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ICT and sustainable development in South Asian countries

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This study assesses the relation between the diffusion of information and communications technology (ICT) and the environmentally sustainable development (SusD). The generalized method of moments (GMM) is used for analyzing the dissemination of ICT in South Asian countries, during the 2005 2015 time period. A panel cointegration test examined five variables pertinent to ICT diffusion. Said variables coalesce, providing conclusive information about the relation between the ICT and SusD constructs. The studys empirical results affirm the positive relation between ICT and environmentally sustainable development, with minor disparities among the pertinent variables in the long term. These findings indicate that ICT and SusD are proportional to each other unless other considerations drastically change, such as the environment, culture, human behavior and education. Lastly, in the context of future policy design and research, ICT circumstances can be seen as significantly shifting an entire regions sustainable development and economic growth.
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Human Systems Management 36 (2017) 353–362
DOI 10.3233/HSM-17166
IOS Press
353
ICT and sustainable development
in South Asian countries
Zahid Latifa,, Wen Xina, Danish Khanb, Kahif Iqbala, Zulfiqar Hussain Pathana, Shafaq Salama
and Nasir Janc
aBeijing University of Posts and Telecommunications (BUPT), Hadian District, Beijing, China
bSchool of Management and Economics, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing, China
cSchool of Economics, Beijing Normal University, China
Abstract. This study assesses the relation between the diffusion of information and communications technology (ICT) and
the environmentally sustainable development (SusD). The generalized method of moments (GMM) is used for analyzing the
dissemination of ICT in South Asian countries, during the 2005–2015 time period. A panel cointegration test examined five
variables pertinent to ICT diffusion. Said variables coalesce, providing conclusive information about the relation between
the ICT and SusD constructs. The study’s empirical results affirm the positive relation between ICT and environmentally
sustainable development, with minor disparities among the pertinent variables in the long term. These findings indicate that
ICT and SusD are proportional to each other unless other considerations drastically change, such as the environment, culture,
human behavior and education. Lastly, in the context of future policy design and research, ICT circumstances can be seen as
significantly shifting an entire region’s sustainable development and economic growth.
Keywords: Diffusion, sustainable development, generalized method of moments GMM model, South Asian countries
Zahid Latif is a Ph.D. Candidate
at Beijing University of Posts and
Telecommunications, China. He has
been working in telecommunication
of Pakistan since 2003. He earned his
Master of Philosophy in international
relations from Peshawar University.
He is the author of several publica-
tions in the field of management. His
research interest fields are Informa-
tion and communication technology,
Role of ICT in the development of
rural fields, One Belt, One Road,
Laying of optical fiber along with
China-Pakistan Economic Corridor and ICT diffusion.
Corresponding author: Zahid Latif, School of Economics
and Management, Beijing University of Posts and Telecom-
munications, Beijing, China. Tel.: +86 15624962411; E-mails:
zahid25latif@yahoo.com, zahid25latif@bupt.edu.cn.
Wen Xin is a Ph.D. Candidate at Bei-
jing University of Posts and Telecom-
munications, China. She earned her
master degree is the field of innocaion
management. Her research intrests
are open innovation based on users
resources, and shared Economy.
Danish Khan is a Ph.D. Candidate
at Beijing Institute of Technology,
China. He accomplished his post-
graduation in the field of Economics
& Management Science. His research
interests are Renewable and Non-
renewable energy, Co2 emmission,
and Information System.
0167-2533/17/$35.00 © 2017 – IOS Press and the authors. All rights reserved
354 Z. Latif et al. / ICT and sustainable development in South Asian countries
Kashif Iqbal is a Ph.D. Candi-
date at the School of Economics
and Management, Beijing University
of Posts and Telecommunications,
Beijing, China. He achieved his
post-graduation in the field of Eco-
nomics & Innovation Management.
His research interests are WorldEcon-
omy and Information System.
Zulfiqar Hussain Pathan is a
Ph.D. Candidate at Beijing University
of Posts and Telecommunications,
China. He has been affiliated to
Mehran University of Engineering
& Technology, (MUET) Jamshoro,
Pakistan. He completed his post-
graduation in the field of Technology
& Innovation Management and grad-
uation in Computer Science. His
research interests are Information
System, Innovative & Technological
practices in Entrepreneurship.
Shafaq Salam is a Ph.D. Candi-
date at the School of Economics and
Management, Beijing University of
Posts and Telecommunications, Bei-
jing, China. She worked at Beacon
house School System, Peshawar, Pak-
istan as an education expert. Her areas
of interests are education develop-
ment and advanced technologies in
education system.
Nasir Jan is a Master student at
Beijing Normal University, China.
He achieved his graduation in Eco-
nomics and Management Science.
His research interests are Infor-
mation Systems, Econometrics and
Entrepreneurship. He is currently a
Ph.D. Candidate in school of Eco-
nomics and Management, at the
University of Science & Technology,
Beijing, China.
1. Introduction
In the 20th century, human beings have seen
unprecedented developments in information and
communications technology (ICT). During the last
decade of the 20th century, advances in ICT
were coupled with rapid economic growth and
self-development. Recently, the ICT sector has
been adopting «appropriate technology» [1] or
«sequestered techniques» [2], along with presum-
ably cutting-edge applications toward a transnational
economy. These applications initiate new technologi-
cal advancement, economic restructuring, innovative
behavior, and increase the productivity performances
in all sectors of the economy [3]. The main fea-
tures derived from ICT applications are the popularity
of ICT in all sectors of an economy, rapid techno-
logical improvement, and active innovation-enabler.
Basically, ICT removes the trade and economic
barriers among countries and provide a close link-
age between customers, suppliers, their partners and
different firms [4]. Moreover, ICT creates new oppor-
tunities for technological knowledge, resultantly, it
accelerates the diffusion process of information trans-
formation, both globally and domestically [5].
The Sustainable development was first introduced
by Brundtland Commission in 1987, later on, the
idea has been modified by the triple-bottom-line
(TBL) approach [6]. This commission categorized
sustainable development into three parts: social, envi-
ronmental and economic, which later became the
purposes of SusD. World Commission on Environ-
ment and Development (WCED) defines SusD as
follows: Sustainable development will occur if it
meet the needs of the present without compromis-
ing the ability of future generations to meet their own
needs [7]. The sustainable development notion is sup-
posed to meet humanity’s self-development needs,
while concurrently sustaining the natural environ-
ment’s capability to provide the natural ecosystems
and resources, upon which the human economies and
societies depend. Yet the term sustainable develop-
ment is often used out of context, in order to propagate
the sustainability of the bureaucratically-hierarchized
authority and power artifice, imposed on business
enterprises and other societal organizations, local,
regional and national governments included, of the
totalitarian r´
egime’s «absolute Despotism» [8].
In the last few decades, ICT has changed the liv-
ing standard of people and societies around the globe
now are more connected to each other ever before [9].
Access to digital media like cell phones, the internet,
and social media has recently significant influence not
only the social aspects of everyday life but also it is an
effective tool for sustainable development [10]. Inter-
national Telecommunications Union (ITU) reported
that “ICT can be a suitable tool for the sustainable
development if ICT diffusion is clearly linked with its
potential sustainable development of a country [11].
Z. Latif et al. / ICT and sustainable development in South Asian countries 355
Fig. 1. ICT and Sustainable development possible relation.
In this research study, we present possible relation
between ICT diffusion and sustainable development
in South Asian countries.
The paper has the following sections: Literature
review is given in Section 2. The next section gives
the contribution of the study. The empirical model
is given in Section 4. The econometric results are
conferred in Section 5. The final section gives con-
clusions on the basis of our analysis. Figure 1
shows a direct relation between ICT and sustainable
development.
Figure 1 illustrates the possible direct and indirect
links between ICT and sustainable development.
2. Literature review
In a first step, we judge the link between ICT and
economic growth from literature (It is a sub-variable
of SusD). During the last two decades, differ-
ent studies have been carried out on the nexus
of ICT diffusion and economic growth. In which
number of empirical studiesconfirmed the posi-
tive effect of ICT on economic growth taking the
examples of different countries of the world in
a panel data [12]. On the other hand, there are
some studies that have ambiguous and uncertain
effects of ICT diffusion on economic growth [13].
Some studies presented negative effect of ICT with
respect to employment and labor market, these stud-
ies elaborated that the poor people have no such
resources to adopt the modern information technol-
ogy, so resultantly, poverty and income inequalities
occurred.
The studies conducted on the relation between
ICT diffusion and FDI can be seen in the work
of [14]. These studies elaborate that the higher
level of ICT investment guide towards increased
356 Z. Latif et al. / ICT and sustainable development in South Asian countries
Table 1
South Asian countries with ICT Development Index (IDI) index
Country Regional IDI ranking of Global IDI rank in 2016 IDI rank value 2016
South Asia in 2016
Afghanistan 8 164 1.73
Bangladesh 6 145 2.35
Bhutan 3 117 3.74
India 4 138 2.69
Maldives 1 86 5.04
Nepal 5 142 2.50
Pakistan 7 146 2.35
Sri Lanka 2 116 3.77
The Republic of Korea 1 8.84
Source: ITU (2016).
flow of foreign investment. Few latest studies also
give a positive relation between ICT diffusion and
FDI [15].
The term education means the basic education
because our target countries are the developing and
underdeveloped countries, so in most of the countries,
the education level is lower. The available literature
on the relation between ICT and education can be
found in the research studies of [16, 17]. Besides
these, some research studies are conducted on the
indirect effect of ICT on education. The follow-
ing studies summarize the indirect relation between
of ICT with education [18], these studies find out
the response of teachers in the adoption of ICT
technologies.
In this perspective studies of [19] show a posi-
tive relation between ICT diffusion and employment,
these studies established the hypothesis that leads to
unemployment reduction.
This study contributes to the existing ICT-SusD
literature. It is a systematic research on identifying
the nexus between ICT and sustainable develop-
ment in South Asian countries. There is an index
which measures the ICT development and diffu-
sion universally which is called as ICT development
Index (IDI). The IDI ranking of South Asian
countries is given in Table 1. During the year
2016, the Maldives become on the top in regional
IDI ranking, while Afghanistan ranked the lowest
(see Table 1).
3. Relevance of the study
The selection of South Asian countries is based
on the fact that these countries have almost similar
culture, economic, social and geopolitical conditions,
they are sharing common boundaries via land and
water, and most of them remained the colony of
British Empire during the 19th and 20th century.
Looking into these factors, we can easily acquire
the desired data for these countries. The South Asian
region is densely populated having 1/3rd of the world
population, thus possessing a fertile land for ICT
dissemination and excel. India, Pakistan, Sri Lank
and Bangladesh have privatized their ICT sectors
in order to attract foreign investment and ensure
economic growth. In this respect, India, Pakistan,
Bangladesh and Sri Lanka are the most favorite
investment hubs for multinational ICT companies.
India has IT or Silicon city (Bangalore) and recently,
the government decided to develop 100 cities includ-
ing Mumbai, Gujarat, Chennai, Jaipur and New Delhi
into smart cities to create opportunities for people
and improving their living standards, as well as to
strength enstate’s ‘s economy [20]. Similarly, Pak-
istan, Sri Lanka and Bangladesh are also striving
for ICT development on modern lines and trying
to convert their cities into smart cities. These ini-
tiatives lead towards the growth and sustainable
development of these countries through information
technology [21].
In the first step, we examine the nexus between
ICT diffusion and SusD. Here we consider all
the variables of ICT and investigate the possible
link between the variables. In the second step, we
use a sample of 8 South Asian countries over a
span of time. In the third step, we apply econo-
metrics technique and critical-empiricalapproach in
order to define the nexus between the two vari-
ables ICT diffusion and SusD both in short and long
run.
Z. Latif et al. / ICT and sustainable development in South Asian countries 357
4. Theoretical framework
4.1. Variable description
ICT sector got unprecedented fast growth during
the last couple of decades among the other ser-
vice sectors of the economy in both developing and
developed countries. It turned the sector a favorite
topic among the scholars and researchers both from
academia and industry [22]. The rapid innovations in
ICT sector day by day made it a useful tool for mea-
suring the development of a country economy and
investment. Recent day innovations in the shape of
big data, cloud computing and the internet of things
are the obvious examples of the ICT sector popularity
and effectiveness.
The framework consists of a multiple indexes of
ICT consists of five sub-variables: landline telephone,
mobile phones, Internet users, Internet services, and
fixed broadband; and a complex index of SusD, con-
sists of percentage change in real per capita gross
domestic product (PGDP), Foreign Direct Investment
(FDI), Education (EDU), and Employment (EMP).
Annual data for analysis were taken from World
Development Indicators (WDI) from 2006 to 2015
for 8 South Asian countries.
In order to obtain the two indexes, we use Principal
Component Analysis (PCA) in our study. We mea-
sure sustainable development as a proxy of per capita
GDP, FDI per capita, employment and education.
The description of underlying variables is reported
in Table 2.
The Descriptive statistics of all the variables are
shown in Table 3, which consist of mean, median,
maximum, minimum, standard deviation, skewness,
kurtosis, and JarqueBera. The probability value
Table 2
Description of variables used for our composite index of ICT
Variable Representation Description Data Sources
Composite index of information and
communications technology (ICT)
ICT It consists of five indicators: a
landline telephone, mobile phones,
internet services, internet users,
fixed broadband.
International Telecommunications
Union, ITU
Landline telephone LLTE Landline telephone connections per
hundredpopulation.
World Bank Indicators, World Bank
Mobile/Cell phone MOBP Mobile phone customer per
hundredpopulation.
World Bank Indicators, World Bank;
International Telecommunications
Union, ITU
Internet users INTU Internet users per hundredpopulation. World Bank Indicators, World Bank
Internet secure servers INSS Secure internet servers providers per
million population.
World Bank Indicators, World Bank
Fixed Broadband FIXB Fixed broadband per hundred
population.
World Bank Indicators, World Bank;
International Telecommunications
Union, ITU
Composite index of Sustainable
development and growth
SusD It consists of four sub-variables: Per
capita economic growth, foreign
direct investment, government
expenditure, poverty.
World Bank Indicators, World Bank
Per capita economic growth PGDP Percentage change in the real per
capita gross domestic product, it is
used as anindicator of economic
growth.
World Bank Indicators, World Bank
Foreign direct investment FDI FDI status in the host country (in
million US dollars).
World Bank Indicators, World Bank
Education EDU Basic education including computer
knowledge.
World Governance Indicators, World
Bank
Employment EMP Creating opportunities for people to
fulfill their basic requirements.
World Governance Indicators, World
Bank
358 Z. Latif et al. / ICT and sustainable development in South Asian countries
Table 3
Analysis of descriptive statistics
Mean Median Maximum Minimum Std. Dev. Skewness Kurtosis JarqueBera Prob.
Sus. Dev 41.973 33.900 156.7500 25.67000 28.28553 3.060220 11.28216 198.8511 0.0000
FIXB 0.92117 0.45595 4.893848 0.003609 1.214378 1.891371 6.101878 44.87023 0.0000
INSS 4.18198 1.28528 31.51862 0.040930 7.185758 2.671775 9.337191 128.8378 0.0000
INTU 9.36759 7.50000 30.30000 1.141389 6.639825 1.17559 4.187394 13.00866 0.0014
LLTE 3.27893 3.06128 14.95174 0.018514 2.893555 2.296427 8.864754 104.0431 0.0000
MOBP 56.0861 55.1925 143.2053 4.513927 28.71055 0.879443 4.52855 10.18153 0.0061
Fig. 2. Proposed model for the study.
indicates that all the variables lead towards normality,
so we can pursue regression model for this study.
4.2. Theoretical framework
We have two main variables in our studies, one is
multiple indexes of ICT, the second one is a composite
index of SusD (see Fig. 2).
The study’s purposefulness is, by using panel data,
to delineate the relation between ICT diffusion and
sustainable development in South Asia’s economies.
We use the following econometric equation:
SDit =δit +αit +β1iFIXBit +β2INSSit
+β3INTUit +β4LLTEit +β5MOBPit +μit (1)
Where it and δit are fixed effects for each coun-
try in the panel. Now, to examine how these two
parameters are joined in a long-run, also we have to
check the short-run fluctuations. Several econometric
techniques have been suggested in the literature. In
this study, we used generalized method of moments
(GMM) to analyze the relation between the ICT and
sustainable development. The generalized method of
moments is commonly used for panel data estima-
Z. Latif et al. / ICT and sustainable development in South Asian countries 359
Table 4
Panel unit root test
At Level At First Difference Order of Integration
Variables LLC ADF PP LLC ADF PP
Sus. Dev –1.6649 23.38 33.136 –6.2917a31.280a54.355aI (1)
[0.0480] [0.0544] [0.0028] [0.0000] [0.0018] [0.0000]
FIXB –1.0306 7.6089 7.6058 –3.9477a20.779c22.485bI (1)
[0.1514] [0.9087] [0.9088] [0.0000] [0.0537] [0.0324]
INSS 4.5060 0.7373 0.1973 –7.5342a35.240a31.964aI (1)
[1.0000] [1.0000] [1.0000] [0.0000] [0.0014] [0.0041]
INTU 6.9511 0.2113 0.0643 –1.3839c21.170c27.705bI (1)
[1.0000] [1.0000] [1.0000] [0.0832] [0.0973] [0.0156]
LLTE –0.2614 11.402 13.407 –8.965a33.988a29.397aI (1)
[0.3969] [0.6541] [0.4947] [0.0000] [0.0021] [0.0092]
MOBP –3.538 21.684 39.576 –4.6422a23.505c22.395cI (1)
[0.0002] [0.0583] [0.0003] [0.0000] [0.0525] [0.0708]
Note: a, b and c shows the level of significance at 1%, 5%, and 10% respectively.
tion and to find the relation among certain variables.
GMM estimation technique is used to deal with
the problem of endogeneity for set of instrumen-
tal variables. This technique provides efficient and
consistent estimate in the presence of arbitrary het-
eroscedasticity. Diagnostic tests can be cast in GMM
model. To test over identifying limitations we used
Hansen’s test to offer evidence for instrumental valid-
ity. For this study we cannot reject the null hypothesis
that the instruments are appropriate [23].
5. Results and discussions
Before measuring the panel data analysis, it is
essential to find out the stationary variables to avoid
spurious regression. For identification of these prop-
erties, we have number of tests available in literature,
but in our study we use three panel route tests, i.e.
Levine-Lin-Chu; LLC and Fisher-types; AF and PP
tests, used before [24]. The tests are often used for
economic analysis in order to carry out the panel
data measurement. The results reported in Table 4
indicates that all variables are integrated of order one
[1(1)], so we can pursue GMM model for underlying
variables of the study.
After confirmation of cointegration next we move
to find the impact of ICT on sustainable development.
The results of Table 5 indicated that FIXB does not
affect the sustainable development of the South Asian
economies.
In this context, previous studies present similar
results, indicating that FIXB might not contribute
Table 5
Results of panel GMM model
Dependent Variable: Sustainable Development
Variable Coefficient Std. Error t-Statistic Prob.
FIXB 5.874733 4.398938 1.335489 0.1895
INSS 1.903122 0.440699 4.318419 0.0001a
INTU –1.900317 0.476133 –3.991146 0.0003a
LLTE 4.023222 0.790733 5.087967 0.0000a
MOBP 0.211489 0.083773 2.524539 0.0158b
Constant 21.52328 3.881570 5.544993 0.0000a
Note: a, b and c shows the level of significance at 1%, 5%, and
10% respectively.
effectively to the achievement of sustainable devel-
opment [25]. Both these studies analyzed that there
are some factors which decreased the effect of fixed
broadband role in achieving the development. Both
studies highlighted the political, social and economic
factors that can affect the SusD. In our study, most
of the South Asian countries have low purchasing
power so they cannot pay for the monthly charges of
FIXB; also these countries have weak political and
economic institutions and poor law and order situa-
tion that affect the relation of FIXB and SusD. Similar
results can be found in the study of [26], which indi-
cates the socio-technical problems in case of Korea’s
broadband sector. It summarizes that due to the con-
ventional way of FIXB, this sector has a minimum
effect towards the development of Korea. Moreover,
we have few studies that show the negative impact
of FIXB but have a positive effect on wireless access
360 Z. Latif et al. / ICT and sustainable development in South Asian countries
network (WLAN) on sustainable development [27].
Furthermore, studies of [28] investigated a positive
impact of broadband towards sustainable develop-
ment in Canadian rural areas. Moving towards INSS,
it has a positive and significant effect on sustainable
development, this means that with the increase in
INSS there will be an increase in sustainable devel-
opment. The internet servers or internet providers
play an important role in the penetration of inter-
net users, both in developed and developing countries
the internet service providers are the tools having the
specific bandwidth to provide services to the people
in urban and rural areas. Consequently, reshaped the
ICT and create many opportunities in for the peo-
ple. The similar studies carried out on INSS and
development were presented by [29]. These stud-
ies present almost similar findings over the relation
of INSS and SusD. INTU has a negative significant
impact on sustainable development in South Asia.
Within increase INTU the sustainable development
will start a decline. The similar results are found in
previous studies [30]. These two studies present the
decline of internet users and point out the two main
aspects, one is the satisfaction of users and the second
one is a lack of technology education. Some schol-
ars consider the internet as “double-edge-sword”, and
it depends on the users, how they use the internet
[31]. Moreover, the internet users used the internet
for different crimes that decrease the development
ratio [32]. Due to political weak institutions, there is
no affective department for the screening of cyber
related crimes. In this regard, during the past few
years, the internet and mobile network were exten-
sively used in Pakistan, Afghanistan, and India for
terrorism. Few studies analyzed a negative effect of
internet users on development due to security and
interruption issues [33]. Turn onto LLTE, it has a
positively significant impact on sustainable develop-
ment. The LLTE is a basic and core tool of modern
ICT. Before the start of the 21st century, the ICT sec-
tor mainly consisted on LLTE, and it was the only
voice medium of transmission for most of the people
in developed and developing countries. Most of the
South Asian countries including Pakistan, India, Sri
Lanka and Bangladesh liberalized their telecom sec-
tors during the last decade of the 20th century. With
these arrangements, the respective countries received
the bulk of investments by providing the voice trans-
mission facilities all over the region. LLTE consists
of a landline phone, long distance interface (LDI),
calling cards etc. Before the advancement of informa-
tion technology, LLTE affected the living standards,
norms of the people very much. In this regard, pre-
vious studies indicate a positive relation between
the landline telephone subscription and SusD [34].
Similarly, MOBP has a significant positive impact
on sustainable development. The first decade of the
21st century with no doubt was the decade of mobile
phones advancements, particularly in the South Asian
region. Due to the deregulation policies, the mobile
phone users increase very rapidly, resultantly, these
countries develop the ICT infrastructure and received
huge investment in the respective sector which creates
employment opportunities and strengthen the econ-
omy by receiving foreign direct investment. The One
Belt, One Road project is an example of improving of
ICT infrastructure for whole Asian region that con-
tribute in strengthening the technology among the
member countries [35]. The previous studies support
the results of our studies [36–38].
6. Conclusions
This study assessed the relation between ICT and
sustainable development in South Asian countries,
over the 2005–2015 time period. In order to unveil
said relation, we modeled sustainable development
as a function of FIXB, INSS, INTU, LLTE and
MOBP, and applied the GMM model. In the present
study, we are able to conclude that all samples of
ICT variables in South Asian countries are signifi-
cant and strengthening the sustainable development.
Few minor differences among the variables have been
observed in the long-run analysis, which is due to dif-
ferences in environment, culture, human behavior and
education across South Asian countries. The findings
of the study indicate that ICT and SusD are directly
proportional to each other unless and until other fac-
tors such as environment, culture, human behavior
and education remain constant.
Countries including Pakistan, Afghanistan, India
and Sri Lanka have been badly suffered due to the
poor law and order situation and terrorism, particu-
larly, Pakistan and Afghanistan undergone the worst
chaos conditions. Also, the South Asian countries
share the common problems of weak policy insti-
tutions and corruption, which affect all the service
sectors in these countries. ICT sector, like the very
few other service sectors, has the ability to attract the
foreign investment in huge amount. As more foreign
investment provide basis for raising the living stan-
dards of the people of the region, the development in
ICT sector can be believed as to be the game changer
Z. Latif et al. / ICT and sustainable development in South Asian countries 361
for the entire region sustainable economic growth.
The empirical analysis suggests that there is a close
linkage between ICT diffusion and sustainable devel-
opment, with reinforcing each other (see Fig. 1). ICT
has sophisticated and user friendly applications that
in turn wider the population segment and resulting in
higher economic growth in the South Asian countries.
Lastly, the following points are suggested for pol-
icy makers in the South Asian region:
1. Compile ICT policies for up-to-date ICT appli-
cations, producing trained ICT skilled labors
and promoting e-culture in the region,
2. Improve the quality of infrastructure and
connectivity, while China Pakistan Economic
Corridor (CPEC) will become a game changer
for Pakistan in terms of digital technology [39].
3. Reduce the cost of different ICT equipment and
applications.
In summary, the global economic scenario is
undergoing speedy transformation powered by new
innovations in ICT sector. Increase in ICT platforms
is having a deep impact on long-term economic
growth. So for this purpose, development strategies
should be formulated to increase ICT penetration
rates which further ensure the sustainable economic
growth.
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... Following the principles of representativeness, comparability, hierarchy, and operability and referring not only to the relevant literature (Chan and Lee 2019a;Latif et al. 2017aLatif et al. , 2018Latif et al. , 2017bLatif et al. , 2017cLiu et al. 2020;Sun et al. 2018;Wang et al. 2018Wang et al. , 2019b but also to the overall consideration of common international indicators and China's actual situation (see Table 1 for the specific sources), combined with expert opinions, an innovation-driven development and green development evaluation system for the Yangtze River Economic Belt was established. The green development index provides a comprehensive evaluation at the three levels of green production, green life, and green ecology. ...
... We consider the difference in the weights between the innovation-driven development and green development evaluation indexes and the comparative advantage of the model (Latif et al. 2017a(Latif et al. , 2018(Latif et al. , 2017b(Latif et al. , 2017c. Delphi, AHP, and TOPSIS are usually used as comprehensive evaluation methods. ...
... The Delphi method overemphasizes the subjective opinions of experts, and it is difficult to determine the differences between the evaluation indicators (Chan and Lee 2019b;Perveen et al. 2017). The AHP method is used to calculate the weight, but the construction of a judgement matrix of evaluation indicators is not easy (Latif et al. 2017a(Latif et al. , 2018(Latif et al. , 2017b(Latif et al. , 2017cYang and Huang 2019;Freeman et al 2015;Wang et al 2018;Kim et al. 2021;Maceika et al. 2021). The TOP-SIS method effectively solves these two problems. ...
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Both innovation-driven development and green development are important ways to achieve regional sustainable development. This study considers the innovation-driven development and green development evaluation systems of 130 cities in the Yangtze River Economic Belt. The entropy TOPSIS method is used to measure the innovation-driven development index and the green development index of 130 cities in the Yangtze River Economic Belt. Then, a coupling coordination evaluation model and a spatiotemporal heterogeneity analysis model are constructed to discuss the coupling coordination index of regional innovation-driven development and green development in the Yangtze River Economic Belt and to determine its temporal and spatial distribution characteristics. Finally, we choose a spatial panel regression model to explore the relationship between the innovation-driven development index and the green development index of the Yangtze River Economic Belt. The research results show that there is a significant difference between the innovation-driven development index and the green development index of the 130 cities in the Yangtze River Economic Belt in terms of the temporal and spatial distribution. The level of innovation-driven development lags behind the level of green development on the whole, and the two fail to form a good spatial matching degree. The coordination index of the two has an imbalanced distribution feature, and there is a significant direct or indirect relationship between the two structural indicators in a mathematical sense. This study improves the academic community’s understanding of the interaction between innovation-driven development and green development, provides scientifically based support for green development, and offers guidance for the implementation of innovation capabilities.
... However, many economies continue to confront obstacles or view the corresponding objectives with despair, particularly when their development efforts do not adhere to the desired/ targeted time frames. Postponement of incremental milestones leading to the fulfillment of SDGs can be attributed to several factors, including the lack of a mechanism for disseminating information, which would help minimize ignorance of the procedures and methods required to achieve these goals (Latif et al. 2017). Advancements in information and communication technology (ICT) have made available a plethora of options for disseminating information (e.g., via the Internet, mobile phones, fixed landlines, and other technological channels). ...
... While Bangladesh has 39.9 points and Pakistan has 23.6 points in terms of global competitiveness when it comes to ICT adoption, Nepal is at the top of the list at 40.4 on this index. The SAARC region has been identified in recent research as the area having the greatest potential for ICT investment in the current environment (Latif et al. 2017). However, we must acknowledge that ICT adoption is not always easy, especially in developing countries, given the socio-cultural, infrastructural, economic, and technological barriers. ...
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... It encompasses a diverse array of choices which includes healthy life, improved standard of living, and increased per capita income (Yakunina & Bychkov, 2015). In recent years, ICTs have spread to practically all aspects of human activity (Latif et al., 2017). Additionally, ICTs boosts both the productivity and economic growth, as well as human development and welfare, in both developing and developed countries (Farooqi et al., 2020). ...
... As per the global competitiveness index with respect to ICT adoption, Nepal leads the area with 40.4 points, followed by Bangladesh with 39.9 points, Sri Lanka with 32.9 points, India with 28 points, and Pakistan with 23.6 points (Pradhan et al., 2018). Contemporary research endorses SAARC as the region with sufficient opportunity for an investments in ICT domains in the current environment (Latif et al., 2017). ...
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Modern-day economic growth is focused on productivity and innovation, which puts information and technology integral to economic policy issues. In this context, ICT has a significant position as it increases efficiency, promotes information dissemination, and enhances innovation, resulting in a global shift in social and human development processes. The purpose of this research is to examine the significance of ICT diffusion in fostering human development in the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) countries from 2005 to 2019. ICT diffusion is measured using a principal component analysis (PCA)- based composite index that combines telephone, mobile, broadband, and internet usage. The United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) created Human Development Index (HDI) serves as a proxy for human development. To adjust for any confounding bias, macroeconomic indicators, such as gross domestic product (GDP), inflation, and trade are also included. Utilizing econometric methods robust to cross-sectional dependence (CSD) such as the dynamic common correlated effect (DCCE) estimator, Driscoll-Kraay (DK) regression, and the Dumitrescu-Hurlin (DH) causality test, the study highlights the strong positive relationship between ICT and HDI. In addition, GDP boosts HDI owing to productivity gains. Similarly, trade expansion, in addition to its direct effects, also influences HDI by boosting economic growth. Inflation, on the other hand, has a negative impact on the HDI. Consequently, the study recommends a cohesive setting that unifies ICT with human development in this modern framework.
... ICT contributes to environmental sustainability as well as its enhancing economic growth by facilitating economic and business activities. ICT is used in financial sectors where the use of the internet facilitates investment activities where these activities accelerate the production effectiveness, which enhances economic growth (Latif et al. 2017;Nasreen, Anwar, and Ozturk 2017). Financial sectors can facilitate firms by adopting modern technology in the energy sector, which in turn minimizes the level of carbon emission. ...
... Financial sectors can facilitate firms by adopting modern technology in the energy sector, which in turn minimizes the level of carbon emission. The use of advance ICTs in the financial sector can reduce emissions and enhance environmental quality and investment in ICTs for financial sectors that enhance environmental quality (Latif et al. 2017). There is continuous improvement in the adoption of ICT and focusing on the digitalization of every sector. ...
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The increasing use of information and communication technology (ICT) in this digital era and its interlinkage with other economic and environmental factors have gotten considerable attention from researchers. ICT tools are considered very important in economic activities such as international trade, the financial sector, and foreign direct investment. ICT is also interlinked with innovation and energy consumption. However, ICT with these activities influences ecological footprint, especially in emerging economies such as BRICS (Brazil, Russia, India, China, and South Africa) countries. Therefore, this topic has got considerable attention from researchers and policy makers on the impact of ICT and economic growth activities on environmental quality. Consequently, this study investigates the impact of information and communication technology, renewable energy consumption and innovation on carbon dioxide emission in BRICS countries from 1990 to 2019 using cointegration, generalized least square, and panel corrected standard errors models. The findings show that two ICT indicators, mobile cellular subscription and fixed broadband subscription, negatively affect carbon emission along with economic growth and financial development. Innovation and renewable energy consumption also significantly reduce emission in presence of ICT indicators, while trade openness and fixed telephone subscriptions increase it. In the case of the ICT index model, all variables are positively associated with carbon emission except renewable energy consumption, however, the square and interaction term of all indicators significantly reduce carbon emission and evidence the environmental Kuznets curve hypothesis except trade openness. ICT growth should be considered in the energy sector, innovation, and financial development to enhance environmental quality. The findings of the study have considerable policy implications for the sample countries.
... The twostage least squares (2SLS) and generalized method of moments (GMM) are designed to solve endogenous problems caused by omitted variables and reverse causality effects (45,46). Some scholars suggested a reverse causal relationship between ICT and economic growth (44), and thus 2SLS and GMM techniques have been generally applied to assess the relationship between ICT and economic development (47,48). ...
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... Кроме этого, взаимодействие между разными цифровыми инновациями усложняется конкуренцией и особенностями государственного регулирования . Что касается имеющихся попыток построения интегральных индексов (Latif et al., 2017;Saba, David, 2020;, объединяющих ПРОСТРАНСТВЕННАЯ ДИФФУЗИЯ ЦИФРОВЫХ ИННОВАЦИЙ... ...
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The aim of the study was to generalize the world experience of studying the spatial diffusion of digital innovations in order to determine trends in changing priorities, existing problems and possible prospects for empirical research. With the help of the author’s semantic search algorithm, approximately eighty journal articles published in the last twenty years were found in eight bibliographic databases. The use of a moving average and biproportional indices for quantitative analysis of the array of articles revealed four upward trends: an increase in the average annual number of publications on the subject under consideration, increased attention to the deployment of broadband communications, the impact of spatial diffusion on economic growth and the use of regions as territorial units for studying diffusion processes. An informal analysis of the articles led to the identification of five key problems of modern research: a significant discrepancy between the year of publication and the last year of the process under study, analysis of a limited number of digital innovations, lack of a comprehensive understanding of the joint spatial diffusion of several innovations, the dominance of the idea of the homogeneity for the initial territorial units and the unexplored system of factors contributing to or hindering the spread of digital innovations. Comparing the existing experience of studying the spatial diffusion of digital innovations with similar studies of other types of innovations allowed identifying five promising areas for further research: the use of big data; expanding the set of models used with the subsequent creation of a system of methods; the study of hierarchical, network and other methods of spatial diffusion; the definition of spatial innovation waves with an explanation of the reasons for the formation of territorial barriers and filters; creation of a theory of the spatiotemporal spread of digital innovations based on the generalization of empirical research. The necessity of determining the scope of application of the results obtained in diffusion studies outside of regional economic policy is noted
... This plan's energy crises and achieve economic development. The China-Pakistan Economic Corridor is a step in coordinating coal, hydropower, and renewable resource energy-related initiatives through local energy economic development [27]. In 1965, the renewable energy consumption rate was about 41 Terawatt-hours and 561 Terawatt-hours at the beginning of the 2000s. ...
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Globally, as the environment deteriorates, use of renewable energy is increasing. The discrepancy between inequalities, sustainable sources, and natural resources, on the other hand, is enormous. As a consequence, the current research simulated the link between income inequality, renewable energy, and carbon emissions from 1990 to 2018. The long run and short run interaction were estimated using an autoregressive distribution lag (ARDL) model. According to the study’s findings, improvements in sustainable power, as well as income inequality, are producing a rise in environmental quality. Natural resources seem to have a significantly positive influence on the environment’s quality. Furthermore, the study found that financial development and environmental quality have a bidirectional causal link. According to the conclusions of this study, government authorities should support the use of renewable energy, i.e., sources to optimize carbon release.
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The aim of this study is to examine the effect of shocks to patent intensity and its empirical and practical policy implications for the South African economy. This stems from the gap in the literature on policy simulation exercises related to the boost in Information and Communications Technology (ICT) and patent intensity in African countries. Hence, this study established the dynamic relationship between patent intensity and economic growth in South Africa for the period of 1980–2020, alongside essential macroeconomic variables such as government expenditure, gross fixed capital formation, labour force, and trade. We use the Autoregressive distributed lag model (ARDL) to capture short-run and long-run relationships, novel dynamic ARDL and Kernel-based Regularized Least Squares (KRLS) to capture the counterfactual shocks in the economic growth. The ARDL result revealed that government expenditure, labour force, and trade openness significantly foster economic growth in the long-run and short-run. Also, while patent intensity and gross fixed capital formation increase the economy in the long-run and short-run, their interaction term significantly diminishes the growth. Further in the analysis is the dynamic ARDL simulation and KRLS, which predicted the counterfactual shocks of economic growth based on a + 26 % change in patent intensity. The result showed that the increasing volume of patent intensity first has a low effect on South Africa economic growth, but later rebound upwardly, thus indicating that change in patent intensity has a long-lasting impact on sustainable economic growth. The direction that is useful for policy is also highlighted and discussed.
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Stakeholders face an ongoing challenge of assessing impacts of large-scale interventions, such as rural broadband infrastructure, which involve both social and technological change. In order to determine immediate benefits, intermediate outcomes and long-term societal impacts of broadband Internet, this paper integrates latest approaches to assess social and technological change, which are known respectively as ‘reflexive learning’ and ‘reflexive governance’. This paper contextualises the integrated framework using case studies of broadband access and use among small businesses and community organisations from the first release areas of the heavily invested high-speed broadband network known as EORN (Eastern Ontario Regional Network) in Canada. EORN represents a major public-private partnership for rural telecommunications which began in 2009 and ended its first phase in 2014. Findings revealed location and sector specific benefits of broadband that rural small businesses and community organisations have realised from increased access to (including availability and affordability) as well as reliability of Internet connections. Also evident were early signs of transitions to more resilient and sustainable rural communities. Partly because of a new initiative, research evidence, however, was not sufficiently robust to determine system-level impacts or structural changes, such as closing rural-urban price gaps and reducing the price of rural broadband services.
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