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Factors influencing organizational culture

Authors:
ZESZYTY NAUKOWE POLITECHNIKI ŚLĄSKIEJ 2017
Seria: ORGANIZACJA I ZARZĄDZANIE z. 100 Nr kol. 1972
Katarzyna SZCZEPAŃSKA
1
Warsaw University of Technology
2
Faculty of Management
3
k.szczepanska@wz.pw.edu.pl
4
5
Dariusz KOSIOREK
6
Dynamic Consulting, Zabrze
7
kosiorek.d@gmail.com
8
FACTORS INFLUENCING ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE
9
Abstract. The purpose of this article is to present the determinants of
10
organizational culture and its sources. It was proven that the factors creating culture
11
that are present in the general environment are directly related to national culture
12
and only to a small extent are controlled by managers. Further it was noticed that
13
the influence of the founders, managers and employees on organizational culture,
14
with their source in the target environment of the organization, increases the
15
possibility of shaping the value of organizational culture intentionally by the
16
managing staff. It was pointed out that the managers’ knowledge of the factors
17
determining organizational culture is essential to shape it consciously.
18
Keywords: organizational culture, determinants of organizational culture,
19
shaping organizational culture
20
UWARUNKOWANIA KULTURY ORGANIZACYJNEJ
21
Streszczenie. Celem artykułu jest przedstawienie determinant kultury
22
organizacyjnej z uwzględnieniem jej źródeł. Wykazano, że czynniki kulturo-
23
twórcze leżące w otoczeniu ogólnym organizacji pozostają w bezpośrednim
24
związku z kulturą narodową i w niewielkim stopniu pozostają pod kontrolą
25
kierownictwa. Zauważono, że kulturotwórczy wpływ założycieli, kierownictwa
26
i pracowników, mających swoje źródło w otoczeniu celowym organizacji, zwiększa
27
możliwości intencjonalnego kształtowania wartości kultury organizacyjnej przez
28
kadrę kierowniczą. Zwrócono uwagę, że wiedza kierowników o czynnikach
29
warunkujących kulturę organizacyjną jest kluczowa w kontekście jej świadomego
30
kształtowania.
31
Słowa kluczowe: kultura organizacyjna, determinanty kultury organizacyjnej,
32
kształtowanie kultury organizacyjnej
33
458 K. Szczepańska, D. Kosiorek
1. Introduction
1
The dynamic transformations that an organization is surrounded change the factors that
2
shape its organizational culture. Previously it was believed that organizational culture was
3
developed by managers, then that it was influenced by cultures in a broader sense, for example
4
by national culture. That view required an explanation why there are different methods of
5
organization management in different countries. Another stage in the development of views on
6
factors that create culture was related to the increasing industrialization, which points towards
7
the universal practices in work management, based on the global spread of knowledge and
8
technology as it is created by a uniform logic of industrial conduct, shared principles, the
9
organizational framework and conduct in general”
1
. Currently it is assumed that „the actions in
10
the area of human resource management which strengthen [] the employees’ desired attitudes
11
and behaviors are essential for building and sustaining organizational culture”
2
. “Moreover, the
12
current trend towards knowledge-intensive industries means that competitiveness increasingly
13
depends on the management of the relational bases of members of organizations. Culture,
14
attitudes, values and commitment to employees, then, are more important to the success of firms
15
[] than ever before”
3
. It is to assume that “corporate culture is a true strategic asset [] for
16
many, if not all, companies in today’s economy”
4
. One may also claim that organizational
17
culture „is the intangible that sets it apart from its competitors in an environment where products
18
and services are generally viewed as interchangeable”
5
. This requires „creative and innovative
19
behavior, risk taking, long-term orientation, focus on results, flexibility to change, co-operation,
20
independent behavior, tolerance of ambiguity and a preference to assume responsibility”
6
.
21
Therefore, a defined organizational culture should be accepted by the employees in order to
22
ensure that the objectives of the organization are attained. The considerations above indicate
23
that the factors that influence the development of organizational culture and sustain it are
24
influenced by various conditions. The purpose of this article is to present the modern
25
determinants of organizational culture.
26
1
Glińska-Neweś A.: Kulturowe uwarunkowania zarządzania wiedzą w przedsiębiorstwie. Towarzystwo Naukowe
Organizacji i Kierownictwa, Dom Organizatora, Toruń 2007, s. 145.
2
Gadomska-Lila K.: Wpływ kultury organizacyjnej na postawy i zachowania pracowników – wyniki badań, [w:]
Szymańska K. (red.): Kultura organizacyjna we współczesnych organizacjach. Wydawnictwo Politechniki
Łódzkiej, Łódź 2014, s. 42.
3
Dabic M., Ortiz-De-Urbina-Criado M., Romero-Martínez A.M.: Human resource management in entrepreneurial
firms: a literature review. „International Journal of Manpower”, Vol. 32, 2011, p. 16.
4
Flamholtz E.G., Randle Y.: Corporate culture, business models, competitive advantage, strategic assets and the
bottom line. „Journal of Human Resource Costing & Accounting”, Vol. 16, No. 2, 2012, p. 76.
5
Pennington R.G.: Yes, but how? Nine tips for building a culture focused on results, relationships, and
accountability. “Industrial and Commercial Training”, Vol. 41, No. 3, 2009, p. 146.
6
Dabic M., Ortiz-De-Urbina-Criado M., Romero-Martínez A.M.: op.cit., p. 17.
Factors influencing organizational culture 459
2. Overview of the definitions of organizational culture
1
“It is widely accepted that organizational culture is defined as the deeply rooted values and
2
beliefs that are shared by personnel in an organization”
7
and indicate what the organization
3
supports, how it operates, and what is important to it
8
. In the literature on organizational
4
behavior there are numerous definitions of organizational culture. Some of them are presented
5
in table 1 below.
6
Table 1
7
Chosen definitions of organizational culture
8
Author
Definition
GLOBE Project
the shared motives, values, beliefs, identities, and interpretations or meanings of significant
events that result from common experiences of members of collectives that are transmitted
across generations
S.P. Robbins
the system of meanings that are assumed by the members of an organization; it distinguishes
that organization from other organizations; this system of common beliefs is a set of basic
characteristics appreciated by the organization
A. Brown
the pattern of beliefs, values and learned ways of coping with experience that have
developed during the course of an organization’s history, and which tend to be manifested
in its material arrangements and in the behaviors of its members
H. Scheuplein
concepts, values, norms, and beliefs generally accepted in the organization, they constitute
a system
O. Lundy,
A. Cowling
basic values, ideologies, and principles that influence the behavior of an individual and
organization and shape them; they manifest in more measurable aspects, such as legends,
rituals, language, decoration, office design, or dress code
Source: Own elaboration on the basis of: Tsui A.S., Nifadkar S.S, Ou A.Y.: Cross-National, Cross-
9
Cultural Organizational Behavior Research: Advances, Gaps, and Recommendations. “Journal
10
of Management”, Vol. 33, No. 3, 2007, p. 430; Robbins S.P.: Zachowania w organizacji. PWE,
11
Warszawa 1998, s. 403; Sun S.: Organizational Culture and Its Themes. „International Journal
12
of Business and Management“, Vol. 3, No. 2, 2008, p. 137; Scheuplein H.: Unternehmenskultur
13
und persönliche Weiterentwicklung. “Zeitschrift Führung + Organisation”, Vol. 56, No. 5, 1987,
14
S. 301; Lundy O., Cowling A.: Strategiczne zarządzanie zasobami ludzkimi. Oficyna
15
Wydawnicza, Kraków 2001, s. 172.
16
17
A common feature of the definitions quoted above is values that lead to certain standards
18
and principles of conduct. Additionally, they point out attitudes that are to trigger desired
19
reactions in the members of the organization. This is how they distinguish a given organization
20
from other organizations. From that point of view, organizational culture is „shaped by the
21
experiences of the members of an organization, and that these experiences may impact on the
22
underlying value system of the organization”
9
.
23
The definitions of organizational culture in management sciences are justified by
24
psychology, which analyses the mental mechanisms in the development of culture as a result
25
of numerous adaptation processes and the organization members’ learning process.
26
7
Sun S.: op.cit., p. 137.
8
Griffin R.W.: Podstawy zarządzania organizacjami. PWN, Warszawa 2001, s. 117.
9
Low D., Chapman R.: Organisational and National Culture: A Study of Overlap and Interaction in the Literature.
„International Journal of Employment Studies”, Vol. 11, No. 1, 2003, p. 70.
460 K. Szczepańska, D. Kosiorek
Furthermore, the social principles that are present in the organizational culture definitions,
1
which are structured patterns that interconnect people in the context of their relations and
2
products being their manifestations, indicate connections with sociology and social
3
anthropology.
4
3. Determinants of organizational culture
5
Organizational culture is determined by numerous factors, classified in accordance with the
6
criterion of the organization environment, which means
10
:
7
the general environment which creates time and space conditions in which the
8
organization exists, such as economic and political systems, technology, legal and
9
cultural standards, and values,
10
the target environment, made of the organization and entities with which it interacts.
11
It must be emphasized that the general environment may be understood as: the task
12
environment (connected to the relations that result from competition) and the social
13
environment (economic, political). The target environment, on the other hand, is the
14
organizational environment within the formal borders of the organization
11
. Thus, the factors
15
that shape organizational culture may be divided into: external ones that originate from the
16
surroundings of the organization and internal ones that originate inside it.
17
3.1. External factors creating organizational culture
18
The influence of external factors on organizational culture is related to the development and
19
growth of the organization.
20
The external factors connected to the development of the organization, aiming at a planned,
21
systematic change in the attitudes, beliefs, and values of the employees in order to enable the
22
organization in adopting better to the fast changing external environment of new markets,
23
regulations, and technologies
12
are: changing market, political, legal, financial, technological,
24
and social conditions, as well as the increasing globalization and mobility, changes in
25
consumption and shopping habits, or the life style of societies.
26
The factors related to the growth of the organization are e.g.: the achievements and position
27
of the organization on the market, trends in demand, the penetration of new markets and
28
competing on them, customers’ quality requirements which require flexible organizational
29
structures, the accessibility of capital and qualified personnel.
30
10
Sikorski C.: Zapamiętane z dzieciństwa. Szkice o kulturze organizacyjnej. Wydawnictwo Wyższej Szkoły
Humanistyczno-Ekonomicznej w Łodzi, Łódź 2003, s. 37.
11
Ibidem, s. 36-37.
12
Businessdictionary.com, www.businessdictionary.com, 22.02.2015.
Factors influencing organizational culture 461
Nevertheless, the external conditions influencing organizational culture in the general and
1
target environment are directly connected to national culture
13
. It is defined as a “set of norms,
2
behaviors, beliefs and customs that exist within the population of a sovereign nation”
14
. The
3
influence of national culture on organizational culture is described from two perspectives as
15
:
4
free from the influence of culture admitting the creation of common principles and
5
organizational framework and various modes of conduct, even against cultural
6
constraints;
7
culture-oriented admitting that the employees’ behavior is dominated by national
8
culture to a larger extent than by the culture of the organization they belong to. Culture
9
of society influences also the employees’ values. On one hand this is related to adopting
10
values and cultural patterns directly where people can be made aware of their
11
assimilation (it relates to values and patterns identified by most members of the
12
organization), or where they are unaware of them (it relates to the interpretations of
13
values and cultural patterns that are neither noticed nor interpreted). On the other hand,
14
values are adopted by the organization indirectly, through its members who acquired
15
them in the primary or secondary socialization process. This is particularly visible in the
16
values propagated by the managing staff
16
.
17
It is noteworthy that everybody lives in a number of communities that build a certain
18
society, and the existing correlation of various cultural events provides information to those
19
who participate in the events. The organizational reality is embedded in a broader social context,
20
which, from the organizational perspective, allows the conclusion that “organizational cultures
21
are partly predetermined by nationality, industry, and task, partly related to organizational
22
structure and control systems, and partly unique products of idiosyncratic features like the
23
organization's history“
17
. That means that organizational culture depends strongly on the social
24
and cultural environment in which it functions and on national culture in which it is rooted.
25
The influence of national culture on organizational culture is mostly visible in
18
:
26
the communication in the organization meaning the level of openness and formality of
27
this process, how extrovert it is, and whether it is possible to show emotions,
28
leadership especially the sources of power and the ways of exercising it, the proximity
29
or distance in the hierarchy, the level of the employees’ participation in the decision-
30
making process, the feeling of community,
31
13
Low D., Chapman R.: op.cit., p. 60.
14
Businessdictionary.com
15
Tsui A.S., Nifadkar S.S, Ou A.Y.: op.cit., p. 435-454.
16
Sułkowski Ł.: Kulturowa zmienność organizacji. PWE, Warszawa 2002, s. 108.
17
Hofstede G., Neuijen B., Ohayv D.D., Sanders G.: Measuring organizational cultures: A qualitative and
quantitative study across twenty cases. “Administrative Science Quartely”, No. 35, 1990, p. 306.
18
Aniszewska G.: Geneza pojęcia kultura organizacyjna. „Przegląd Organizacji”, nr 10, 2003, s. 17.
462 K. Szczepańska, D. Kosiorek
motivation the pressure to achieve results, competition, the acceptance of uncertainty,
1
the care for the quality of interpersonal relations, the evaluation of individuals and
2
groups, providing safety,
3
the organization model especially the level of the standardization of work, processes
4
and skills, structure, and ways of exercising control.
5
In recent years, many organizations have introduced or changed policies, products and
6
processes to minimize resource use, and to improve community and stakeholder relations. In
7
order to fully respond to environmental and social challenges, organizations have to undergo
8
significant cultural change
19
. This means that the external conditions influencing organizational
9
culture are included „in the long-term processes of social development, in historical
10
experiences, influences of religion, geographic conditions etc.”
20
.
11
3.2. Internal factors creating organizational culture
12
Role of organization founders in creating organizational culture
13
An important factor creating organizational culture is the founder of an organization.
14
He influences the employees so that most values shared by them in a given organizational
15
culture are the consequence of his actions
21
. The aspects of the founder’s influence on the
16
organizational culture are related to the vision and mission of the company. The vision
17
determines the perspectives and describes the company in the future through which it becomes
18
a power that triggers the employees’ integrated energy which enables the transformation of their
19
motivation into the performance of their tasks
22
. As „an image of the future that the organization
20
members want to create”
23
, the vision does not specify the goals of the company. The aims to
21
be achieved are determined in the mission, which is „a precise expression in a language
22
understandable for the employees and the environment of the organization of far-reaching
23
plans and aspirations of the organization. The mission is therefore a re-formulation of the vision
24
for the purposes of strategy”
24
.
25
The culture-creating role of the mission results from the fact that it concerns the future,
26
it specifies the direction of the actions taken in the organization, which require the employees’
27
collective effort based on the shared values, and by that it concentrates them around the strategic
28
goals. Through that it becomes a message that „is the basis of internal identification”
25
and it
29
enables the organization to distinguish itself, which strengthens the feeling of identity and the
30
employees’ identification with the organization.
31
19
Linnenluecke M.K, Griffiths A.: Corporate sustainability and organizational culture. “Journal of World
Business”, No. 45, 2010, p. 358.
20
Sikorski C.: Nauka o zarządzaniu. Wydawnictwo Akademii Humanistyczno-Ekonomicznej, Łódź 2009, s. 167.
21
Robbins S.P.: Zachowania w organizacji. PWE, Warszawa 1998, s. 410.
22
Zbiegień-Maciąg L.: Kultura w organizacji. Identyfikacja kultur znanych firm. PWN, Warszawa 2005, s. 87.
23
Obłój K.: Strategia organizacji. W poszukiwaniu trwałej przewagi konkurencyjnej. PWE, Warszawa 2007,
s. 389.
24
Ibidem, s. 389.
25
Zbiegień-Maciąg L.: op.cit., s. 78.
Factors influencing organizational culture 463
Role of organization managers in creating organizational culture
1
For operations to be successful, it is necessary that the actions taken by managers are
2
correlated as they aim at producing consistent results. The same refers to the leadership which
3
is a condition for necessary changes
26
. Its style, based on the preferred values, and the nature
4
of the organizational structure determine the limits and the way in which the managers influence
5
the employees of the organization, including their attitudes
27
. The special position of the
6
manager who is somebody that his subordinates feel they depend on and on whom they
7
concentrate their attention”
28
lends strength to his views and opinions, values and attitudes so
8
that they have a considerable impact on the employees. Therefore, his behavior, actions and
9
words shape the image of the organizational culture in the minds of his subordinates.
10
Managers influence the behavior of the people in the organization by setting rules that
11
determine e.g. how desired taking risks is, how much freedom the employees should have, how
12
they should behave, communicate, dress, what actions offer prospects of a pay rise, promotion,
13
or other awards
29
. Hence „corporate culture becomes a tool of the managing staff who, through
14
human resource policy, can influence the members of the organizations”
30
. It must be
15
emphasized that “beyond the assumptions held by leaders, their skills and qualities (including
16
their personal styles and leadership strategies) have a profound impact on organizational
17
culture. This impact can be positive and transformational sending signals for achievement-
18
oriented and cooperative behaviors and thereby creating and reinforcing a constructive culture.
19
However, this impact can alternatively be negative and dysfunctional implicitly requiring
20
passive and aggressive behaviors
31
.
21
22
Role of organization employees in creating culture
23
Each organizational system is based on people who are to carry out the tasks that are
24
necessary to achieve the goals of the organization. On one hand, well-chosen employees with
25
the required qualifications, traits of character, abilities, are fundamental for effective operation
26
of the organization. On the other hand, the people influence the goals and tasks by shaping the
27
environment in which they work is done or where technology is chosen, which require that the
28
employees have to develop new skills.
29
The human factor is essential not only for achieving the objectives of the organization but
30
also, in accordance with the definition of the organization as a system with a specific internal
31
26
Szczepańska K.: Doskonalenie zarządzania jakością. Podstawy. Ocena. Perspektywy. Oficyna Wydawnicza
Politechniki Warszawskiej, Warszawa 2013, s. 87.
27
Stańczyk S.: Nurt kulturowy w zarządzaniu. Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Ekonomicznego, Wrocław 2008,
s. 23.
28
Sikorski C.: op.cit., s. 174.
29
Robbins S.P.: op.cit., s. 412.
30
Stańczyk S.: op.cit., s. 24.
31
Balthazard P.A., Cooke R.A., Potter R.E.: Dysfunctional culture, dysfunctional organization. Capturing the
behavioral norms that form organizational culture and drive performance. “Journal of Managerial Psychology”,
Vol. 21, No. 8, 2006, p. 715.
464 K. Szczepańska, D. Kosiorek
structure, for the proper operation of its individual subsystems, including organizational
1
structure. The employees’ influence on the organizational culture consists in the process of
2
„cultural negotiations, arrangement and – as a result reaching a compromise by the members
3
of the organization on the matter of the desired and appropriate, in their opinion, elements and
4
features of the organization. Those arrangements, which are mostly secret and unconscious,
5
lead to a common perception of the organization as a tool for achieving the interest of the
6
group”
32
. They apply to the elements of the organization (e.g. the strategy and goals, the
7
measures to attain them, the criteria for evaluating the results, or the ways of correcting the
8
directions of its operations), as well as to the cultural integration of its members. The reference
9
points for this integration are e.g. the common language, notions and meanings, the limits of
10
the group, the principles of stratification, interpersonal relations, and the common ideology
33
.
11
The collective acceptance and submission to the values, standards, attitudes, and behavior
12
patterns will have a positive impact on the set of elements of the organizational culture mutually
13
perceived and shared by the employees, which will make it stronger. On the other hand, the
14
lack of compromise as far as the common interpretation of the elements of the organizational
15
culture is concerned, manifested in different attitudes or views of the employees of the
16
organization will hinder the process of shaping the organizational culture in the organization.
17
Hence it is necessary to ensure that the employees of the organization can learn the values,
18
standards, attitudes, and behavior patterns which they may identify with.
19
4. Shaping organizational culture
20
Organizational culture “should be regarded as the right way in which things are done or
21
problems should be understood in the organization”
34
. It is based on the mentality and language
22
affecting common perception of the reality and individual commitment and performance
35
.
23
The cross-influence of „the founders’ assumptions and views and what its first members learn
24
from their own experience”
36
is fundamental for shaping organizational culture. „When the
25
culture already functions, the conduct in the organization supports it, subjecting all employees
26
to similar experiences (…). Of key importance for sustaining the organizational culture are the
27
following factors: the ways of choosing employees, the actions taken by the top management,
28
and the methods of socialization”
37
, which is shown on figure 1.
29
30
32
Sikorski C.: op.cit., s. 164.
33
Ibidem, s. 164-165.
34
Sun S.: op.cit., p. 137.
35
Gupta V.: Cultural basis of high performance organizations. „International Journal of Commerce &
Management”, Vol. 21, No. 3, 2011, p. 223.
36
Robbins S.P.: op.cit., s. 410.
37
Ibidem, s. 410-411.
Factors influencing organizational culture 465
1
2
Fig. 1. Shaping of organizational culture
3
Source: Robbins S.P.: Zachowania w organizacji. PWE, Warszawa 1998, s. 418.
4
5
Organizational culture is shaped in few stages
38
:
6
The first one consists in formulating the principles of organizational culture. The key role
7
is played by the owner, the founder of the organization, or the managing personnel that
8
represents him. The factors that determine organizational culture at that stage are mostly
9
behavioral manifestations of attitudes, standards, and values and the vision of the
10
organization.
11
The second one is the development of organizational culture. It consists in searching for
12
what connects people. It is important to build teams and internalize the community.
13
At this stage the main factors determining the organizational culture are group processes,
14
including the employees’ reactions to the behavior of other members of the organization,
15
the result of which is a change and modification of attitudes and behavior. Also at this
16
stage the organization begins to distinguish itself visibly from other organizations in its
17
environment, which should accelerate the consolidation of its organizational culture.
18
The third one is a process of culture consolidation, adjustment, and stabilization, with the
19
evaluation of human behavior. At this stage the most powerful factors that create the
20
organizational culture are internal processes that lead to the integration of the employees,
21
from the recruitment, through their adaptation in the working environment. The influence
22
of the managing personnel on the employees (e.g. through the managing style, organizing
23
team work, giving instructions, supervision, motivation, awarding) plays a vital role.
24
The fourth one is maturity, i.e. full stabilization, strong internal control, concentration on
25
sustaining the group, but also reluctance to change. The factors with the strongest
26
influence on the organizational culture are consolidated behavior patterns, standards, and
27
other artifacts developed by the members of the group, as well as transparency in contacts
28
with the environment, which should encourage the employees to increase their efforts to
29
consolidate the community.
30
A very important role in the process of shaping organizational culture is played by
31
socialization, the purpose of which is to adjust the employees’ personalities to the
32
organizational culture. The responsibility for shaping the personality i.e.: mentality, attitudes,
33
feelings, and habits of people in the primary socialization, which takes place while the
34
38
Sikorski C.: op.cit., s. 165-166; Zbiegień-Maciąg L.: op.cit., s. 38.
Philosophy of the
organisation founder
Selection criteria /
criteria selection
Top management
Socialisation
Organisational
culture
466 K. Szczepańska, D. Kosiorek
individual is becoming part of the society, rests primarily with the members of the family.
1
In the secondary socialization, which takes place when an individual becomes a member of new
2
social groups (e.g. organizations), the responsibility rests with the community of the
3
organization, especially with the managers. In practice it means the necessity to shape
4
organizational culture through such influence on the members of the organization which will
5
allow the creation and consolidation of desired behavior patterns, based on appreciated values,
6
in the employees’ consciousness and attitudes at the stages of formation, development, and
7
consolidation of organizational culture. Consistently enhanced, they support formal
8
management principles and facilitate the achievement of the goals of the organization.
9
5. Conclusions
10
As it was proved above, the determinants of organizational culture are the internal and
11
external factors. The internal factors that shape organizational culture are the founders of the
12
organization, its managers, and employees who interact with each other in the environment of
13
the formal structure and remain under the influence of the management style and managers.
14
The external factors, on the other hand, related to the development of the organization are
15
e.g.: the changing market, political, technological, social conditions, the increasing globali-
16
zation and mobility, the changing consumption and shopping habits, and the life style of
17
societies. The external factors related to the growth of the organization are e.g.: the
18
achievements and position of the organization on the market, trends in demand, the penetration
19
of new markets and competing on them, customers’ quality requirements, the accessibility of
20
capital and qualified personnel.
21
It is necessary for managers to know the factors that determine organizational culture to
22
shape it consciously. This enables them to influence organizational culture through the factors
23
that can be controlled or influenced by the managers as well as such that are beyond their
24
control. Organizational culture may better fit the needs of the organization if it includes all types
25
of determinants. Nevertheless, it should be investigated how powerful the connection between
26
the determinants that shape organizational culture is.
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Factors influencing organizational culture 467
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... It disclosed that the tutors with relatively long years of experience are less familiar with e-learning practices. These results come in line with (Karaca et al., 2013;Shin, 2010;Tuparova et al., 2006) who declared that the years of educational experience were negatively associated with the harness of technology in education. This was also supported by ( Kisanga, 2015) who affirmed that a significant negative correlation between instructor attitudes towards technology integration in teaching and years of the educational experience. ...
... On the contrary (Shin, 2010;Xhaferi, Farizi and Bahiti, 2018a) found that the years of teaching experiences were positively associated with the use of technology in education. ...
... This is because of the desire to experiment with work and get more compensation. Szczepańska and Kosiorek (2017), argued that the level of education has an effect on turnover. Research conducted by found that employee attachment to the company had a significant negative effect on turnover intention. ...
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Przedstawiono genezę pojęcia kultura organizacyjna. Dokonano przeglądu literatury na ten temat.
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Nic, co ludzkie, nie jest nam obce. To stwierdzenie zdaje się nie przystawać do świata organizacji, w którym aspekty społeczne są często lekceważone i pomijane. Książka stanowi wieloaspektowe studium analityczne zjawiska kulturowego w organizacji. Zostały w niej poruszone problemy skutecznego zarządzania przez kulturę organizacyjną, różnorodności kulturowej oraz funkcjonowania na rynku międzynarodowym. Monografia kierowana jest do badaczy problemów kultury organizacyjnej, studentów zarządzania i refleksyjnych praktyków. „…gorąco rekomenduję wydanie książki (…) jako wartościowej monografii skierowanej przede wszystkim do badaczy problemów kultury organizacyjnej, ale również studentów zarządzania i refleksyjnych praktyków. Fundamentalną wartością przedstawionego opracowania jest synteza i krytyczna analiza wyników światowych i polskich badań kultury organizacyjnej, która może „wyczyścić przedpole” do konceptualizacji i wdrażania kolejnych projektów badawczych” Łukasz Sułkowski
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