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Artists and Transpedagogy: Possibilities for Enriching Teaching and Learning Through Radical Engagement with the Arts

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Abstract

Over the last decade, cultural institutions have worked hard to connect audiences with contemporary arts practices that are no longer created by a sole person working alone but by artists who work collaboratively and across disciplines.
Artists and transpedagogy: possibilities for enriching teaching and
learning through radical engagement with the arts
Linda Knight
Queensland University of Technology, Australia
Stewart Riddle
University of Southern Queensland, Australia
Abstract
Over the last decade, cultural institutions have worked hard to connect
audiences with contemporary arts practices that are no longer created by
a sole person working alone but by artists who work collaboratively and
across disciplines.
Like generalist teachers, contemporary artists utilize practices and
pedagogies to engage audiences (including children) in meaningful and
high-quality ways. The different contexts and sites where artists and
teachers work ignites a curiosity about how these various practices
and pedagogies occur across arts space and school space contexts.
Specifically, we are curious about these differences and the possibilities
for ‘transpedagogies’; pedagogies that emerge from blended, multi-
context approaches and expertise of diverse pedagogues to offer ideas
about general aspects of teaching.
We present some preliminary findings from an ongoing seed project that
examines the innovative and creative skills artists utilize in their own
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practice, to think how these might be reconsidered in the context of
generalist (non-arts focused) primary education teaching.
Case studies of the practices of four multidimensional artists who
approach their artistry in interdisciplinary, collaborative and agentic ways
help provide some potential ideas on transpedagogical opportunities that
connect artistic, and school-based pedagogies.
Introduction
Over recent decades, cultural institutions such as art museums have had to
work hard to maintain a healthy visitor presence during the global shifting
of social and cultural habits and practices. Tourists, families, students and
others no longer need to reply upon visiting a physical collection in a
dedicated building to encounter objects and exhibitions, such things can
easily be found in digital form via online videos, photos, gallery sites as
well as books, postcards and catalogues. School and tertiary groups can
also access specially designed art study programs that display images
digitally on smartboards that react to touch in non-invasive ways.
Collections of contemporary and historical artefacts that ‘accord objects
particular significances’ (Sherman & Rogoff 1994, p. ix) were curated and
arranged by museum staff into collections which might interest and
fascinate publics. The tensions faced by museums seemed to fixate on how
to ‘provide a safe haven for high art while catering to a crowd it did not
select?’ (Zolberg 1994, p. 49). The dilemma, certainly for government-
owned, taxpayer-funded museums was how to convey the brilliance of the
works to a mass audience with largely unrefined, underdeveloped tastes.
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An additional issue with the museum model was that mass audiences
usually accessed the art but not the artist, this dislocation did not
necessarily impede audience engagement and understanding of the works
exhibited, but the lack of contact with artists helped create populist notions
of how artists lived, worked and how they conceived of the rationales for
their work. Although artists can live ‘outsider’ lifestyles, such as living in
fluid arrangements (the Australian Heidelberg commune being one
example, the British Bloomsbury set being another), constructed ‘images’
of the artist can be said to have grown alongside the arts they produce.
These common images of the artist as bohemian and commune-dwelling is
complicated by a counter-image of the artist as the isolated (usually young,
single, white, male) tortured recluse, a social outsider fixated on perfecting
(his) practice. Only a small number of artists may possibly have lived these
lifestyles, however these visions persist through history, affecting
mainstream understandings of contemporary arts practices.
The point here is not to contest a notion artists obsessively work on their
art, or they live in communities with other artists or that they are
‘unconventional’; like any ‘group’, artists are diverse and live and work in
diverse circumstances. This is particularly the case if the artist is very
young, a parent, a carer, or has physical, intellectual, cultural, spiritual
needs or responsibilities that require the persistent presence and assistance
of others.
Stereotypic, subjectifying assumptions fail to acknowledge the diverse
ways in which artists live their everyday lives, and how they approach
their practices. Many contemporary artists conceptualise production
differently, working as collectives producing art collaboratively and across
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practice disciplines. Compagnia TPO are a performance company based in
Prato, Italy. Compagnia TPO takes a multidisciplinary, collaborative
approach to practice, working with a varied team of authors, able to use
different languages (mainly theatre, dance and visual arts)’ (Compagnia)
across the globe to create performance pieces that feature ‘images
projected onto big surfaces, but especially by ...sets of interactive
technologies.’ (Compagnia), this interactivity promotes a way of
performing whereby ‘dancers ‘paint’ and ‘play music’ on stage using their
bodies or movements thanks to the interactive effects’ (Compagnia) of
sensory flooring and digital projection.
Insite Arts, a production/performance company based in Melbourne,
Australia also work across practices and collaborate with different artists
in each of their projects. In 2009 Compagnia TPO collaborated with Insite
Arts to create Saltbush, a multi-practice, interactive performance work
suitable for a young audience. Saltbush references a native plant ‘found
throughout Australia in almost all Aboriginal lands, and ... a common
thread between all the different nations of Australian Indigenous peoples’
(Insite Arts). Insite Arts describe how ‘narrative, contemporary painting,
dance and instrumental music’ (Insite Arts) combine with digital
technologies to enable ‘children to interact, play and perform in the
production and [provide] an immersive experience of the artwork’ (Insite
Arts). The Saltbush project exemplifies how contemporary artists
collaborate within companies such as Insite Arts and Compagnia TPO to
create multi-practice works in ethical ways. In this example artists came
together to draw on their culture and practices to produce a work that
explores ‘the natural features of the landscape in an indigenous
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mythological context’ (Insite Arts) through egalitarian collectivity that
privileges Australian Aboriginal knowledge and cultural practice.
An excellent example of hybridized arts practice is Kin by Stephen Page
(2006). Since 1991, Page has been Artistic Director of Bangarra Dance
Company, an Australian company that draws on ‘contemporary and
traditional Indigenous Australian dance, oral traditions and social history’
(Albert 2006, p. 184) with works such as Ochres (1994) and Lore (2015).
Page was commissioned to produce Kin for the 5th Asia Pacific Triennial
of Contemporary Art. The Asia Pacific Triennial showcases contemporary
art of Asia and the Pacific, including Australia and is a flagship exhibition
curated by Queensland Art Gallery and Gallery of Modern Art
(QAGOMA).
Kin is a performance about ‘local Brisbane youth, culture and social
history’ (Albert 2006, p. 184) linking to Page’s ancestral lineage from the
Nunukul, Munaldjali and Yugambeh people of South-East Queensland,
and exploring themes ‘central to [Page’s] upbringing: kinship and family
values’ (Albert 2006, p. 184). In writing an article on Kin for the 5th Asia
Pacific Triennial catalogue, Tony Albert describes how ‘In preparation for
Kin, Page worked closely with three generations of his family to produce a
personal and dynamic work that explores the urban upbringing of
Indigenous boys, and the close ties they have with their own communities,
families and histories’ (Albert 2006, p. 184).
Kin was predominantly a performance piece that incorporated and
merged different arts practices and disciplines, and was collectively ‘built’
by family members across generations. In conceptualising the piece
‘through the eyes of seven young male jarjums (kids), aged between nine
6
and thirteen’ (Albert 2006, p. 187) Page worked collaboratively with his
family, allowing the project to grow ‘in an organic way, from the journey
to Beaudesert to the workshops in the months leading up to its final
presentation as part of the opening celebration for APT5’ (Albert 2006, p.
187) where it was performed by multi-age dancers. As an art project Kin
made a bona-fide contribution (as in, it is ‘real’ art) to the Triennial, it was
also a pedagogic work. As Albert establishes, ‘Page’s intention, through
Kin, was to give the boys the confidence to express themselves’ (Albert
2006, p. 187). Page took on a mentoring role to help develop the boy’s
respective practice and performance skills. Kin exemplifies how artists like
Page work across disciplines, they collaborate, they challenge thinking and
they work pedagogically with performers and audiences.
Pedagogies of contemporary artists
Kin and Saltbush are two projects that demonstrate the practices and
pedagogies contemporary artists utilize to engage audiences (including
children) in meaningful and high-quality experiences. Like generalist
teachers, artists develop and refine their own practices and approaches to
help transfer information as well as prompt the development of practices
and concepts of others. Although contemporary artists are doing something
similar to a generalist classroom teacher in applying high-quality skills to
engage audiences and children, the differences between the contexts of
teaching and the contexts of practicing and creating arts, make apparent
the differences between the ways practices and pedagogies are learnt,
conceptualized, theorized on, and enacted by artists and by teachers.
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In Saltbush, the artists negotiate environmental factors such as a
transient audience of very young children, a temporary workspace, a
digitally responsive sensory floor, along with critical factors such as
respectfully telling a story of cultural significance. The artists work
collectively with designers and in-house theatre technicians and managers
to develop an experience that is more than a visual feast, it must have
meaning and affect on those participating. These practices and pedagogies
differ from the more fixed or stable workplaces and student cohorts, and
the multiple ‘stories’ teachers negotiate in their daily routines.
In Kin Page brings about active and egalitarian collaborations between
multi-age groups to enable performers to make collective decisions about
the performance works. There is a purposeful deliberation in this process
that is not hurried but takes whatever time is required to produce a
performance that represents everyone in the group. Pedagogy here emerges
through polyvocal and polycorporeal activity that does not hierarchise; this
is in contrast to school-based pedagogies that locate the teacher as the
central source of expertise on what is to be learnt and how it is to be
taught.
These two examples are described in order to show that artists develop
and use pedagogic practices. Our comment, and the broader purpose of the
chapter aims not to typify the pedagogic practices of artists, or the
pedagogic practices of teachers (which we also think of as diverse and
fluid) but simply to declare that artists have pedagogic practices. We assert
artists think pedagogically when encouraging audiences to appreciate the
arts and produce arts works in engaged and participatory ways, and we
suggest that although these might differ to the practices and pedagogies
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seen in daily or routine teaching activity, they are nevertheless,
pedagogically authentic, ‘bona-fide’.
Artists and teachers use practices and pedagogies to inspire and educate
audiences and children; in acknowledging that these respective
pedagogical practices exist how might the pedagogic work of artists be
articulated? Specifically, how might artists who work with children and
audiences theorise on their pedagogic practices? Finally, how might the
work that artists do with audiences be recognised or considered as
pedagogic and with equal value as ascribed to the pedagogic work of
‘conventional’ pedagogues such as teachers?
We begin by discussing Helguera’s (2011) studies into the ways artists
and audiences work together to participate in art as social practice as a
form of transpedagogy. We then consider Helguera’s notion of
transpedagogy as we reflect on two conversations we had with artists who
describe how they work with young audiences in education contexts.
Finally, we suggest how the practices of artists can be conceptualised as
pedagogic and we call for a shift from associating artists solely with
stereotypical images of the bohemian outsider to one of community and
cultural educator, with practices that can inform and enrich the pedagogic
practices of teachers in school contexts.
Transpedagogy
The practices and pedagogies of artists can act as what Helguera (2011)
describes as a transpedagogy: a pedagogy that blends educational
processes and art-making” (p. 77) in ways that promote art as social
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practice. In describing the work of artists in terms of transpedagogy,
Helguera places pedagogical processes at the heart of artistic endeavours,
where artists and audiences become collaborators. In setting transpedagogy
against a more traditional form of arts education, he makes the following
observation:
Traditional pedagogy fails to recognize three things: first, the
creative performativity of the act of education; second, the fact
that the collective construction of an art milieu, with artworks and
ideas, is a collective construction of knowledge; and third, the fact
that knowledge of art does not end in knowing the artwork but is a
tool for understanding the world (Helguera, 2011, p. 80).
The promise of transpedagogy is realised through the practices of
contemporary artists who work closely with their communities. The
formation of an artistic milieu provides multiple and diverse opportunities
for community members to engage in art creation alongside artists. The
boundaries between artists and learners, arts practice and education are
blurred as the collaborative process of art-making itself becomes a
pedagogical act.
Truman and Springgay (2015) note that, “in transpedagogy, the
pedagogical value is not in the transfer of art skills or techniques but
rather, the pedagogical process becomes the artwork” (p. 151). We are
interested here in how artists are able to collaborate with audiences (which
we might consider as learners, whether or not in formalised education
settings such as schools and universities or public spaces such as art
galleries, museums and festivals) in ways that involve a pedagogical
exchange. “Often referred to as socially engaged art, such projects function
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in a transdisciplinary way, re-conceptualizing particular problems or
conditions through artistic practices” (Springgay, 2013, p. 17). Communal
engagement with the arts through transpedagogy enables people to
individually and collectively engage in rich meaning-making practices.
Hall, Thomson and Russell (2007) take Bernstein’s (2003) distinctions
between competence and performance pedagogies to characterise artist
pedagogic practices as tending toward performance-based pedagogies. For
Hall, Thomson and Russell, Bernstein’s distinctions about competence and
performance boil down to ‘what’ is being learnt coupled with ‘how’ art is
being experienced. Because many young people encounter art making
primarily in school, a site heavily organised by the structures of
curriculum, the ‘what’ and ‘how’ of arts activities are seen to focus on
establishing ways of expressing yourself in different forms,
exploring different perspectives on the world, appreciating the art
and crafts of a range of cultures, expressing different identities for
yourself. (Hall, Thomson & Russell, 2007, p. 618).
The pedagogies in these school sites form patterns of actions and
interactions between learners, where the spatiality and sociality of
engagements come into play. While schools have clearly denoted teachers
who ‘teach using their respective particular pedagogical approaches, we
are more interested in how pedagogy works as an affective flow when
relationships are formed between an artist and audience-community-
learners in sites that include schools as well as other places and contexts.
Central to the notion of how artists can meaningfully engage in
pedagogical exchanges with learners that goes beyond traditional arts
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education, requires a rejection of the rational ordering of knowledge,
where art is reduced to a field of study or a disciplinary knowledge set
(Grierson, 2011). Instead, through transpedagogy, art becomes seen as
much more than objects for display or artistic products for consumption,
but rather as a way of perceiving and being in the world.
We argue that Helguera’s notion of transpedagogy is a useful one for
attempting to imagine pedagogy differently, in terms of how arts and
learning might produce a more creative mode of thinking and being. In
conversation with our artistic peers, we explore how these pedagogies of
artists might be understood. In doing so, we present a necessarily limited
snapshot of the practices of two multidimensional artists who approach
their artistry in interdisciplinary, collaborative and agentic ways. We do
this in order to provide hopeful illustrations of the potential of
transpedagogy as a radical engagement with the arts as a “semiotic, social,
cultural and even political practice, a mode of thinking and making that
has the capacity to engage with the complexities of [our] discourses”
(Grierson, 2011, p. 338). We are interested in how art might act as a
vehicle for situated meaning-making, for creative and productive aesthetic,
conceptual and affective knowing.
The significance of attempting to understand how transpedagogy might
be able to flow across from artist to learner, from arts practice and
community engagement with cultural institutions, into more traditional
spaces of curriculum and pedagogy such as the classroom, should not be
understated. One important question of course, is to ask whether
transpedagogy might actually be able to travel from the practice of the
artist working in diverse contexts, to the teacher in the classroom in ways
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that are different to the pedagogical practices of which, teachers currently
make use. Although teachers might learn much from the artist in building
their skills in teaching curriculum-based arts subjects, what might also be
learned from artist’s practices in terms of pedagogy, teaching ideas and
innovations that are applicable to general aspects of teaching?
Although contemporary artists and teachers are working to similar
agendas in applying high-quality skills to connect with audiences and
children, the differences between the contexts of teaching and the contexts
of practicing and creating arts, make apparent the differences between the
ways practices and pedagogies are learnt, conceptualized, theorized on,
and enacted by artists and by teachers. But, if the agendas are similar,
might there be opportunities for generalist teachers to look to artists, to
enrich their usual practices and tactics in engaging students in learning?
Our conversations with two artists focus on how each artist encourages
audience participation through multi-practice, transpedagogical processes.
The ways each artist ignites these affective and participatory exchanges
offers rich ideas about how transpedagogical practice might also be
adopted in school-based teaching contexts.
Anthony: musician-composer-producer
Anthony is a musician-composer-producer, based in Brisbane, Australia.
He has been a professional artist for twenty years, and has performed
nationally and internationally with his bands. Anthony has worked with
diverse artists on the production of various musical recording projects. He
is also an instrumental teacher, studio manager and occasional lecturer in
creative industries at university. When asked about his approach to
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contemporary arts practice and its link to a collaborative approach to
pedagogy, Anthony shared the following with us:
Kids have very unformed ideas and I help them form those ideas, and I
think what's happened as a result of that and as a result of working in
my collaboration with bands is that my process is very much bouncing
off other people. What is happening in a collaboration is a negotiation
that has an outcome that is based entirely on personal taste. So there is
a group of people looking for something when there is no right or
wrong answer, and it is... to me is especially for my young students - I
had a student who ended up being part of a law office after he left his
bands 'cause he stopped being in bands and decided to take a job that
pays money, and his exact words were 'Negotiating a law office is
child's play compared to working with a band'. Because when artists
disagree, they are hard to work with, because artists have very
emotional connections that what they're doing and sometimes not
entirely rational connections to what they're doing. So learning to
negotiate for an outcome with a group of three or more people is an
incredibly hard thing to do, and to keep that together for any amount of
time is seen as borderline impossible.
For Anthony, music making is a collaborative process that requires a
close-knit group of creative people working together. There is a clear
pedagogy of social learning at play in the collective and artistic activity:
In terms of learning, someone told me a long time ago - another
professional musician who was in his sixties at the time - told me that
he'd been to the school of hard knocks, and I was young at the time and
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I didn't really understand what he meant by that; but essentially the
learning that you do on the road as a touring musician and the
experience that you get collaborating with other musicians, living with
other musicians, travelling with other musicians in tiny little spaces,
taking a project internationally and trying to find ways to give it its own
voice in another country, is just a massive amount of work, is a massive
amount of patience, and it is the sort of thing that you couldn't possibly
teach formally.
Interactions between artists and audiences-learners is really important for
Anthony, who understands that there is a difference between simply
performing for an audience and the process of structuring deliberate
opportunities for learning through active engagement with the arts:
When you begin a workshop, there's a little bit of anticipation there.
They're unaware of what you're gonna do, some of them I guess might
even be completely indifferent to it and thinking 'Hey I’m getting a day
off school' or something like this. But those kinds of audiences are a
fascinating opportunity because they're young minds who I’m there
with the ability to influence their mind and maybe hopefully have them
come away from it taking something for themselves. And I guess that's
very different to a rock show in the sense that when you're doing a
workshop with someone it's a much more two-way interaction, whereas
a performance to me is to an extent a one-way interaction.
Unlike teaching from a traditional curriculum that treats knowledge as
separate from the experience of learners, Anthony’s transpedagogy
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foregrounds the importance of affective responses to engagement with
learning and the arts:
I still think that as a creator and as an artist, the closer the personal
contact you can have, the better. Because we're dealing with emotional
response generally when we're talking about art in any form. We're
creating an emotional response.
At the heart of Anthony’s transpedagogy is a creative vitality and the
deliberate removal of obstacles to artistic creation. The environment, both
physical and social, is clearly emphasised through his work with others as
a musician-composer-producer:
To me the word 'creating' is something that happens not something I
do. When I was younger I used to go out of my way to try and create
things, and as I get older and as I do more I’m more just letting
creation happen. It's really about having an environment that facilitates
allowing the creativity to be whatever it needs to be. So I guess it's
about removing boundaries or even setting boundaries that enhance the
creation.
Cassie: visual artist
Cassie is a visual artist based in Melbourne, Australia. Cassie creates
collaborative and solo projects that use projection, installations and
painting. Cassie exhibits her work nationally. Cassie has been a practicing
artist for fifteen years; during that time, she also became a qualified high
school teacher. Cassie teaches on a casual basis, continues her art practice,
she also lectures in art and art education in university.
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Cassie talked about her early desires to be an artist, and how those
desires continue to drive her current art practice:
I do definitely still feel that I’m becoming an artist and still very
emerging in my practice. But, erm, I would have to say that from a very
early age I’ve always considered myself to be, to be an artist. I always
wanted to be an artist so my earliest memories were that this is what I
was going to do.
Cassie identified how the pedagogical delivery of her early experiences of
arts practice was problematic and had a negative effect on her confidence
in making art:
The art education in high school was quite disappointing and had sort
of, various teachers. And one of them told me that I couldn’t paint!
(laughs) and so… that was really.. that was really damaging.
The formative ideas about being an artist and how to develop an arts
practice have changed over time for Cassie. She describes how initially she
was not concerned about audiences, but this changed as her understandings
of art and arts practice matured. Cassie describes how her desire to make
art remains as strong an urge as it ever has but that her sense of what artists
can be and do has expanded. She now regards her art as a form of social
practice:
To be honest, I don’t think I ever thought about my audience. I just
created art because I did it for me.
I create art now because there’s a sense that I need to.
My practice is both solitary and collective.
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Working in the public realm, you’ve got this amazing opportunity to
work with audiences and actually share an idea or get an idea across
or perhaps create change through that creating awareness. And I think
that's one of the exciting possibilities of working with publics.
I think art in that way is changing, we are viewing art in a different way
and working with publics in a different way. Art can be a lot more
community-minded.
Site-specific works really do engage their audience, or really do take
into consideration the environment, the physical environment and also
the social, cultural environment of the space.
Through describing her working processes, Cassie demonstrates how
transpedagogy occurs for her through collaboration, through consciously
foregrounding how learning is taking place, and how ideas and practices
work together as she creates her art:
I think collaboration is so important because you’re constantly jumping
off ideas from one another. And as an artist and working with different
audiences or different publics, I think you get the same. You’re
constantly learning from each other.
It’s not because I have a message that I need to share with everyone,
it's the actual, the act of making is actually really important, and then
the idea or the concept behind the idea of the artwork comes after. But
it's the actual making that's really important I think to me [and] it also
actually helps me to think in new ways. I find if I am creating, I’m
actually making new connections and I’m actually learning about
different things.
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The pedagogical drive for Cassie emerges from her ideas about arts as a
social practice, and the rights that communities and individuals have to
participate in and encounter the arts. A key agenda and primary
consideration for Cassie is to help audiences and others explore key issues
through their arts practice that they regard as meaningful and important.
Transpedagogy occurs through Cassie paying careful attention to the ideas
and needs of others and using that to force shifts in her own practices and
ideas.
I think humans need to create, and whatever form that is, I think it’s
really important for us to create.
I think that art should be attainable and should be available for
everyone to participate in.
I think perhaps when working with participants or with audiences on a
project, I think they need to see what they’re going to get out of it,
whether the topic is something that's important to them, or whether they
want to create something, or learn a new technique, or just meet
people. And I think perhaps you need to sort of think about, well, what
the audience is going to get out of that. It’s not just about you creating
the project, I think we have to think about, it’s important to think about
the people, the audience that are working with you, and they’re going
to be satisfied, and they’re going to get something that's worthwhile for
them out of the project.
I think there definitely is an element of pedagogy or teaching going on,
whether it’s intended or not.
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Discussion
Grierson (2011) reminds us that art does not sit well alongside reified
knowledge, truth and morality. Instead, art provides us with an important
“space beyond the obvious” that is “more than mere information, more
than means-end commodity, more than instrumentalised technology, and it
is this ‘more’ that we must identify and defend” (p. 346). It seems to us
that this might perhaps be how radical engagement with the arts provides
numerous possibilities for enriching teaching and learning.
It is not particularly remarkable that artists and teachers use practices
and pedagogies that seek to inspire and educate audiences and children.
However, we wonder at how the constraints of curriculum and pedagogy
as it is enacted in classrooms and other sites of learning, might limit what
is possible for young learners. As transpedagogues, artists find ways to
work with diverse audiences, particularly those who are art-informedand
also those without a particular background in art or with a social
investment in the art world. We have only had space in this chapter to
briefly engage with the transpedagogies of two particular artists, yet these
clearly demonstrate the rich potential of making deeper links between the
arts and educational practices.
Through a deeper engagement with arts practices and pedagogies, the
relevance of the artist is increased beyond the arts, and demonstrates how
ideas for improving on teaching and student engagement can be addressed
by looking to diverse professionals with complementary and relevant skill
sets. Hybridized arts practices are pedagogical and have the potential to
inform and affect those who are delivering concepts as well as those who
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are learning. As contemporary arts leaves the confines of the gallery/studio
and entangles with public contexts, artists are experimenting with radical
pedagogies in diverse ways and contemporary arts practices can inform
different learning contexts. Furthermore, artists are able to develop a
pedagogy that brings a more creative mode of being and knowing together.
The collective and blurred skills of artists, and their strategies for
disseminating and connecting their work to collaborators and the public
can help to prompt new understandings of what effective and engaging
teaching and learning might be able to produce in reimagining approaches
to curriculum and pedagogy. By connecting with artists and
transpedagogies, perhaps it might be possible to build high quality
education provision in and outside of formal education settings, that
connect powerfully and meaningfully to the lives of learners of all ages
and in all places.
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public, and cultural literacy. In: Sherman DJ, Rogoff I (eds) Museum
culture: histories, discourses, spectacles. Minneapolis MN, University
of Minnesota Press, p49-65
... Nelson (2018) asserts that it is almost impossible to teach creativity, whilst McVeigh (2014) argues that creativity can be taught and describes how teachers can do it. According to Knight and Riddle (2018), transpedagogy, an innovative arts-based pedagogy "that blends 'educational processes and art-making'" (127), offers opportunities for "a more creative mode of thinking and being" (128). Contemporary global trends view the child as a competent learner (e.g. the Reggio Emilia approach), they are deemed to be "adventurous, imaginative and spontaneously 'creative'" (Leggett 2017, 846). ...
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This paper draws from a cross-cultural study of young children’s arts curricula. The initial phase of the original study consisted of a comparison of the intended arts curriculum for 5–6 year old children in China and Australia. This was followed by a survey in Beijing exploring 88 contemporary early childhood educators’ beliefs about children’s arts education. A case study of the enacted curriculum took place across three kindergartens in Beijing. The data was coded and analysed using grounded theory methodology. The research presented in this paper reported a diverse understanding of children’s creativity among the participant EC educators; it revealed that a pedagogical dilemma of demonstration remains as a challenge to early childhood arts educators. This study provided qualitative descriptions and examples of Chinese Beijing children’s arts education in this era of globalisation. Utilising Foucault’s (1991. “Governmentality.” In The Foucault Effect: Studies in Governmentality, edited by G. Burchell, C. Gordon, and P. Miller, translated by R. Braidotti, 87–104. London: Harvester Wheatsheaf) theory of governmentality as a critical lens to view the issues in this field, the study broadened perspectives regarding the education philosophy and practices of early childhood arts curriculum, in particular, for the cultivation of young children’s creativity.
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This article explores how the Museum, Art and Wellbeing project brought primary school children and seniors from the same local community together to engage in explorative activities designed to reveal individual and mutual assets for wellbeing. The Museum, Art and Wellbeing project undertook a participatory arts‐based approach to investigate how the assets of a large public institution such as Museums Victoria, Australia could reach out and engage different community groups. The seniors came from a local University of the Third Age (U3A) which offers a wide range of classes but does not usually engage with primary schools. Children at the primary school engage in art learning and separate wellbeing learning but these age‐stage sessions, as designated to incremental year levels, had not previously included direct involvement of seniors in learning activities. For both groups, the connection to Victoria’s state museums is marked by previous occasional one‐off visits. Museum resources have not been considered as ongoing assets for wellbeing that link to the local community in the way that this project does. The university’s role in brokering such connections by deploying often ignored human/institutional assets to support health and strengthen community has been explored in papers by fellow researchers, Justen O’Connor and Laura Alfrey. Our enquiry is extended in this article by focusing on how art education, specifically art‐making, and intergenerational learning can strengthen community and enhance wellbeing across school and community‐based educational contexts and museums.
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This article reports findings from an ethnographic study of the arts curriculum and pedagogy in a British primary school. The policy context for the study is the school's involvement in promoting creative partnerships between teachers and artists. The pedagogies of three different artist‐led projects are analysed, using a Bernsteinian framework, and are characterised in relation to notions of ‘competence’ and ‘performance’ pedagogies. These characterisations are then used to consider the impact of the artists' pedagogies on teachers in the school, and the extent to which the different pedagogies promote inclusion. Broad conclusions are drawn about the relative difficulty of adopting competence pedagogies in the current educational culture of British schools; more specific conclusions are drawn about the importance of time, text, discourse and interpretation in arts pedagogies.
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The Pedagogical Impulse (TPI) was a 3-year research-creation project that initiated a series of artist-residencies across a variety of educational sites in Toronto, Canada. In this chapter we examine the primacy of movement as a proposition of research-creation through a ‘case study’ of one of TPI’s artist-residencies in a secondary school and argue that movement is germane to emerging post-humanist explorations within educational research, and a crucial component for re-imagining research-creation methodologies.
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Creativity: what might this mean for art and art educators in the creative economies of globalisation? The task of this discussion is to look at the state of creativity and its role in education, in particular art education, and to seek some understanding of the register of creativity, how it is shaped, and how legitimated in the globalised world dominated by input-output, means-end, economically driven thinking, expectations and demands. With the help of Heidegger some crucial questions are raised, such as: How can art maintain its creative ontological and epistemological potential in the creative economies of globalisation? Is it possible for art and the creative arts to act as a process of ‘revealing’ and ‘becoming’ and ‘throwing light’ on the world while working within the market economies of innovation and entrepreneurship where creativity has become a generalised discourse? What matters in this discussion is to find a way to argue for the sustainability of art education as a creative mode of enquiry through which self and the world may be better understood, identity might be realised as difference and being-in-time might be possible.
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  • Tpo Compagnia
The pedagogical impulse: aberrant residencies and classroom ecologies
  • S Springgay
Springgay S. (2013) The pedagogical impulse: aberrant residencies and classroom ecologies. Retrieved from The Pedagogical Impulse website: http://thepedagogicalimpulse.com/wpcontent/uploads/2013/12/Springgay-C119-Residencies.pdf
An elite experience for everyone”: art museums, the public, and cultural literacy
  • V L Zolberg
  • VL Zolberg
Zolberg VL (1994) "An elite experience for everyone": art museums, the public, and cultural literacy. In: Sherman DJ, Rogoff I (eds) Museum culture: histories, discourses, spectacles. Minneapolis MN, University of Minnesota Press, p49-65
Stephen Page: of kinship and family The 5th Asia-Pacific triennial of contemporary art
  • T Albert
  • VL Zolberg
Introduction: frameworks for critical analysis
  • D J Sherman
  • I Rogoff
Sherman DJ, Rogoff I (1994) Introduction: frameworks for critical analysis. In: Sherman DJ, Rogoff I (eds) Museum culture: histories, discourses, spectacles. Minneapolis MN, University of Minnesota Press, pix-xx
Stephen Page: of kinship and family
  • T Albert