or design modifications would make it (more) usable as a tool for collaboration, this study analyzes a corpus of naturally-occurring public Twitter messages (tweets), focusing on the functions and uses of the @ sign and the coherence of exchanges. The findings reveal a surprising degree of conversationality, facilitated especially by the use of @ as a marker of addressivity, and shed light on the limitations of Twitter's current design for collaborative use.
Article
Full-text available
The link between affect, defined as the capacity for sentimental arousal on the part of a message, and virality, defined as the probability that it be sent along, is of significant theoretical and practical importance, e.g. for viral marketing. A quantitative study of emailing of articles from the NY Times finds a strong link between positive affect and virality, and, based on psychological theories it is concluded that this relation is universally valid. The conclusion appears to be in contrast with classic theory of diffusion in news media emphasizing negative affect as promoting propagation. In this paper we explore the apparent paradox in a quantitative analysis of information diffusion on Twitter. Twitter is interesting in this context as it has been shown to present both the characteristics social and news media. The basic measure of virality in Twitter is the probability of retweet. Twitter is different from email in that retweeting does not depend on pre-existing social relations, but often occur among strangers, thus in this respect Twitter may be more similar to traditional news media. We therefore hypothesize that negative news content is more likely to be retweeted, while for non-news tweets positive sentiments support virality. To test the hypothesis we analyze three corpora: A complete sample of tweets about the COP15 climate summit, a random sample of tweets, and a general text corpus including news. The latter allows us to train a classifier that can distinguish tweets that carry news and non-news information. We present evidence that negative sentiment enhances virality in the news segment, but not in the non-news segment. We conclude that the relation between affect and virality is more complex than expected based on the findings of Berger and Milkman (2010), in short 'if you want to be cited: Sweet talk your friends or serve bad news to the public'.
Book
This is the first comprehensive account of the Appraisal Framework. The underlying linguistic theory is explained and justified, and the application of this flexible tool, which has been applied to a wide variety of text and discourse analysis issues, is demonstrated throughout by sample text analyses from a range of registers, genres and fields.
Article
In this paper, we outline a study of the Twitter microblogging platform through a sample of French users. We discuss sampling methodology and compare three "issues" taken from the collected set of tweets. Based on the empirical findings we make a case for extending the notion of "information diffusion" to take into account questions of meaning, values, and ideology. We propose the concept of "refraction" to take a step toward this end.
Article
In this article, we discuss the function of quoting and information sharing in social media services and argue that certain aspects of quoting point to similarities with oral culture, where the social functions of sharing complement the aim to inform or disseminate information. We approach the issue by first providing a brief historical account of content sharing practices from the early days of the Internet to the contemporary social media environment, in which content sharing is both prevalent and facilitated by platform architecture. We then conduct an exploratory quantitative content analysis of three Twitter hashtags relating to different topics, and link their structural variation to the different content sharing practices prevalent in them. We conclude by arguing that the social use of quotation in social media discourse can be a predictor of community structure, but that the degree to which this is the case differs locally.
Article
There have been many attempts to provide accounts of visually expressed narratives by drawing on our understandings of linguistic discourse. Such approaches have however generally proceeded piecemeal --- particular phenomena appearing similar to phenomena in verbal discourse are selected for discussion with insufficient consideration of just what it means to treat visual communication as discourse at all. This has limited discussions in several ways. Most importantly, analysis is deprived of effective methodologies for approaching visual artefacts so that it remains unclear what units of analysis should be selected and how they can be combined. In this paper, we articulate a model of discourse pragmatics that is sufficiently general to apply to the specifics of visually communication information and show this at work with respect to several central aspects of visual narrative. We suggest that the framework provides an effective and general foundation for reengaging with visual communicative artefacts in a manner compatible with methods developed for verbal linguistic artefacts. http://authors.elsevier.com/a/1P-8~1L-ngxFoc
Book
Spreadable Media maps fundamental changes taking place in our contemporary media environment, a space where corporations no longer tightly control media distribution and many of us are directly involved in the circulation of content. It contrasts "stickiness"-aggregating attention in centralized places-with "spreadability"-dispersing content widely through both formal and informal networks,some approved, many unauthorized. Stickiness has been the measure of success in the broadcast era (and has been carried over to the online world), but "spreadability" describes the ways content travels through social media. Following up on the hugely influential Convergence Culture: Where Old and New Media Collide, this book challenges some of the prevailing metaphors and frameworks used to describe contemporary media, from biological metaphors like "memes" and "viral" to the concept of "Web 2.0" and the popular notion of "influencers." Spreadable Media examines the nature of audience engagement,the environment of participation, the way appraisal creates value,and the transnational flows at the heart of these phenomena. It delineates the elements that make content more spreadable and highlights emerging media business models built for a world of participatory circulation. The book also explores the internal tensions companies face as they adapt to the new communication reality and argues for the need to shift from "hearing" to "listening" in corporate culture. Drawing on examples from film, music, games, comics, television,transmedia storytelling, advertising, and public relations industries,among others-from both the U.S. and around the world-the authors illustrate the contours of our current media environment. They highlight the vexing questions content creators must tackle and the responsibilities we all face as citizens in a world where many of us regularly circulate media content. Written for any and all of us who actively create and share media content, Spreadable Media provides a clear understanding of how people are spreading ideas and the implications these activities have for business, politics, and everyday life.
Article
A tenable genre development of Internet memes is introduced in three categories to describe memetic transformation: spreadable media, emergent meme, and meme. We argue that memes are remixed, iterated messages which are rapidly spread by members of participatory digital culture for the purpose of continuing a conversation. We understand that memes develop from emergent memes, which we define as altered or remixed spreadable media. We have adapted and modified Jenkins’ term “spreadable media” to refer to original or non-parodied messages. Our analysis benefits from the inclusion of Anthony Giddens’ structuration theory to aid in understanding how memes as artifacts of participatory digital culture are created. Our genre development of memes demonstrates the generative capacity for continued memetic transformation and for participation among members of digital culture. We use structuration to position these dynamic components as the core of a duality of structure for Internet memes.
Article
This paper seeks to contribute to the scholarship which is interested in the rhetorical, axiological workings of what are sometimes termed ‘hard news’ or ‘objective’ news stories—a style of news journalism typically associated with the ‘quality’ or ‘broadsheet’ news media and involving a regime of ‘strategic ‘impersonalisation’. It is interested in the communicative mechanisms by which such texts are often able to advance or favour particular value positions while employing a relatively impersonal style in which attitudinal evaluations and other potentially contentious meanings are largely confined to material attributed to quoted sources. It reviews previous research on the evaluative qualities of these texts, with special reference to the literature on attribution and so-called ‘evidentiality’ in news discourse. It is proposed that understandings of the axiological workings of these text can be enhanced by referencing some of the key insights emerging from what is termed the ‘Appraisal ‘framework’, an approach to the analysis of evaluative language developed within the Systemic Functional Linguistic paradigm of Michael Halliday and his associates. In particular it is proposed that understandings of the workings of these texts can be enhanced by referencing proposals in the Appraisal literature with respect to implicit or ‘invoked’ attitude and by reference to an account of attribution and so-called ‘evidentiality’ which is grounded in Bakhtinian notions of dialogism, rather than in notions of truth functionality and certainty-of-knowledge claims.
Article
This paper uses a text-driven approach to explore epistemological positioning (the expression of assessments concerning knowledge) in English newspapers. The notion of epistemological positioning (EP) often overlaps with evidentiality-the linguistic marking of the basis of speaker/writer knowledge. This is a relatively modern concept in linguistics and, compared to the amount of research it has attracted concerning other languages, it has been somewhat neglected in research focusing on English. Newspaper texts are a particularly good source for looking into EP and evidentiality, because the news story is a genre that is preoccupied with knowledge. The analysis shows that EP in English can be very complex, and that the distinction between attribution and averral (Sinclair 1988) needs to be taken into account when discussing it in naturally occurring texts (particularly in news texts). The resulting elements of EP that are identified for the English language offer a first glance at the possibilities to express EP in English, and open up future research on EP in different registers and text types.
Article
This article discusses two crucial issues in the social semiotics of visual communication. The first is the move from accounts of specific semiotic modes towards an integrated multimodal approach to visual communication in which the analysis of images becomes less central than the analysis of semiotic resources such as composition, movement and colour, which are common to a range of semiotic modes including images, graphics, typography, fashion, product design, exhibition design and architecture. The second is a new emphasis on the discourses, practices and technologies that regulate the use of semiotic resources, and on studying the take‐up of semiotic resources by users in relation to these regulatory discourses, practices and technology. Here, the article will discuss a number of semiotic ‘regimes’, including codification, tradition, expertise, best practice or role modelling, and technological control. The article ends with a discussion of the way normative discourses are built into the latest visual communication technologies (e.g. PowerPoint, HTML, Photoshop, Illustrator) and an affirmation of the need for a critical and well‐contextualised semiotics of visual technology.
Twitter archiver Retrieved from https://chrome.google.com/webstore The dialogic imagination
  • A M Agrawal
Agrawal, A. (2016). Twitter archiver. Retrieved from https://chrome.google.com/webstore/ detail/twitter-archiver/pkanpfekacaojdncfgbjadedbggbbphi Bakhtin, M. (1935/1981). The dialogic imagination. Austin: University of Texas Press.
'#feminism is not a dirty word': Axiology, ambient affiliation and dialogism in discourses surrounding feminism in microblogging
  • J Han
Han, J. (2015). '#feminism is not a dirty word': Axiology, ambient affiliation and dialogism in discourses surrounding feminism in microblogging. Honours thesis, University of Sydney.
Social media and everyday politics
  • T Highfield
Highfield, T. (2016). Social media and everyday politics. Cambridge: Polity.
Evaluation and the planes of discourse: Status and value in persuasive texts
  • S Hunston
Hunston, S. (2000). Evaluation and the planes of discourse: Status and value in persuasive texts. In Hunston, S. & Thompson, G. (Eds.), Evaluation in text: Authorial stance and the construction of discourse (pp. 176-207). Oxford: Oxford Unversity Press.
A short history of stupid: The delcine of reason and why public debate makes us want to scream
  • B Keane
  • H Razir
Keane, B., & Razir, H. (2014). A short history of stupid: The delcine of reason and why public debate makes us want to scream. Australia: Allen and Unwin.
UAM corpus tool 3.3. Madrid, Retrieved from www
  • O ' Donnell
O'Donnell, M. (2007). UAM corpus tool 3.3. Madrid, Retrieved from www.wagsoft. com/CorpusTool/
Why do you make stupid decisions when the experts tell you otherwise? The conversation. Retrieved from http://theconversation.com/why-do-you-makestupid-decisions-when-the-experts-tell-you-otherwise-60020
  • A Spicer
Spicer, A. (2016). Why do you make stupid decisions when the experts tell you otherwise? The conversation. Retrieved from http://theconversation.com/why-do-you-makestupid-decisions-when-the-experts-tell-you-otherwise-60020
Interpersonal meaning in 3D space: How a bonding icon gets its 'charge Multimodal semiotics: Functional analysis in contexts of education
  • M Stenglin
Stenglin, M. (2008). Interpersonal meaning in 3D space: How a bonding icon gets its 'charge'. In Unsworth, L. (Ed.), Multimodal semiotics: Functional analysis in contexts of education (pp. 50-66). London: Continuum.
Discourse of Twitter and social media Ambient affiliation in microblogging: Bonding around the quotidian. Media International Australia
  • M Zappavigna
Zappavigna, M. (2012). Discourse of Twitter and social media. London: Continuum. Zappavigna, M. (2014a). Ambient affiliation in microblogging: Bonding around the quotidian. Media International Australia, 151, 97-103.
Coffeetweets: Bonding around the bean on Twitter The language of social media: Communication and community on the internet
  • M Zappavigna
Zappavigna, M. (2014b). Coffeetweets: Bonding around the bean on Twitter. In Seargeant, P. & Tagg, C. (Eds.), The language of social media: Communication and community on the internet (pp. 139-160). London: Palgrave.