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... Shipping is the dominant transport mode for long-distance trade in food and agricultural products (Rodrigue and Notteboom, 2015). It is a relatively energy efficient form of transport (Rehmatulla and Smith, 2015), but can be considered an important environmental burden (Walker et al., 2018), due to air pollution (Matthias et al., 2010), vessel oil spills (Nagarajan, 2018), ballast water disposal (David et al., 2018), dry bulk cargo releases (Seebens et al., 2013) anti fouling pollution (McNeil, 2018), and waste disposal at sea (Tornero and Hanke, 2016) and at ports (Pérez et al., 2017), as well as the effects of work carried out in harbours (Davarzani et al., 2016;Oláh et al., 2018a;Oláh et al., 2018b;Romeo et al., 2015;Sánchez-Arcilla et al., 2016). ...
... In summary it can be determined that the current trade flow is far from optimal, which is why there is a wide room for improvement. Our results support the estimations of (Eide et al., 2011;Pérez et al., 2017;Rehmatulla and Smith, 2015) on the potential impact of voyage optimisation on possible reductions in CO2. There are considerable differences in estimations of the average cost of reducing CO2 emissions. ...
... Meanwhile, those from the port activities usually come from the industries and buildings in the port area such as canteens, markets, offices or stores, restaurants, and others. Studies on the solid waste generated by vessels are very few and every approach used in the analysis produces different results, but the average in each vessel was found to be 3.06 kg per person per day [45][46][47]. Moreover, three Wastewater Treatment Plants (WWTPs) facility was planned to be constructed at BFT, with one designed to treat wastewater from the fishery processing plants. ...
Article
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Several public seaports and fishing terminals are located in the same port complex but have different fragmented operations such as waste management. It is possible to provide a new initiative to ensure sustainability for all entities in the surrounding port ecosystem through the application of Green Port using the circular economy approach and mixed linear programming model. Therefore, this study aims to explore the collaborative management of waste generated from different port activities such as the operators of the public seaport, fishing terminal, and a city authority in Bali–Indonesia using circular economy principles. It was discovered that the integration model has the potential to generate new energy by recycling waste from all related entities in the production of a few main fishing products such as tuna, sardine, and squid, as well as vessel traffic, facilities, and cargo flow interactions in addition to other port operations.
... Pollution from ships that are discharged into the sea and port waters harms living organisms and water ecosystems by destroying their ecological and aesthetic values, and pose a threat to human health and life. In order to protect the marine environment, many international legal regulations were introduced to enable the use of all environmental goods while maintaining its protection and taking responsibility for violating its status [33]. The most important acts regulating the problem of waste management in the marine environment include: MARPOL 73/78 is the basic legal act that regulates issues that are related to the protection of the marine environment, which is why it will be discussed in the most detail. ...
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This article deals with the issue of waste collection from yachts and tall ships that is important from the perspective of sustainable tourism. There are, of course, procedures that regulate the passing of waste by vessels, which also apply to tourist vessels. However, the authors made an attempt to analyze the process of waste collection carried out under non-standard conditions, i.e., during a mass event held at the port of the Tall Ships Races final, which took place in 2017 in Szczecin. Many yachts and tall ships participated in the event, and in addition, due to the multiplicity of attractions, the event area was very popular among tourists and visitors (over one and a half million people in three days). Due to the safety of the participants, and the need to maintain high aesthetic standards, the procedures for collecting waste from vessels had to be modified. In addition to the preparation of a flowchart on which the existing procedural modifications were presented, based on the source data received from the waste collection company, quantitative and structural analyses of the waste were carried out. The conducted research showed that the waste collection required the coordination of the activities of many entities. This article also draws attention to operational problems that occurred during waste collection from vessels during the Tall Ships Races final. Statistical analysis allowed for the determination of the days where the vessels disposed the most solid and liquid waste, and how the structure of the amount of collected waste was shaped. The Tall Ships Races is the most popular and the biggest event of this type in the world—gathering the largest number of tall ships. They are carried out annually, and their route leads through various ports; however, the regatta final is the culminating point that attracts the largest number of tourists. For this reason, many cities are trying to become its organizers. In 2018, the finals took place in the Dutch port of Harlingen, and in 2019, the Danish port of Aarhus will be responsible for its organization. Two years later, in 2021, the Tall Ships Races regatta final will be hosted by Szczecin again. The results of the research conducted in this article may be helpful for appropriate preparation by subsequent ports for waste collection, which may contribute to the safety of the participants taking part in the event.
... In majority of European ports there is a single tariff, based on vessel size, includes the discharge oil waste and garbage. In [14], the authors aimed at determining if other factors also affect waste generation. The results shew that the main driver in the generation of oily waste is ship size while the main factor in the generation of garbage is people on board of ships. ...
Chapter
The maritime industry is considered as the main pillar for the worldwide economy trade. It is the propulsion engine for the economy development and prosperity of many countries. This shipping industry encounter many challenges to ensure its competitiveness and its environmental sustainability. However, the ship operation generates many environmental pollutants that harm the air and oceans. It daily produce sludge, bilge water, garbage, sewage and harmful the ecosystem by the ballast water exchange operation. In this paper, we aim at identifying and quantifying these products and to assess their impact on the marine environment. Alternative solutions are proposed to reduce the shipping environmental impact. The concept of autonomous ship is also proposed as an alternative for an environmentally sustainable maritime industry.
... Wastewater and solid waste generation are strongly dependent on the number of passengers on board (P erez, Gonz alez & Jim enez, 2017). Hence, to avoid under or over- estimating, the actual number of individuals occupying the vessel would be a more appropriate variable than nominal capacity. ...
Article
Cruise tourism industry has experienced significant global growth in recent years in terms of new passengers, fleet size, ports visited, and economic value. Therefore, the main environmental impacts resulting from this activity such as exhaust emissions, wastewater discharges, and solid waste should be researched since most of them can be released directly into the ocean and atmosphere. This study develops a methodology that combines automatic identification system (AIS) data as well as reports belonging to different companies and environmental agencies, in order to assess environmental pressures related to global cruises' traffic along their paths. Three innovative indexes are proposed to help assess environmental impacts of world cruise fleet (equivalent fulltime navigation vessel, areal cruise traffic pressure, and route cruise traffic pressure), displaying the most crowded routes by unit of length and water masses by unit of area. This methodology can allocate hot spots of activity and quantify the production of waste and emissions worldwide. Moreover, the results from the proposed method allow calculating the world cruise fleet production (2015-2017).
... To prevent vessels to throw their waste to sea, European Directive 2000/59/EC establishes that all ships that stopover in European ports are obliged to deliver in port their waste on board of ships, except when they can prove they can store it until their following stopover port [14]. Based on the directive, the ports should also set their waste tariffs based on the vessel size, and not the actual amount of the waste, and therefore the waste tariff should be the same whether the vessels deliver waste or no to port [15]. However, based on study funded by European Maritime Safety Agency, different European ports have different system even inside one country. ...
... MARPOL prohibits the disposal of plastics at sea, as well as most other ship garbage, and requires signatories to ensure that adequate reception facilities for ship-generated waste is available (Newman et al., 2015). MARPOL therefore reflects the main focus of international, governmental, and non-governmental organisation actors in ship waste management policy in the creation of incentives to encourage ships to use port waste facilities, rather than dump waste at sea and is the approach, for example, favoured by the International Maritime Organization and the European Union (Pérez et al., 2017). Nevertheless, while legislative and regulatory actions are significant what is hugely important but is often lacking, because of the inherent difficulties of policing the marine environment, is the capacity of agencies and governments to implement interventions. ...
Chapter
The first text to take a truly inter-disciplinary approach to critically examining the impacts of tourism on marine environments and coastal regions, focusing on the negative environmental impacts but also looking at the social and economic impacts.
... Various activities carried out on the ship produce different types and amounts of waste. The size of the ship significantly influences the amount of garbage produced [4]. Around 50-70 tons of garbage can be produced every week by ships carrying 3,000 passengers. ...
... In majority of European ports there is a single tariff, based on vessel size, includes the discharge oil waste and garbage. In [14], the authors aimed at determining if other factors also affect waste generation. The results shew that the main driver in the generation of oily waste is ship size while the main factor in the generation of garbage is people on board of ships. ...
... Characteristics of the microplastics found in WWTPS' effluents seem to depend not only on population habits but also on the activities carried out in the surroundings (Bayo et al., 2020). Agricultural lands and maritime activities are a recognized source of waste as well (Pérez et al., 2017;Uche-Soria and Rodríguez-Monroy, 2019;Bayo et al., 2019;Rochman, 2018;Argüello, 2020;Franco et al., 2020). ...
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We studied microdebris in three western Mediterranean beaches in East Spain. One of them is urban, while the other two are located in a protected environment. Moreover, one of them is used as hatchery for loggerhead turtles’ (Caretta caretta) sporadic nesting activity. Here, we discuss the amount and type of microdebris in the area in different seasons, as well as at the surface and at 40 cm depth, were loggerhead turtles lay their nests. Total mean ± SD in July was 5.66 ± 3.66 MPs/kg at surface and 12.15 ± 7.76 MPs/kg at depth; while in November values were 6.45 ± 4.42 MPs/kg at surface and 5.51 ± 3.14 MPs/kg at depth. There were no significant differences among beaches, months, depths nor protection regime. Polymers found were, by descent order, polyethylene, rubber, latex, polypropylene and ethylene vinyl alcohol; which are mainly used in consumer goods, tires and food packaging. Overall, microdebris in these beaches are not among the highest in the Mediterranean and do not seem to threaten turtles’ reproductive success, although more detailed studies are needed to determine potential effect on embryonic developmental processes.
... Whereas the identification of factors influencing the volume of generated oil and rubbish was made in the article (Pereza et al., 2017) unfortunately, e-waste has not been separated in the waste category. Its analysis shows that in most European ports there is a uniform waste reception tariff based on ship size, and other factors influencing waste generation are therefore examined. ...
Article
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Abstract: Purpose: The article presents the issue of the e-waste management on sea-going ships. Characteristics of ship-generated waste in accordance with the international classification in force and the new category (e-waste) was defined in the first part of the article. Furthermore, the principles of its management were analysed in the context of the adopted amendments to Annex V of MARPOL 73/78. The objective of the article is to develop a preliminary concept of the e-waste management model on a sea-going ship, considering the annual variation of e- waste occurrence on ships. Design/Methodology/Approach: The conducted research allowed to develop a concept of the e-waste management model on sea-going ships. The presented model was developed based on available data from both seagoing ships and selected EU ports. The universal character of the model will allow for its wide application and the implementation of its individual stages will ensure appropriate supervision and increase the efficiency of the whole process. Findings: Identification and compilation of the issue of the e-waste management on sea-going ships. The universality of the model allows for its wide application and implementation of its individual stages, both on sea-going ships and in seaports. Practical Implications: A natural consequence of the model will be the implementation of measures which should be predictable to reduce the risk of undesirable events resulting from bad e-waste management practices on sea-going ships. Originality/value: Indication of future research directions improving the functionality solutions on ships model according to the recommendations of the circular economy. Keywords: Sustainable ship waste management, environment, statistical analysis, environmental and safety aspects.
... To prevent vessels to throw their waste to sea, European Directive 2000/59/EC establishes that all ships that stopover in European ports are obliged to deliver in port their waste on board of ships, except when they can prove they can store it until their following stopover port [14]. Based on the directive, the ports should also set their waste tariffs based on the vessel size, and not the actual amount of the waste, and therefore the waste tariff should be the same whether the vessels deliver waste or no to port [15]. However, based on study funded by European Maritime Safety Agency, different European ports have different system even inside one country. ...
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The main objectives of the EU transport policy belongs the limitation of the negative environmental impact from ports. Similarly, companies are adopting sustainable supply chain management practices to response the policy makers’ and consumers’ demands for sustainable operations. This paper aims to discover how the largest European container ports communicate about their efforts to improve the sustainability of their operations to find out how the ports themselves see their position as a part of transition towards more sustainable supply chain operations. Based on the study, different large European container ports consider environmental issues variously. The risk is that some ports may get competitive advantages by slipping in the environmental questions. Alternatively, if the port does not take sustainability questions seriously and it gets a bad reputation, the risk is that the customers and consumers do not accept the behavior of the port and shipping companies start to avoid that port. Doi: 10.28991/HIJ-2021-02-02-06 Full Text: PDF
... It should be emphasised that planning, steering, execution and control of logistics waste management processes are very important from the environmental and economic perspective (Deja et al., 2018;Pereza et al., 2017). The Port Community System (PCS) is a solution which enables coordination across all these processes, and most importantly, supports maritime administration authorities in supervision over waste streams moving between ships and places of final destination. ...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose: The main objective of the paper is to present the possibilities of using the Port Community System (PCS) as an integrated IT system in the area of ship-generated waste management in the context of sustainable circular economy in seaports. Project/methodology/approach: The research carried out enabled the development of a model for ship-generated waste management in seaports using the PSC IT system. Such measures should contribute to the protection and improvement of the status of the environment, as well as result in measurable economic benefits in the future. Findings: The PCS IT system presented in this paper enables sustainable waste management encompassing the circular economy approach. This platform optimises, manages, automates and improves the performance of a range of port processes through a single submission of data, connecting them in a coherent system and reducing the administrative burden. Practical Implications: The PCS-based module to ship-generated waste management have been identified a continuous ship monitoring with regards to waste, provision of thorough control over waste movement (system tightening up), transparent information overview (permanent view of all activity stages). This interactive collaboration tool allows for optimal cooperation between port companies and European Union seaports. Originality/value: Considering the concept of circular economy, which offers a great opportunity to improve business processes, a waste management model with the PCS may serve as the basis for the development of logistics chains for waste and for the elimination of undesirable incidents caused by poor management practices with respect to ship-generated waste and cargo residues in ports. Keywords: Waste management, IT system, Port Community System, circular economy.
Article
This article presents a literature review of solid waste management on cruise ships using a bibliographic search of the main databases. Articles that discuss waste management were spread over different research areas, demonstrating that the topic is cross-sectional and interconnected, involving social, economic and political considerations. The text is organized into four topics: generation, treatment, disposal and impacts. Recent years have seen increasing interest in cruise ship waste management, likely due to the growing tourism market, with an annual increase of 7.4% in the number of passengers between 1990 and 2018. However, this growth may aggravate environmental, social and economic impacts, making it essential to promote research and studies in the area.
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Marine Spatial Planning (MSP) was designed to replace the contemporary fragmented system of sectoral decision making in order to reduce the existing over regulations with a coordinated and coherent spatial allocation system for marine users. MSP was also adopted as a tool for protecting the marine environment and support ecosystem based sustainable sea use management. One of the activities MSP is aiming to address is shipping, to date which is largely managed through regional sectoral approaches and regulations set by the International Maritime Organization (IMO). However, in the field of marine environmental protection, IMO welcomes regional initiatives and even supports them through its Special Areas, Particularly Sensitive Sea Areas (PSSA) and the Port State Control provisions. This research therefore aims to open up new perspectives to the potential function of MSP at the crossroads of environmental protection and maritime transport by analyzing the synergies of MSP with the PSSA regime. Finally, this study concludes that, by introducing spatially explicit regulations, MSP may offer opportunities to enhance regional efforts on reducing pollution from shipping activity within the global legal framework.
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Shipping has become an essential mode of cargo transportation in the world and the number of global ships is also on the rise, along with the increasing marine environment pollution caused by ship waste. Various countries and regions have attached increasing importance to the pollution caused by ship waste in recent years. How to address ship waste management from international shipping has been brought to the official agenda of the international community. This article starts with the ship waste management framework in the international maritime sector and compares and analyzes the regulatory challenges of ship waste management faced by the International Maritime Organization (IMO) and typical countries and regions such as China, the United States, and the European Union, by analyzing the issues in their international maritime ship waste management regulations, including inconsistent and unclear standards, inadequate law enforcement efforts, and blind spots in high seas supervision. Targeting these challenges, this article proposes measures and directions for future supervision and stresses the necessity to unify ship waste discharge standards, improve port facilities, clarify standards, strengthen supervision and law enforcement, and establish a global monitoring system. This article lists the challenges of international maritime ship waste management and proposes practical countermeasures, which will help the international community better supervise ship waste discharge and reduce marine environment pollution.
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Modern cruise ships produce high amounts of various wastes. They operate in picturesque and valuable but often vulnerable marine ecosystems. The aim of this paper is to study the waste types and amounts as well as the management practices employed onboard an average-sized cruise ship operating in the Caribbean Sea. Daily data on waste production for the year 2018 were analysed using descriptive statistics. The results show that the mean weekly production of waste is around 2358 m³ of greywater and treated sewage, 84 m³ of oily waste, and 266 m³ of solid waste. The wastes are either incinerated (part of the domestic and operational waste), legally discharged at sea (grey water plus treated sewage, bilge water with ≤5 ppm of oil and pulped food) or disposed to port reception facilities. There is a lack of adequate land waste management infrastructure in the Caribbean area. Therefore, waste management and marine pollution prevention onboard will contribute to the reduction of the environmental footprint of the cruising industry and to the sustainable development of the coastal and island states.
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The paper presents key legal instruments governing the issues of the protection of the marine environment with respect to the management of ship-generated waste and cargo residues in European Union seaports. In view of the observed development of maritime transport, it is particularly important to organise the reception of wastes and cargo residues in seaports, in line with the principle of sustainable development. As a result of the harmonisation of the relevant legal regulations, Member States of the European Union and port and harbour authorities have taken a number of measures over the last few years to arrive at optimum solutions in this respect. The main objective of the paper is to analyse the existing system of environmental fees, the calculation criteria for such fees, and the techniques used in selected European Union seaports to submit ships' waste notifications. The research is aimed, inter alia, at determining which of the solutions that are now used in Rotterdam, Antwerp and Klaipeda could possibly be optimal for the ports in Szczecin and Świnoujście.
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This chapter aims to provide an overview of research into quantifying the economic impacts of marine litter. From an environmental economics perspective it introduces the difficulties in measuring the economic costs of marine litter; reviews those sectors where these costs are notable; and considers policy instruments, which can reduce these costs. Marine litter is underpinned by dynamic and complex processes, the drivers and impacts of which are multi-scalar, transboundary, and play out in both marine and terrestrial environments. These impacts include economic costs to expenditure, welfare and lost revenue. In most cases, these are not borne by the producers or the polluters. In industries such as fisheries and tourism the costs of marine litter are beginning to be quantified and are considerable. In other areas such as impacts on human health, or more intangible costs related to reduced ecosystem services, more research is evidently needed. As the costs of marine litter are most often used to cover removing debris or recovering from the damage which they have caused, this expenditure represents treatment rather than cure, and although probably cheaper than inaction do not present a strategy for cost reduction. Economic instruments, such as taxes and charges addressing the drivers of waste, for instance those being developed for plastic bags, could be used to reduce the production of marine litter and minimise its impacts. In any case, there remain big gaps in our understanding of the harm caused by marine litter, which presents difficulties when attempting to both quantify its economic costs, and develop effective and efficient instruments to reduce them. © 2015, Springer International Publishing. All Rights Reserved.
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Effective coastal zone management requires regulations of various forms. Inevitably, some of these have an impact on seaports. Understandably, regulations that may weaken the competitive position of a seaport are difficult to implement. The stakeholders of ports are well aware of their local, regional, and national economic impact. These stakeholders proclaim the need to ensure a level playing field between ports and oppose regulations that distort it and damage their competitive position. If possible, regulations should be developed in such a way that the playing field between ports remains level. For this to be arranged, an analysis of the effects of regulations on the playing field is needed. This article contains an analysis of the effects of different charging systems for waste disposal on the playing field between three leading North West European ports. First, a framework to analyze the distortions of the playing field is described. Second, the framework is applied to charging systems for waste disposal. This analysis reveals substantial differences in charging systems and shows that these differences distort the playing field. The distortion puts pressure on ports not to introduce the most environmentally friendly charging system. In the concluding section, alternative policy options to align the need for protecting the marine environment with the need to ensure a level playing field are discussed.
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The aim of this paper is to evaluate the charging systems for the use of port reception facilities for waste oil, and to examine the potential impact of the charging elements of the new (late 2000) EU Directive on port reception facilities for ship-generated waste and cargo residues. Experience to date with alternative models for charging is considered. Conclusions are drawn about the effectiveness of the EU Directive as a means of controlling pollution in the North Sea and producing a 'level playing field' between ports.
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The aim of this paper is to evaluate the current availability of port reception facilities within the North Sea area. The evaluation is based primarily on original survey data from the summer of 2001, supplemented by existing information from surveys conducted by the International Maritime Organization. The EU Directive on port reception facilities for ship-generated waste etc. (Directive 2000/59/EC) requires that all ports provide facilities to meet the needs of those vessels normally calling in at them. In order for the Directive to be implemented effectively, the physical availability of such facilities is vital. This paper audits the wide range of port types within the region and also outlines the wide range of vessel types using these ports, and their requirements for a range of facilities. On the basis of this analysis, conclusions are drawn about the extent to which the provision requirement of the Directive is already being met.
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The European Union set in place Directive 2000/59/EC with the aim of substantially reducing discharges of ship-generated waste into the sea by improving the availability and use of port reception facilities. According to the Directive, port administrations shall ensure that the cost recovery system must aim to discourage ships from discharging their waste into the sea, while simultaneously placing the burden of costs on ships, in line with the "polluter pays principle". The present paper examines the extent to which the deposit-refund framework could be used in charging systems of port reception facilities. This has been realized through a case study involving a Greek port. Specifically, the charging system proposed here seems to approach quite close to the primary target, i.e. to a charging system that motivates ships to act more environmentally responsible manner regarding their waste, without significantly affecting their total cost nor the competitiveness of the port.
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The ability to comply fully with the discharge requirements set out in the MARPOL 73/78 Convention depends upon the availability of adequate facilities on land for the reception of shipgenerated waste. This paper considers ways of ensuring adequate provision of reception facilities, and discusses the approach taken by the UK to reduce the amount of pollution entering the marine environment from the deliberate discharge of waste from ships. Arguably, the most significant of the measures adopted by the UK is the requirement for all ports and harbours to prepare port waste management plans. Disincentives to the use of port waste reception facilities are examined, together with the benefits and shortcomings of various financing arrangements, and compulsory discharge of waste in ports. The paper concludes that the statutory approach to improving the provision and use of waste facilities should be supported by an appropriate awareness campaign to educate shipowners about the need to discharge waste legally to port reception facilities.
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Sea ports and the related maritime activities (e.g. shipping, shipbuilding, etc.) are one of the main driver of Europe's growth, jobs, competitiveness and prosperity. The continuously growth of shipping sectors has however introduced some environmental concerns, particularly with respect to ship-generated waste management. The port of Koper, one of the major ports on the northern Adriatic Coast, is the focus of this study. In this paper, a life cycle assessment was performed to identify and quantify the environmental impacts caused by the ship-generated waste management of port of Koper. Carcinogens substance (e.g. dioxins) and inorganic emissions, especially heavy metals, resulted to be the most critical environmental issues, while the fossil fuels consumption is reduced by recovery of ship-generated oils. Moreover, the final treatment of ship waste was found to be critical phase of the management, and the landfill have a significant contribute to the overall environmental load. These results can be useful in the identification of the best practices and in the implementation of waste management plans in ports.
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