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Abstract

This article provided three themes found in the development of electric utility related laws: laws enacted to change electric utility business practices have been based on historical events of the time, with a view toward providing more stability in business and consumer sectors; laws to date have not been comprehensive in deference to the rights of individual states to determine the business structure and operations of electric utilities within their legal jurisdiction; and in general, new laws that have been enacted tend to carry the best elements of the previous laws, while attempting to provide more relevancy according to the historical needs of the time. This provides an incremental, circular advancement of legal landmarks establishing guidelines for electric utility businesses and consumer interactions. With the advent of utility deregulation and the move towards enabling competition, this process has culminated in calls for a more comprehensive, federal legal structure in the United States. This is because of the changing nature of wholesale and retail power sales and purchases that are increasingly traveling beyond the political boundaries of states, and are more inclined to follow a regional, market-based grid formation. New enactments must be rooted in the most effective provisions found in existing legislation, such as wise business practice regulation and promotion of competition and environmental safeguards.

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... The fault current mode lasts usually a few tens of milliseconds, therefore, a study of the characteristics of a transient heat transfer to liquid nitrogen is required. Previously, to evaluate the temperature rise of the HTS tape an adiabatic approach has been assumed [1, 2]. According to [3], an account of heat transfer to liquid nitrogen by thermal conductivity is essential. ...
Article
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Features of a heat transfer to liquid nitrogen from copper or superconducting tapes loaded by a short step-like current pulse have been studied experimentally. The delay of a heat transfer development have been observed and studied. A phenomenological model enabling us to describe qualitatively the non-stationary heat transfer process on the basis of the stationary boiling curve is proposed. (C) 2012 Published by Elsevier B. V. Selection and/or peer-review under responsibility of the Guest Editors.
... Such a limiter can be designed using 2G HTS tapes. A required amount of HTS tapes for FCL is determined by the amplitude and time duration of a current fault [1, 2, 3] . A majority of publications about FCL were concerned to the design of the ac limiters whereas the attend to the dc fault current limiters is inadequate to give a reasonable solution of the problem [4, 5]. ...
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A circuit of a dc superconducting fault current limiter with a direct current circuit-breaker for a nominal current 300 A is proposed. It includes the 2G high temperature superconducting (HTS) tapes and the high-speed dc vacuum circuitbreaker. The test results of current-limiting capacity and recovery time of superconductivity after current fault at voltage up to 3 kV are presented.
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The Wheeling and Transmission Manual addresses the key issues involved in the debate: the need for coordination, the extent to which access should be permitted, various pricing methodologies which might be employed, obstacles to the addition of new transmission capacity, and contractual matters which should be considered in negotiations between the parties. As one shall see, these matters are all interrelated and the resolution of any of them may affect the outcome of the others. The Manual is designed to give an overview of the issues involved. It is not intended exclusively for the expert engineer or attorney, although both might benefit from it. Rather, the Manual was written with the objective of providing decisionmakers and policymakers with detailed, timely and understandable materials to evaluate the specific circumstances affecting their companies. Each chapter of the book is indexed separately.
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Thesis (M.S.)--Illinois Institute of Technology, 1955.
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Cogeneration and Wheeling of Electric Power
  • R G Tessmer
  • J R Jr
  • J H Boyle
  • W A Fish
  • Martin
R.G. Tessmer, Jr., J. R. Boyle, J. H. Fish, W. A. Martin, Cogeneration and Wheeling of Electric Power. Tulsa, OK: Pennwell Books, 1995.
Energy Marketing Handbook
  • D Warkentin
D. Warkentin, Energy Marketing Handbook. Tulsa, OK: Pennwell Books, 1996.
Public Utility Regulation
  • W E Mosher
  • F G Crawford