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Introduction. Transitions are a necessary and important facet of life. Unexpected transitions however can cause health concerns and even create great instability to individuals, families, and organizations. Changing Steps is a reflective journey in how to manage an unexpected transition resulting from an unwanted retirement. Method. The combination of reflection, reflexivity, and managing oneself best describes a qualitative narrative research method. Reflection and reflexivity are normally not categorized as research methods, but reflective reflexive practice may be the first principle in changing steps. Managing Oneself and developing a plan for the second half of one’s 50 years work life is the second principle and best technique to progress through planned and unplanned transitions. Results. The results of any journey are unknown until traveling is concluded. For this qualitative narrative study, although the journey is nearly completed, it is also far from over. Through recognizing the need to change mental models from developed to transitional to transformational, whichever of the six steps provides closure for the traveler is where the journey ends. Discussion. Though transcending a six steps journey, Changing Steps is a two-premised process of stepping through changing mental models and Images of Leadership. Changing Steps is the means to change mental models in an effort to transition Images of Leadership from Military to Corporate to finally, an Inspired Image of Leadership.
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Changing Steps: A reflexive journey in
Burl Wesley Randolph Jr*
Introduction. Transitions are a necessary and important facet of life. Unexpected transitions however can cause health
concerns and even create great instability to individuals, families, and organizations. Changing Steps is a reflective
journey in how to manage an unexpected transition resulting from an unwanted retirement.
Method. The combination of reflection, reflexivity, and managing oneself best describes a qualitative narrative
research method. Reflection and reflexivity are normally not categorized as research methods, but reflective reflexive
practice may be the first principle in changing steps. Managing Oneself and developing a plan for the second half of
one’s 50 years work life is the second principle and best technique to progress through planned and unplanned
Results. The results of any journey are unknown until traveling is concluded. For this qualitative narrative study,
although the journey is nearly completed, it is also far from over. Through recognizing the need to change mental
models from developed to transitional to transformational, whichever of the six steps provides closure for the traveler is
where the journey ends.
Discussion. Though transcending a six steps journey, Changing Steps is a two-premised process of stepping through
changing mental models and Images of Leadership. Changing Steps is the means to change mental models in an effort
to transition Images of Leadership from Military to Corporate to finally, an Inspired Image of Leadership.
Keywords: Change, leadership, retirement, transition
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Changing Steps: A reflexive journey in
Health is an issue of paramount importance in US society. The spiraling youth obesity rate and
chronic illnesses in young adults (CDC, 2013, & Mission: Readiness, 2010), and the new
longevity of the senior population, all grace newspaper headlines and may have been the partial
impetus for the Affordable Health Care Act. Another possible health issue, transition, is an event
that occurs daily. Transitions may contribute to psychological medical maladies such as loss of
self-esteem, anxiety disorder, and high achiever disorder (Jarrett, 2005), but those manifestations
seldom receive open press reporting. Webster quoted Longfellow, who penned “There is no
death, what seems so is transition (Gonzales-Osler, 1989, p. 29). Because good health is
considered a premium factor for a quality life (Lowis, Edwards, & Burton, 2009) a stressful life
experience such as an unanticipated and unwanted transition (retirement) may take a toll on
one’s health.
Research abounds on the profound impact of transitions, albeit anticipated or unanticipated, and
Gonzales-Osler further posited that transitions may cause a degree of stress reminiscent of
reacting to a crisis. Transitions are about changes: In one’s lifestyle, attitude, and mindset.
Transitions are a journey through changing steps, from the knowns into the unknowns. This
research explored a transitional journey of changing steps from an unanticipated retirement,
through the reality of a transitional state, while planning for the unknowns of the future.
Changing steps recommends a roadmap for leaders to help ease the journey from a developed or
Military Image of Leadership, to a transitional or Corporate Image of Leadership, while
transcending to a final step of transformational or Inspired Image of Leadership.
As the military down-sizes after 10 years of wars in Iraq and Afghanistan, not only is the
equipment being retired or summarily dismissed. Military personnel from all ranks, positions,
and branches are being replaced, restructured, and retired from military service at a break neck
pace (Tice, 2014). Unlike equipment that can be placed in mothballs, people must transition
from one phase of life to another. As military personnel are accustomed to marching in
formation, the transition from military to civilian life is reminiscent of changing steps. The drill
of changing steps while marching requires great practice, and is a skill that not all can master
(DA, 2003). Even one misstep creates a chain reaction of mishaps in the formation. An
unexpected or unwanted transition may create a misstep in transitioning from the military, which
may forever change a person’s life. This reflective journey in transition provides some
recommendations to avoid missteps in changing steps, from a developed to a transitional to a
transformational mental model.
2.1 Transitions: An Overview
No amount of introspection can prepare one for an unanticipated change. Though categorized as
normal, everyday, occurrences, life’s five major transitions: Adolescence, marriage, parenthood,
mid-life, and retirement (Gonzales-Osler,1989), do not normally occur simultaneously or daily in
a person’s life. Carroll (2013) indicated that “Successful transitions are not easy, but they
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represent paths to follow in life” (p. 119). Jones (2005) espoused that people do not understand
the innate life-changing experiences associated with becoming a professional, and then
transitioning (retiring) from the profession. Jones further posited that without maintaining a
connection to the profession, “Retirement is like dying” (p. 2). Unlike death, which is the final
step, retirement is a transition that changes steps.
If successful transitions are not easy, imagine the turmoil that an unanticipated and unwanted
retirement may cause to individuals, families, and organizations. Mikulincer and Florian (1995)
theorized that stressful life events may create a feeling of disequilibrium in individuals. The
disenchanted may further experience the sensation of being drained, overwhelmed, and numb
from emotional distress. What may feel like a colossal misstep is but transition. Transitions are
not about missteps but about changing steps, and changing steps is a reflective journey in
transitioning from old mental models to developing new ones.
2.2 Unanticipated Retirement: A Painful Misstep?
The premise of successful change may be the willingness to expand knowledge. The advantage
of knowing what you do know can create the impetus to reflect, and discover what you do not
know. In changing steps, managing oneself and reflective reflexivity provided the impetus for
change and growth. Drucker (1999) posited that the necessity to Manage Oneself stems from
developing a strategy to remain motivated to lifelong learning during a 50 year’s work-life. To
manage oneself successfully however requires reflective thinking in terms of reflection-for-
action or before the anticipated event occurs (Brown & Gillis, 1999). Brown and Gillis further
expanded on reflection by describing reflection-in-action or at the moment of experience, and
reflection-on-action or after the moment. This narrative equates to both reflection-in-and-on-
The strategy to mange oneself requires reflection that may involve painful introspection of the
first half of one’s work-life. Each new discovery may feel like a misstep that resulted in the
unanticipated event. The feeling of missteps is where reflexivity may begin, with reflexivity
described as unsettling or insecure about the basic premises, postulates, or practices performed to
that point (Cunliffe, 2004). Reflexive thinking is where mental models are discovered and
Cunliffe espoused actions are taken based on reflection. Whether missteps or sidesteps, the
unanticipated transition resulted in changing steps, and requires a reflective reflexivity: Acting
on what you learned about yourself from introspective review, to survive and move forward.
The self-discovery from reflection results in acquiring new knowledge about oneself. That new
knowledge may conflict with the current mental model however, and requires a framework to
assist in changing steps. With the advent of an unanticipated retirement however, there is a
reticence in taking the next step in the 50 year’s work-life for fear of a colossal misstep. The
scholar-practitioner-leader model provided the basis for an initial Enhanced Leadership
Development Model (ELDM) in Table 1.
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Table 1
Enhanced Leadership Development Model (ELDM)
Levels of
Levels of
Results of
Argyris (1976)
Peschl (2007)
Clawson (2006)
University of
Phoenix (2014)
Randolph (2014)
Open the
Voice of Fear (Blinders, Isaacs, 1993)
(Patterns and
Open the
Voice of Cynicism (Blinders, Isaacs, 1993)
(Rules and
Open the
Military Leadership
Voice of Judgment (Blinders, Isaacs, 1993)
Mental Models
Reflection resulted in the need to incorporate levels of learning (Argyris, 1976, & Peschl, 2007)
and leadership (Clawson, 2006) established during the first half of one’s 50 year’s work-life,
with a means for leadership transitions (University of Phoenix, 2014). Further detection of one’s
own mental models required a dissection of the Iceberg Theory (Goodman, 2002), and the need
to identify the results of change (Scharmer, 2005). This reflective reflexivity resulted in the
beginning of the second half of the 50 year’s work life journey, and an end result for the ELDM:
The need to drastically change a mental model. Isaacs (1993) posited that blinders to change
may serve as barriers and remain entrenched but require removal. The process of changing steps
may best help transition from a Military Image of Leadership, to a Corporate Image of
Leadership, and through lifelong learning, transition into an Inspired Image of Leadership.
Changing steps requires learning to better manage oneself.
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Step 6
Inspired Image of
Open the Will
Above the Surface
Transformational Mental
Step 5
Strategic Leadership
Triple-Loop Learning (Context)
Voice of Fear
Below the Surface
Step 4
Lifelong Learner
Open the Heart
Mental Model
Step 3
Double-Looped Learning (Patterns and Insights)
Organizational Leadership (Processes and Structures)
Step 2
Open the Mind
Military Voice of Cynicism
Corporate Image of Leadership
Corporate Leadership Bias (CLB)
Step 1 Scholarship
Military Voice of Judgment
Military Image of Leadership
Tactical (Field) Leadership
Developed Mental Model
Single-Looped Learning (Rules and Regulations)
Figure 1. Stepping through changing your mental model. Figure developed by author based on
Iceberg Theory. All rights reserved.
The results of any journey are unknown until traveling is concluded. For this qualitative
narrative study, although the steps are nearly completed, the journey is far from over. Through
recognizing the need to change mental models from developed to transitional to
transformational, each step provides closure and results for the traveler.
Of the
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4.1 The Impact of Icebergs
As the Titanic and other ships discovered, what is on the surface may not account for what is
below. One important discovery resulted from the Titanic event: There is an internal and
sometimes unbreakable connection between the tip of the iceberg, and the tail or base (NSIDC,
2014). The inference is that the impact of icebergs begins at the tail versus the tip. Iceberg
theory provides a model to describe the composition of the icebergs of life.
4.2 The Anatomy of Icebergs
The tail of the iceberg is where mental models reside, and may remain for a lifetime or until a
life-altering event occurs. Mental models change through either an ascent or descent along the
body of the berg (BOB), which houses structure and patterns of behavior. The tip of the iceberg
is the showcase and may be superficial, but where life-altering events occur (Goodman, 2002).
An un-forecasted early retirement at the tip of the iceberg served as the event for stepping
through changing a mental model. The most prevalent impact of icebergs occurred during the
transitional period, while thinking thought the requirement for the second half of managing a 50
year’s work-life.
Through transcending the six steps of the journey, Changing Steps is a two-fold process of
stepping through changing mental models and Images of Leadership. Changing Steps is the
means to change or transition Images of Leadership from a Military to Corporate to finally, an
Inspired Image of Leadership.
5.1 Step 1 - A Developed Mental Model Unveiled
Mental models consist of how a person views the world based on the knowledge acquired and
the experiences lived. Military service begins with single-loop learning through indoctrination,
and then education (ALDS, 2009). The military single-loop learning environment occurred
because the operation of the organization is predicated more on following the numerous rules
and regulations within the bureaucracy (Argyris, 1976), than cultivating creativity and
innovation (Peschl, 2007). At junior or tactical levels in any organization, obedience may be
more expedient than ingenuity. Though senior military leaders often espoused the need for
double and triple-looped learning concepts, the requirements for standardization often stifled the
process. Over time, this formed a developed mental model, which created a Military Image of
Leadership that proved quite successful.
5.1.1 A Military Image of Leadership
Years of training, education, and experience created a Military Image of Leadership. An
unexpected transition from the military because of downsizing (MMN 13-089, 2013) served as
the tip of the iceberg event that required changing steps and igniting a journey in transition. A
Military Image of Leadership read as follows:
A transformational leadership style, using inspired leadership by providing purpose,
direction, and mentorship, to build a cohesive, competent team empowered through
character, courage, and inclusion. The approach is one developed through years of
military leadership and lifelong learning encapsulated in ACT RITE: Assess, Connect,
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Teach – Reception, Integration, Training, and Evaluation. The goal is to cultivate
personal and professional growth, leading to individual and organizational successes.
The incongruities of the Military Image of Leadership were identified through reflection,
analysis, and dissection using the theoretical frameworks perspective. Clawson (2006) posited
that leadership styles such as transformational and inspired leadership were equal concepts, not
hierarchal. Providing purpose and direction are not leadership tools but organizational
management concepts to inculcate drive and guidance in an organization (ARDP, 2012a).
Mentoring as the third component of the leadership application process is also a leadership tool
that creates inclusion for the empowered teams and individuals (ARDP, 2012b). The mentoring
inclusion and empowerment occurs however, through a combination of career advancement
techniques and psychosocial cultivation (Allen, Eby, Poteet, Lentz, & Lima, 2007). Whereas
courage and competency may be considered values, ACT RITE provided a process tool used to
orient, train, and evaluate coworkers in a closed military environment. ACT RITE is neither a
value nor a leadership philosophy.
The Military Image of Leadership tactics, techniques, and procedures proved quite
successful in a homogenous military culture. Transitioning to civilian life created a paradigm
shift, and a requirement to develop a new mental model for civilian and corporate lives (Kuhn,
2012). The epiphany of a paradigm shift created Step 1 in stepping through changing a mental
Retirement may bring with it reflection and a discovery that the great difficulty in transitioning
to civilian life occurs because of the military Voice of Judgment (VoJ). The military VoJ resists
the non-standardized environment of corporate life (Isaacs, 1993), which impedes a smooth
transition. Because of the non-standardization in corporate life, the hierarchal and linear nature
created in Table 1 proved inadequate to enable a smooth transition. Table 1 also continued to
denote single-loop thinking in the Military Image of Leadership. Figure 1 illustrated an expanded
nature in thinking, and may better assist in the transition journey, or in changing steps. As Step 1
in Figure 1 depicted, scholarship may help overcome the military VoJ, and shift a mental model
to the second step of opening the mind.
5.2 Step 2 - Ascending the Iceberg
The tail of the iceberg is quite wide, steep, and thick, and created a tedious Step 1. Step 2
maybe somewhat shorter based on ones experiences through, either seeking employment in the
corporate environment, returning to an academic environment, or both. Job interviews can
illuminate and open the mind to discover anecdotal evidence of a corporate leadership bias
(CLB) regarding the military, requiring the transitional mental model developed in steps three
and four.
Many corporate leaders regarded the military as a highly structured, standardized, and inflexible
organization predicated on rules and regulations. Regardless of the Soldier’s rank or position,
that description denoted single-loop learning. Through the interview process, CLBs also
expressed marvel at the discipline, ingenuity, and resolve of military personnel. This added a
dimension to the transitional mental model by also identifying military personnel as displaying at
least double-loop learning. Platitudes aside, the military transitioner must now contend with a
new voice created by corporate leadership bias.
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5.2.1 A Voice in the Wilderness
Although opening the mind may be an iterative process (Scharmer, 2005) to developing a
Corporate Image of Leadership, the military Voice of Cynicism (VoC) may further stall the
ability to take the next step. To survive in the civilian environment, progression into corporate or
organizational leadership (Isaacs, 1993) is a must. By overcoming the military VoJ through
embracing scholarship in Step 1, the process provided the means to achieve Step 2. Argyris
(1976) might categorize the ability to continue changing and growing as the behavior of a
lifelong learner. A lifelong learner is someone not cemented in perpetuating invalid mental
models, but capable of learning to achieve successful transition. The goal now is to overcome
the obstacles of CLB, develop and accept the Corporate Image of Leadership, and begin stepping
along the corporate leadership pathway.
The best means to help reduce the military VoC is through more corporate engagements. Isaacs
(1993) considered this pursuing meaningful dialogue, which requires suspension of preconceived
notions and assumptions. Removing the military VoC blinders requires asking: What is
required from an organization or job? What might an organization want from coworkers? After
observing the observer, Isaacs might suggest asking: Based on my background, what will
organizations expect of me? When employment may be pursued for many months during
transition, sometimes “listening to the listening and slowing down the inquiry “(Isaacs, 1993, p.
33) may help to determine why suitable employment remains elusive. Although completing Step
2 may have required a shorter ascent compared to Step 1, the gradient at Step 3 may appear
misleading, and require a new technique for ascension.
5.2.2 Opening the Mind
Knowing what your boss values is 50 percent of the equation for success. The other 50 percent
is acting on that knowledge. Organizational leadership is about knowing the processes and
structures, but requires double-looped learning to identify the patterns and insights. Double-loop
learning may come through experiences, and enable one to identify the structures in the
corporate environment and patterns of behavior. Although many organizations imitate a military
hierarchal structure (single-loop learning), many interviewers will indicate the need for double-
loop learning that provides insightful thinking. Scholarship provides context to practical
application, and to the practitioner. Cognizance of the corporate practitioner structures,
processes, and patterns of behavior allowed recognition of the need to continue shifting,
transitioning, and embracing a Corporate Image of Leadership to silence the military Voice of
Cynicism (VoC) and engage BoB.
5.3 Step 3 - Engaging the BOB
While ascending the BOB, reflection on each experience can give way to new internal insights.
Cunliffe (2004) posited that moving from beyond ones comfort zone provided the first step in
transforming reflective thinking into reflexive thinking. The foray into a new organization
requires learning new organizational processes and structures (Goodman, 2002), which requires
maintaining a transitional mental model to complement the Corporate Image of Leadership. As
the VoC threatens to drown out the accomplishments attained from opening the mind (Sharmer,
2005), Mikulincer and Florian (1995) described that transitional pain as Suspension: Caught
between previous work roles and the uncertainty of the future.
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Double-looped learning requires the transitioner to use reflexive thinking to not just compare
new patterns and insights to previous knowledge, but to take action to learn new skills (Cunliffe,
2004, & Peschl, 2007). The mind of the scholar must transition to the heart of the practitioner,
using all of the knowledge, skills, and abilities attained during the first half of one’s work-life.
Step 3 can be the pivotal point in stepping through changing mental models, because
transitioners are forced to release the familiar and face a new future (Carroll, 2013). Continuing
to scale the BOB requires practicing transitional lessons learned, to better posture for Step 4 and
opening the heart to attain true lifelong learning.
5.4 Step 4 - Embracing the BOB
If a picture is worth a thousand words, then a diagram is worth at least two hundred. The Golden
Trinity at Figure 2 (Waruingi, 2011) provided inspiration in creating a framework to help make
sense of a new world. Standing on Step 4 required opening the heart by embracing the BOB, and
realizing that the steps were bi-directional: Provided the means to ascend or descend without
losing momentum. Table 2 provided a framework to illustrate the three linkages between
learning and leading; acknowledging and removing blinders; and creating the means for
Figure 2. The Golden Trinity: The source of knowing all things operating in scholarship,
practice, and leadership within the SPL Model. Adapted from Waruingi, M. (2011). What is
Leadership? Used with permission of author.
As in most organizations, junior military leaders do things right, but mid-level military leaders
do the right things (Kahane, 2004). The single and double-looped learning used allowed for
great success in the military. Lifelong learning however admits that all is not known, and is
comfortable in pursuing the unknowns. Senior military leadership and lifelong learning required
deciding what right looked like, which led to Triple-Looped learning and the ability to face the
Voice of Fear (VoF).
5.5 Step 5 - Floating Near the Top
The lifelong learner at Step 4 swims well under the surface but near the top of the iceberg. The
epiphany for a transitioning leader is to recognize the difference between near the top and on the
tip of the iceberg. Triple-loop learning requires life-long learners to place things in proper
context. Lifelong learners must seek even greater engagements to expand triple-loop learning to
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reach the tip of the iceberg. Step 5 is floating even closer to the top of the iceberg, and
necessitates the continuous quieting of the VoF.
The VoF knows no category. Racial, ethnic, rich, poor, educated or uneducated, the VoF is
continuous to the unexpected transitioner. Quieting the VoF provides the ability to place new
concepts in the proper context. Context explains triple-loop learning (Peschl, 2007), and triple-
loop learning is required in both military and corporate strategic leadership. Step 5 necessitates
continuing to marshal resources to improve a resume’, begin a business, or expand scholarship
into authorship. Expanding scholarship into authorship elucidates the practitioner philosophy,
allows the transitioner to express knowledge in a new manner, and is the beginning of strategic
leadership. Starting a new business is acceptance that What was can be no more, and what felt
like death, was but transition. Quieting the VoF, placing situations in context, and pursuing new
avenues in strategic leadership is how the transformational mental model is formed. Elucidating
the practitioner philosophy to create a transformational mental model provides the means to open
the will, that allows an Inspired Image of Leadership at the tip of the iceberg.
5.6 Step 6 – Dancing on the Tip
While the tip of the iceberg is well within reach, mental models continue to produce reactions to
the icebergs in life. To improve as leaders and transition through the learning loops, a person has
to realize the death of certain mental models. Two types of knowledge may form mental models:
explicit knowledge – what we know that we know, or tacit knowledge what we do not know
that we know (Horvath, 2000). Whereas reflection and reflexivity enter the equation of self-
discovery, there is mutual exclusivity between the two. Theory in action requires a process to
unlock our mental models through reflection and reflexivity, to begin the transition along the
path of enlightenment.
The Theory U process provides a pathway to enlightenment (Scharmer, 2005 as cited by
Waruingi, 2011). Scharmer realized that assistance is necessary in burying old mental models to
develop new ones. To dance at the tip of the iceberg will require three transitions. First,
continuing the climb below the surface near the top of the iceberg (Step 5), short of achieving the
desired result. Second, continuing to manage oneself in a manner that allows transforming and
reaching the top, blinders off. Third, opening the will to win the fight, and continue the journey
to dance on the tip at Step 6.
6. Conclusion
The conclusion to the journey in transition through changing steps is a varying process. The
mental, physical, and emotional toll of transition varies from person to person, and would
provide an interesting case study. Though the journey continues, some initial findings included:
1. Reflection is the first principle in the transition journey.
2. Reflexivity is the second principle in changing steps.
3. Changing steps is a reflective reflexive practice that may be used as a research method
reminiscent of a qualitative narrative research process.
4. Findings in changing steps may be generalized based on the perspective of the subject
(Stake, 1978).
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5. Further studies are necessary to determine if reflective reflexive practice may be used in
qualitative, quantitative, or mixed methods research.
6. The success or failure in changing steps for the transition journey is best measured by the
Changing steps as a journey in transition serves the purpose of providing a template for
individual changes required from unanticipated and unwanted transition characterized as early
retirement. Managing the second half of ones work life begins in the first half, but requires a
blueprint to establish the steps. Changing Steps also requires changing mental models, from a
long held and intimate developed mental model, to a new and untested transitional mental model,
to finally, a free and transformational mental model. If any misstep occurs in the process of
changing steps, it may be purely philosophical. Whatever the plan is to complete the transitional
journey, it must fulfill the premise: To thy own self be true.
There are several thanks I would like to give for helping me in developing Changing Steps. First,
giving thanks to our Lord and Savior Jesus Christ for making all things possible, and keeping me
inspired to tell this story. Second, my family and Support Group for allowing me the time, space,
and encouragement to move forward and reflect on the transition journey. Third, the United
States Army for allowing me over 31 years of service and creating the necessity to transition and
change steps. Fourth, the University of Phoenix School for Advanced Studies for providing the
means and necessity for doctoral learners to reflect on previous leadership experiences. Fifth, all
of the great authors and researchers whose works I drew from in helping me develop Changing
Steps. Sixth and last but not least, Dr. Macharia Waruingi, who encouraged me to change steps
by seeking publication of this concept.
Biographical Note
Author is a retired Army Military Intelligence Colonel with over 31 years
of service, to include three combat tours in Iraq. Author last served as the Deputy Chief of Staff
for Intelligence and Security, Rock Island Arsenal, IL, and is currently a third year doctoral
student with the University of Phoenix. Author’s passion is mentoring, and he currently serves
as the Secretary, Director of International Mentoring, and Founding Member of Foreign Affairs
Council, Inc., and is President and Chief Consult for MyWingman, LLC.
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ALDS. (2009). A leader development strategy for a 21st century Army. Fort Leavenworth, KS.
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with mentoring for proteges: A Meta-analysis. Journal of Applied Psychology, 89(1),
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Argyris, C. (1976, September). Theories of action that inhibit individual learning. American
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Army Doctrine Reference Publication (ADRP). (2012a). Army leadership (6-22). Washington,
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... Note. T stands for theme, IQ for interview question, and DISQ for Demographic Information Survey question. of single-loop learning (Argyris, 1976): rules and regulations (Randolph, 2015). • ET4-mentoring influences an officer's entire career, encompassing recruitment, accession, development, assessment, and retention (RADAR)-highlights mentoring's long-term impact. ...
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The importance of mentoring to career development is well recognized; yet practice does not always follow theory, often to the exclusion of minorities and women. Interviews with 13 US Army officers representing various backgrounds highlighted several inequities that have been reported in previous organizational research. The inquiry also emphasized the need for organizational leaders to create a common operating picture to improve the execution of their mentoring programs, ensure ongoing mentoring throughout staff members' careers, and identify and eliminate barriers to mentoring based on race or gender. Although such efforts may require a paradigm shift in organizational practices and culture, they are essential to ensuring equity in the workplace, robust leadership development, a high level of commitment and performance, and success at all levels.
Textbook introducing and describing Level Three Leadership focusing on the power of influence at the level of our semi-conscious Values, Assumptions, Beliefs and Expectations about the way the world is or should be.
Scitation is the online home of leading journals and conference proceedings from AIP Publishing and AIP Member Societies
Critically reflexive practice embraces subjective understandings of reality as a basis for thinking more critically about the impact of our assumptions, values, and actions on others. Such practice is important to management education, because it helps us understand how we constitute our realities and identities in relational ways and how we can develop more collaborative and responsive ways of managing organizations. This article offers three ways of stimulating critically reflexive practice: (a) an exercise to help students think about the socially constructed nature of reality, (b) a map to help situate reflective and reflexive practice, and (c) an outline and examples of critically reflexive journaling.
The study assesses him negative life events and coping responses affect diverse aspects of fear of personal death among middle-aged men who are in the process of early job retirement. Subjects reported life events they had experienced during the last three years and the coping responses they used, for dealing with job retirement, and completed a questinnaire on their, fear of personal death. The findings indicated that the accumulation of negative life events was related to high levels of fear of personal death. However coping strategies mediated this relationship. Emotion-focused coping with early job retirement seemed to be a direct precursor of the fear of personal death and to underlie the efects of negative life events. The findings were discussed within the stress-coping framework. Practical and theoretical implications of the findings were emphasized.
Here is a first report on the MIT Center for Organizational Learning's ''Dialogue Project.'' The author shows how the techniques of dialogue now being developed can create a new way of dealing with lingering conflicts-in union-management relations, among healthcare professionals, and in South African politics.
It is widely believed that case studies are useful in the study of human affairs because they are down-to-earth and attention-holding but that they are not a suitable basis for generalization. In this paper, I claim that case studies will often be the preferred method of research because they may be epistemologically in harmony with the reader’s experience and thus to that person a natural basis for generalization.
Applies a theory of action perspective (based on single- and double-loop learning) to adult learning problems, including becoming a more effective leader. Instructors and students (Study 1 and 2) and entrepreneurs and company presidents (Study 3) were investigated to determine how adults learn and how to help them in leadership positions by using a model of double-loop learning. Overall results suggest that (a) adults may not be able to discover/invent/produce the learning that is necessary to behave more effectively; (b) they may be unaware of this possibility; and (c) if they try to get help from well-intentioned others, it will tend to make things worse. Results are applied to the adult educational perspectives of F. E. Fiedler and M. M. Chemers (1974) and V. H. Vroom and P. W. Yetton (1973). (18 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)