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This article provided three themes found in the development of electric utility related laws: laws enacted to change electric utility business practices have been based on historical events of the time, with a view toward providing more stability in business and consumer sectors; laws to date have not been comprehensive in deference to the rights of individual states to determine the business structure and operations of electric utilities within their legal jurisdiction; and in general, new laws that have been enacted tend to carry the best elements of the previous laws, while attempting to provide more relevancy according to the historical needs of the time. This provides an incremental, circular advancement of legal landmarks establishing guidelines for electric utility businesses and consumer interactions. With the advent of utility deregulation and the move towards enabling competition, this process has culminated in calls for a more comprehensive, federal legal structure in the United States. This is because of the changing nature of wholesale and retail power sales and purchases that are increasingly traveling beyond the political boundaries of states, and are more inclined to follow a regional, market-based grid formation. New enactments must be rooted in the most effective provisions found in existing legislation, such as wise business practice regulation and promotion of competition and environmental safeguards.

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... The fault current mode lasts usually a few tens of milliseconds, therefore, a study of the characteristics of a transient heat transfer to liquid nitrogen is required. Previously, to evaluate the temperature rise of the HTS tape an adiabatic approach has been assumed [1, 2]. According to [3], an account of heat transfer to liquid nitrogen by thermal conductivity is essential. ...
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Features of a heat transfer to liquid nitrogen from copper or superconducting tapes loaded by a short step-like current pulse have been studied experimentally. The delay of a heat transfer development have been observed and studied. A phenomenological model enabling us to describe qualitatively the non-stationary heat transfer process on the basis of the stationary boiling curve is proposed. (C) 2012 Published by Elsevier B. V. Selection and/or peer-review under responsibility of the Guest Editors.
... Such a limiter can be designed using 2G HTS tapes. A required amount of HTS tapes for FCL is determined by the amplitude and time duration of a current fault [1, 2, 3] . A majority of publications about FCL were concerned to the design of the ac limiters whereas the attend to the dc fault current limiters is inadequate to give a reasonable solution of the problem [4, 5]. ...
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A circuit of a dc superconducting fault current limiter with a direct current circuit-breaker for a nominal current 300 A is proposed. It includes the 2G high temperature superconducting (HTS) tapes and the high-speed dc vacuum circuitbreaker. The test results of current-limiting capacity and recovery time of superconductivity after current fault at voltage up to 3 kV are presented.
We overview different alternative energy resources and comment on their benefits and challenges. We highlight some features of alternative and sustainable energy resources and discuss some challenges for their integration into the power grid. In view of global trend toward blending alternatives and conventional energy resources in electrical power grids, a more robust energy distribution approach is necessary. Here, we present an alternative to the power grid with great potential for integrating alternative energy sources and defining microgrids—the Controlled-Delivery Grid (CDG). We comment how this new digital approach enhances the distribution of energy may help to resolve those challenges. We also examine the role of energy storage elements (batteries, super-capacitors), and sustainable energy resources in this new approach to the power grid. We provide some numerical analysis on the performance of energy distribution of the CDG and some experimental results that highlight some of its features. © 2017 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Environ Prog, 2017
Definition and Scope Who are the Players in Distribution Generation? Prominent Features of DRs Types of DGs Push Factors, Stay-Put Costs, and Investment Prospects for Electricity Investment Options Planning Sites for a DG Operation of DGs in an Electric Power System Islanding of an EPS Section from the Main Body Allowable Penetration Levels by DRs Synchronous Generator as a DG with Excitation Controls How Can a DG Earn Profits? Scope for Gas-Based DGs Diesel Generators Evaluation of Service Rendered by Stand-by DGs Reliability Cost for a DG Set Maintenance and Protection of Diesel Generators UK Policy on Generation of Low-Carbon Electricity References
In the Public Utilities Regulatory Policies Act (PURPA) in the USA, to promote cogeneration, there exists a key provision for qualifying facilities to sell the cogenerated electric power to host utilities at a predetermined price. In this paper, we investigate the economic implications and consequences of this "right to sell" provision. First, under PURPA, we show how the interaction between a cogeneration facility and an electric utility can be modeled as a Stackelberg game, and derive the equilibrium generation quantities, prices, as well as the corresponding profits and total surplus. We next construct a benchmark model under a deregulated environment. By comparing and contrasting these two models, we obtain various results of managerial insights, economic implications, and policy ramifications. For example, under the right to sell provision, we identify the conditions for a qualifying facility's arbitrage to occur. Also, relative to the deregulated benchmark model, we show how the government's right to sell provision may lead to inferior economic performance.
The use of mean values of thermal and electric demand can be justifiable for synthesising the configuration and for estimating the economic results because it simplifies the analysis in a preliminary feasibility study of a cogeneration plant. For determining the cogeneration scheme that best fits the energetic needs of a process several cycles and combinations must be considered, and those technically feasible will be analysed according to economic models. Although interesting for a first approach, this procedure do not consider that the peaks and valleys present in the load patterns will impose additional constraints relatively to the equipment capacities. In this paper, the effects of thermal and electric load fluctuation to the cogeneration plant design were considered. An approach for modelling these load variability is proposed for comparing two competing thermal and electric parity competing schemes. A gas turbine associated to a heat recovery steam generator was then proposed and analysed for thermal- and electric-following operational strategies. Thermal-following option revealed to be more attractive for the technical and economic limits defined for this analysis.
Conference Paper
Increasing additions of large-scale, non-traditional dispersed electricity generations such as those from wind farms on the traditional power systems have raised considerable concerns about the stability of power systems and adequacy of conventional stability controls. This paper presents an efficient adaptive stability control, based on step-ahead model prediction methodology, for a wide-area power system with multiple generators and distribution systems including dispersed generations. This control named Model Prediction Adaptive Control (MPAC) is built upon optimization of selected performance index defined as weighted combination of generator voltage deviation, mechanical-electrical torque mismatch, and speed incremental. The paper demonstrates effectiveness of MPAC for improvement of the wide-area power system stability. This paper offers unique stability studies for wide-area power systems subjected to disturbances and dynamic dispersed generations simultaneously. This paper presents the new concept, design, and case studies of MPAC. Comprehensive illustration of efficiency of MPAC versus existing methods is provided.
Conference Paper
Connection of distributed generations (DGs) on the distribution systems starts to show benefits but may cause serious stability concerns. This paper presents an efficient adaptive stability control, based on step-ahead model prediction methodology, for distribution systems connected with DGs. This control named Model Prediction Adaptive Control (MPAC) is built upon optimization of selected performance index defined as weighted combination of generator voltage deviation, mechanical-electrical torque mismatch, and speed incremental. This paper demonstrates the capability of the MPAC for improvement of the power system stability. This paper offers unique stability study and control of distribution systems subjected to disturbances simultaneously with dynamic operations of DGs, whereas many literatures were focused on the transmission-level power system stability. This paper presents the new concept and design of the MPAC stability control, hardware implementation using state-of-the-art digital signal processing technology, and case studies. Comprehensive illustration of effectiveness of the MPAC versus existing controls is provided.
Conference Paper
Distributed generations (DGs) have been increasingly connected on the distribution systems, which cause stability concerns. This paper presents a novel adaptive generator control based on step-ahead model predictive methodology. This control, named model prediction adaptive control (MPAC), is built upon optimization of a specific performance index that is defined as a weighted combination of generator voltage deviation, mechanical and electrical torques mismatch, and incremental generator speed. This paper demonstrates the capability of MPAC that can improve significantly the power system stability. This paper offers a unique study and stability control of power distribution systems even with the operations of DGs, whereas most studies in the literatures were focused on the transmission-level power systems.
The Wheeling and Transmission Manual addresses the key issues involved in the debate: the need for coordination, the extent to which access should be permitted, various pricing methodologies which might be employed, obstacles to the addition of new transmission capacity, and contractual matters which should be considered in negotiations between the parties. As one shall see, these matters are all interrelated and the resolution of any of them may affect the outcome of the others. The Manual is designed to give an overview of the issues involved. It is not intended exclusively for the expert engineer or attorney, although both might benefit from it. Rather, the Manual was written with the objective of providing decisionmakers and policymakers with detailed, timely and understandable materials to evaluate the specific circumstances affecting their companies. Each chapter of the book is indexed separately.
Thesis (M.S.)--Illinois Institute of Technology, 1955.
On 13 May 1999, the US Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) issued a Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (NOPR) on regional transmission organizations (RTOs). RTOs are designed to improve efficiency and equity by removing barriers that impede competitive markets. The major debate is on parameters of the RTOs. This article summarizes what appears to be the main points of contention and observes that a key question is getting little attention: will the RTOs do the job? The debate is centered on the form and function of RTOs. Absent from debate is serious discussion on whether the RTO concept will remove barriers and accomplish FERC's efficiency and equity objectives. Most parties assume that RTOs will be created and are taking positions to protect their commercial interests
Cogeneration and Wheeling of Electric Power
  • R G Tessmer
  • J R Jr
  • J H Boyle
  • W A Fish
  • Martin
R.G. Tessmer, Jr., J. R. Boyle, J. H. Fish, W. A. Martin, Cogeneration and Wheeling of Electric Power. Tulsa, OK: Pennwell Books, 1995.
Energy Marketing Handbook
  • D Warkentin
D. Warkentin, Energy Marketing Handbook. Tulsa, OK: Pennwell Books, 1996.
Public Utility Regulation
  • W E Mosher
  • F G Crawford