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Abstract

The traditional role of food packaging is continuing to evolve in response to changing market needs. Current drivers such as consumer's demand for safer, “healthier,” and higher-quality foods, ideally with a long shelf-life; the demand for convenient and transparent packaging, and the preference for more sustainable packaging materials, have led to the development of new packaging technologies, such as active packaging (AP). As defined in the European regulation (EC) No 450/2009, AP systems are designed to “deliberately incorporate components that would release or absorb substances into or from the packaged food or the environment surrounding the food.” Active packaging materials are thereby “intended to extend the shelf-life or to maintain or improve the condition of packaged food.” Although extensive research on AP technologies is being undertaken, many of these technologies have not yet been implemented successfully in commercial food packaging systems. Broad communication of their benefits in food product applications will facilitate the successful development and market introduction. In this review, an overview of AP technologies, such as antimicrobial, antioxidant or carbon dioxide-releasing systems, and systems absorbing oxygen, moisture or ethylene, is provided, and, in particular, scientific publications illustrating the benefits of such technologies for specific food products are reviewed. Furthermore, the challenges in applying such AP technologies to food systems and the anticipated direction of future developments are discussed. This review will provide food and packaging scientists with a thorough understanding of the benefits of AP technologies when applied to specific foods and hence can assist in accelerating commercial adoption.

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... First, it is necessary to conceptualize the two types of packaging (smart and active). Smart packages were classified by Yildirim et al. (2018) as: "Intended to extend the shelf-life or to maintain or improve the condition of packaged food", while according to Biji et al. (2015) active or intelligent package are based on the useful interaction between the packaging environment and the food. Therefore, in general, active packaging aims to preserve the quality of a food through the interaction of the packaging with the product. ...
... According Yildirim et al. (2018) active packaging can be divided into two subcategories: absorber (oxygen, carbon dioxide, or ethylene absorbers) and emitters (antioxidant releaser, carbon dioxide emitter, antimicrobial compounds). Regarding possible applications in beef, Kapetanakou et al. (2020) developed an active package with a compound derived from an alcoholic beverage called "tsipouro". ...
... Finally, another recent strategy has addressed the use of biosensors as quality indicators. Biosensors can be classified into two types: Bioreceptor (binds to a target of the bacterial metabolite) and transducer (captures the bioreceptor change and translates it as an electrical signal; Yildirim et al., 2018). The advantage of using a bioreceptor compared to other indicators such as pH, oxygen, time, and temperature, is that the biosensor can be designed for a specific target bacterium, i.e., E. coli O157:H7 by showing the color change when meat and fish are contaminated (Sobhan et al., 2021). ...
Article
Background Microbiological control with the development of robust methodologies has been extensively studied in food science. However, equally important as reducing the microbial load is understanding the sources that led that food to be contaminated. In this sense, we approach in the present review two distinct events: (1) Super-shedding (SS), characterized by the high concentration of a pathogen in the animal's feces (above 104 CFU/g); and (2) High Event Period (HEP) characterized by unexpectedly high contamination in a batch of meat at an abattoir, which may be localized or systemic. Scope and approach The aim of the present review is to explain the aspects involved in these events, bringing insights into the possible cause, and how they impact food production (with emphasis on beef and milk processing), and alternative strategies for microbial detection and inactivation. Key findings and conclusions A microbial biofilm at the recto-anal junction of cattle is a likely cause of the SS event. In addition, the potential for biofilm formation seems to be a converging point between SS and HEP events, and results obtained by whole genome sequencing have demonstrated that a SS strain had the potential to form biofilm and genetic proximity to another strain involved in a food outbreak. Finally, investigation of the impacts of SS and HEP inside a production unit can define the critical control points that will have a direct impact on the reduction of contamination inside an abattoir or dairy.
... In order to better inhibit food oxidation, active packaging systems containing antioxidants are gradually emerging. Active packaging systems, as defined by European regulation (EC) No 450/2009, are "deliberately incorporate components that would release or absorb substances into or from the packaged food or the environment surrounding the food" (Yildirim et al. 2018). In this review, we summarized the active packaging materials containing antioxidants that can inhibit the oxidation reaction in food. ...
... These materials typically consist of antioxidant substances, which may be the polymers used to construct the film or additives (Kuai et al. 2021). In some cases, the antioxidant effect is exerted when these substances are released from the packaging materials and interact with the foods (Yildirim et al. 2018). Since the oxidative degradation of foods often occurs at their surfaces, antioxidant active packaging materials are often more effective than directly adding antioxidants into the food (Yildirim et al. 2018). ...
... In some cases, the antioxidant effect is exerted when these substances are released from the packaging materials and interact with the foods (Yildirim et al. 2018). Since the oxidative degradation of foods often occurs at their surfaces, antioxidant active packaging materials are often more effective than directly adding antioxidants into the food (Yildirim et al. 2018). However, simply incorporating antioxidants into the packaging materials makes it difficult to control their release and absorption kinetics, which may reduce their antioxidant effects. ...
Article
Nanotechnology is being used to create innovative food packaging systems that can inhibit the oxidation of foods, thereby improving their quality, safety, and shelf life. These nano-enabled antioxidant packaging materials may therefore increase the healthiness and sustainability of the food supply chain. Recent progress in the application of nanotechnology to create antioxidant packaging materials is reviewed in this paper. The utilization of nanoparticles, nanofibers, nanocrystals, and nanoemulsions to incorporate antioxidants into these packaging materials is highlighted. The application of nano-enabled antioxidant packaging materials to preserve meat, seafood, fruit, vegetable, and other foods is then discussed. Finally, future directions and challenges in the development of this kind of active packaging material are highlighted to stimulate new areas of future research. Nanotechnology has already been used to create antioxidant packaging materials that inhibit oxidative deterioration reactions in foods, thereby prolonging their shelf life and reducing food waste. However, the safety, cost, efficacy, and scale-up of this technology still needs to be established before it will be commercially viable for many applications.
... Active food packaging expands the features of traditional packaging, including containment, protection, preservation, and communication, shifting from a passive defensive role towards an active role. It acts as a medium of interaction among product, environment, and packaging itself, altering the native environment of the packed product [90]. Depending on its functioning mode, active packaging can be classified under two major categories: scavenging and emitting systems. ...
... All these aspects contribute to increase the final price. Lack of data about migration from packaging to food [90,167,170,178,179,182,187,188,196,203,227] Natural Antimicrobials Only a few natural antimicrobics compounds have a wide range of applications against microorganisms [1,5,19,20,50,[90][91][92]96,107,108,110,133,139,145,147,148,154,179,203,222,228] The third root is related to the impact of these compounds on human health and the environment. In this sense, the composition of each active agent, its specific migration rate from the packaging material, and the interactions with the food product should be fully characterised to avoid any possible hazard for human health and to ensure the quality of the whole package. ...
... All these aspects contribute to increase the final price. Lack of data about migration from packaging to food [90,167,170,178,179,182,187,188,196,203,227] Natural Antimicrobials Only a few natural antimicrobics compounds have a wide range of applications against microorganisms [1,5,19,20,50,[90][91][92]96,107,108,110,133,139,145,147,148,154,179,203,222,228] The third root is related to the impact of these compounds on human health and the environment. In this sense, the composition of each active agent, its specific migration rate from the packaging material, and the interactions with the food product should be fully characterised to avoid any possible hazard for human health and to ensure the quality of the whole package. ...
Article
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Recently, academic research and industries have gained awareness about the economic, environmental, and social impacts of conventional plastic packaging and its disposal. This conscious�ness has oriented efforts towards more sustainable materials such as biopolymers, paving the way for the “green era” of food packaging. This review provides a schematic overview about polymers and blends of them, which are emerging as promising alternatives to conventional plastics. Focus was dedicated to biopolymers from renewable sources and their applications to produce sustainable, active packaging with antimicrobial and antioxidant properties. In particular, the incorporation of plant extracts, food-waste derivatives, and nano-sized materials to produce bio-based active packaging with enhanced technical performances was investigated. According to recent studies, bio-based active packaging enriched with natural-based compounds has the potential to replace petroleum-derived materials. Based on molecular composition, the natural compounds can diversely interact with the native structure of the packaging materials, modulating their barriers, optical and mechanical performances, and conferring them antioxidant and antimicrobial properties. Overall, the recent academic findings could lead to a breakthrough in the field of food packaging, opening the gates to a new generation of packaging solutions which will be sustainable, customised, and green.
... This approach is typically seen in overwrapped and MAP fresh meat in retail and is sometimes used in vacuum-packaging of large meat cuts (e.g., beef striploin and lamb leg). This type of approach can be improved further through the incorporation of active agents such as antimicrobials, antioxidants, oxygen scavengers and/or pH control agents, to achieve multiple functions in a single system [10,51]. There have also been a few studies which have reported the use of absorbent pads containing nanoparticles or essential oils [52] to control the microbial spoilage of fresh meat in tray-formatted packaging, however research on their application in vacuum packaged meat is scarce. ...
... Another strategy which has been commonly used in meat industry is to reduce the oxygen content in the packaging through vacuum packaging or MAP (as described in Section 2.2). Although using vacuum packaging or MAP combined with a good oxygen barrier will limit oxygen in the food packaging, these techniques do not completely remove the oxygen inside the packaging, with a remaining residual oxygen-concentration between 0.5% and 5% [10]. However, lipid oxidation could be triggered even at low oxygen conditions around 0.05% [5]. ...
... For a wide range of food applications, the performance of ascorbic acid and ascorbates-based oxygen scavengers is considered sufficient and are commercially available (e.g., Daraform ® and Freshilizer TM ). Likewise, the incorporation of ascorbic acid into high barrier bio-polymer films or containers has also been explored to protect meat products from oxidation [10]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Active packaging (AP) has been developed to improve the safety, quality and integrity of food, and minimise food waste, while its application in meat is scarce. This review aims to describe meat production and consumption culture in China and New Zealand to provide the context for packaging innovation requirements, focusing on the emerging opportunities for AP to be used for the improvement of the shelf-life of pre-rigor, aged, and frozen-thawed meat products. Sustainable polymers utilised in the manufacturing of AP, manufacturing techniques, the release mechanisms of actives, and legal and regulatory constraints are also discussed. Diverse market compositions and consumption cultures in China and New Zealand require different packaging solutions to extend the shelf-life of meat. AP containing antimicrobials, moisture regulating agents, and an-tioxidants may be used for pre-rigor, dry- and wet-aged products and in improving the quality and shelf-life of frozen-thawed meat. Further innovations using sustainably produced polymers for AP, along with incorporating active compounds of multiple functions for effectively improving meat quality and shelf-life are necessary. Challenges remain to resolve issues with scaling the technology to commercially relevant volumes as well as complying with the rigorous legal and regulatory constraints in various countries.
... Usually, food packaging acts as passive protection for food products, providing a protective barrier between food and environmental influences (oxygen, moisture, light, dust, pest, and volatiles) [66]. Food packaging technology significantly impacts food products to minimize the possible deterioration or degradation of quality and improve the shelf life of packaged food [67]. Scientists have worked hard to enhance packaging by developing various technologies for food packaging, such as vacuum packaging, modified atmosphere packaging (MAP), active packaging, and smart packaging. ...
... The plasticizers will react with the polymer's chain, increasing flexibility and improving mechanical and physical properties [82]. Moreover, active packaging can absorb/scavenge properties and release/emit properties [67]. The scavenging system of active packaging is responsible for absorbing volatile compounds that can cause off-flavor, oxidation, and discoloration to the food product by incorporating absorbing materials. ...
Article
Full-text available
The color indicator can monitor the quality and safety of food products due to its sensitive nature toward various pH levels. A color indicator helps consumers monitor the freshness of food products since it is difficult for them to depend solely on their appearance. Thus, this review could provide alternative suggestions to solve the food-spoilage determination, especially for perishable food. Usually, food spoilage happens due to protein and lipid oxidation, enzymatic reaction , and microbial activity that will cause an alteration of the pH level. Due to their broad-spectrum properties, natural sources such as anthocyanin, curcumin, and betacyanin are commonly used in developing color indicators. They can also improve the gelatin-based film's morphology and significant drawbacks. Incorporating natural colorants into the gelatin-based film can improve the film's strength, gas-barrier properties, and water-vapor permeability and provide antioxidant and antimicrobial properties. Hence, the color indicator can be utilized as an effective tool to monitor and control the shelf life of packaged foods. Nevertheless, future studies should consider the determination of food-spoilage observation using natural colorants from betacyanin, chlorophyll, and carotenoids, as well as the determination of gas levels in food spoilage, especially carbon dioxide gas.
... The antimicrobial properties of NMs have been exploited in the food industry and are being closely associated with the active packaging procedures. Active packaging is a recent technology that is developed to prolong shelf life along with maintaining excellence, security, and reliability of food [122]. As defined by the European regulation (EC) No 450/2009 active packaging consists of packaging schemes that interact with food in such a way to include components that release or absorb substances into F I N A L or from the packed food or the environment around the food on purpose [123]. ...
... Active packaging systems are further categorized into active scavenging systems and active releasing systems. Unwanted components are removed from the food via an active scavenging system from the surrounding milieu such as moisture, oxygen, ethylene, carbon dioxide, while the emitters add up desired compounds into the food such as antioxidants, flavors, ethylene, an antimicrobial compound, and so on [122]. ...
Chapter
Full-text available
Nanotechnology has provided new insights in the arena of food science, especially in packaging and storage. Various nanostructured materials are involved largely in the preservation and packaging of food items. Among various types of functional food, nutraceuticals have been in limelight for a decade or so for their positive effect on health. Nanotechniques are instrumental in the nutraceutical food industry. Nanoencapsulation results in enhanced bioavailability and solubil-ity of nutritional ingredients especially minerals and vitamins. This results in controlled release and protection of essential molecules and micronutrients during processing and enhancing its beneficial action in the living system. In addition, nanoparticles also provide an efficient antimicrobial activity thereby preventing the foodstuffs from decay or unwanted contamination. The chapter is composed to highlight the various actions of nanomaterials in the handling and safeguarding of food nutraceuticals. Efforts have been made to highlight the various beneficial activities of nutraceuticals and how they are involved in their fortification and preservation of targeted delivery. The mechanistic aspects of nanomaterials in bringing about the desirable actions have also been highlighted.
... Mangiacapra et al. [115] described the ability to minimize the oxygen diffusion in pectin-based edible films through the incorporation of montmorillonite clay into the packaging complex. Yildirim et al. [116] also developed nanocomposites prepared by gelatin and montmorillonite and reported that the intercalation with montmorillonite could significantly enhance the thermal properties of gelatin, while the mechanical properties of the composite can be improved notably due to high barrier properties exhibited by montmorillonite. ...
... Recent developments in the active edible packaging applications in the food industry: An active edible packaging involves the careful incorporation of functional ingredients to release or absorb specific compounds from or into the packed food or its surrounding environment [116]. This novel approach helps to maintain or extend the storage life of foodstuffs, thus confirming their safety, quality and reliability. ...
Article
The accumulation of non-biodegradable food packaging waste which causes huge pollution to the environment, has become a major issue. Currently, the use of edible and biodegradable packaging for food applications to avoid the generation of waste is a fast-emerging ecofriendly technology with increased attention. The edible packaging; films and coatings synthesized from biodegradable sources like polysaccharides, lipids, proteins and composites can be consumed without disposing them to the environment. These can be used on different foods by functioning as barriers to moisture, vapours and other solutes, also by reducing lipid oxidation and discolouration. They perform multiple functions as carriers for active compounds and have the ability to release them at a controlled rate to the packed food, which significantly extends the shelf-life and hence, improves the quality of food. This review focuses on the recent researches on the innovative biopolymer-based edible packaging, an alternative to synthetic nonedible packaging.
... Mangiacapra et al. [115] described the ability to minimize the oxygen diffusion in pectin-based edible films through the incorporation of montmorillonite clay into the packaging complex. Yildirim et al. [116] also developed nanocomposites prepared by gelatin and montmorillonite and reported that the intercalation with montmorillonite could significantly enhance the thermal properties of gelatin, while the mechanical properties of the composite can be improved notably due to high barrier properties exhibited by montmorillonite. ...
... Recent developments in the active edible packaging applications in the food industry: An active edible packaging involves the careful incorporation of functional ingredients to release or absorb specific compounds from or into the packed food or its surrounding environment [116]. This novel approach helps to maintain or extend the storage life of foodstuffs, thus confirming their safety, quality and reliability. ...
Article
Full-text available
The accumulation of non-biodegradable food packaging waste which causes huge pollution to the environment, has become a major issue. Currently, the use of edible and biodegradable packaging for food applications to avoid the generation of waste is a fast-emerging eco-friendly technology with increased attention. The edible packaging; films and coatings synthesized from biodegradable sources like polysaccharides, lipids, proteins and composites can be consumed without disposing them to the environment. These can be used on different foods by functioning as barriers to moisture, vapours and other solutes, also by reducing lipid oxidation and discolouration. They perform multiple functions as carriers for active compounds and have the ability to release them at a controlled rate to the packed food, which significantly extends the shelf-life and hence, improves the quality of food. This review focuses on the recent researches on the innovative biopolymer-based edible packaging, an alternative to synthetic nonedible packaging.
... Oxygen scavengers (OS) are substances that absorb oxygen chemically or enzymatically and have been used in packaging systems to protect food against deterioration [4]. These types of systems in which a component is intentionally added to interact favorably with the food product through the release or absorption of an active component from or to the food product or environment [5,6] are called active packaging systems. ...
Article
Full-text available
Commercially available oxygen scavengers used to prevent lipid autoxidation, microbial growth and enzymatic browning in food products present several issues, which include the usage of metals and their moisture dependence to work properly. We present the synthesis and characterization of a moisture-independent oil-based oxygen scavenging system comprised of linseed oil and silica nanoparticles. The system was synthesized via sol-gel chemistry and was characterized using morphological analysis (SEM, AFM, TEM, and N2 adsorption/desorption), oil-loading analysis (TGA), and surface analysis (ζ-potential and ATR-FTIR). Performance of the system was evaluated through headspace measurements and reproducibility of synthetic procedure was verified using six replicates. Nanoparticles showed the desired spherical shape with a diameter of (122.7 ± 42.7 nm) and mesoporosity (pore diameter = 3.66 ± 0.08 nm), with an encapsulation efficiency of 33.9 ± 1.5% and a highly negative ζ-potential (−56.1 ± 1.2 mV) in basic solution. Performance of the system showed a promising high value for oxygen absorption of 25.8 ± 4.5 mL O2/g of encapsulated oil (8.3 ± 1.5 mL O2/g of nanocapsules) through a moisture independent mechanism, which suggests that the synthesized system can be used as an oxygen scavenger in dry atmosphere conditions.
... The amount of moisture and the activity of the water in various types of meals are important elements impacting their quality and safety. According to Yildirim and others (2019), there are various types of moisture control strategies used in packaging, such as vacuum packaging, which involves removing the humid air from the headspace, moisture prevention (using barrier packaging), moisture reduction (by modified atmosphere packaging or MAP), which involves substituting the humid air in the headspace with dry MA gas, or and moisture elimination (by using a desiccant or absorber) [19]. Table 2 contains some examples of food product applications; however, pads are eliminated because they are already widely utilized in the market. ...
Article
In response to shifting consumer demands, food packaging's conventional function is continuing to change. Consumer desire for healthier, safer and good quality meals with longer shelf-life is one of the current causes that are challenging the food packaging sector to produce new and better technology packaging solutions. Therefore, Active packaging (AP) can be used to satisfy these requirements. The biggest advantage of Active packaging (AP) is less food waste because the items have a longer shelf life. Undoubtedly, active packaging is a great option for a variety of food sector applications. In the upcoming years, the commercial success of active packaging systems should be anticipated as they represent the growth of food packaging in the future. In this review, a summary of active packaging technologies, including oxygen scavenger, moisture scavenger, ethylene absorber, antioxidant-releaser, CO2 emitter, and antimicrobial packaging systems are provided. In particular, reviews of scientific studies emphasizing the advantages of these technologies for certain food products are conducted. However, the development of food nano-packaging is still in its early stage, despite having numerous opportunities to enhance packaging materials and functions. Although, due to the advancements in nanotechnology there might be higher chances of enabling the creation of better active packaging. This article also discusses current breakthroughs in food nano packaging based on active nanoparticles.
... Esser, Schnorr and Swager (2012) developed a carbon nanotube sensor to detect emitted ethylene by the horticulture produce during storage period. Yildirim et al. (2017) reported that the nano and bioactive packaging acted as absorber of ethylene and reduced the production on ethylene from climacteric fruits and vegetables and prolonged the shelf-life of the produce during storage condition. Esyanti, Zaskia, and Amalia (2019) treated banana fruits by chitosan nanoparticle coating and enhanced the shelf-life of the fruits by controlling ethylene production during storage period. ...
Article
Fruits and vegetables contain excellent amounts of nutritional and bioactive compounds. The maintenance their shelf-life and prevention from decay, quality deterioration, and microbial spoilage of the fresh produce are the major challenges for food processing industries. Several techniques such as physical, chemical, and bio-preservation are used to extend the shelf-life of fresh produce. However, these techniques could not fully sustain because of their higher cost, and side-effects. In past few decades, nanotechnology came into existence, which provides a green, novel and cutting-edge solution to preserve fresh produce. Organic, inorganic, and combined engineered nanomaterials (nano-particles, nano-composites, nano-emulsion, nano-tracers, nano-packaging, and nano-sensors) are broadly used in shelf-life improvement of fresh produce because of their broad surface to volume ratio, higher barrier property, and better antimicrobial spectrum. This review comprehensively discusses various methods, components, and roles of nanotechnology for extending the shelf-life of fresh produce and scope of developing advanced packaging.
... In addition to antimicrobial agents, antioxidants, essential oils, natural pigments, and plant extracts have also been used in packaging materials [6]. Inorganic materials such as nano-sized metals, metal salts, and metal oxides seem promising for this purpose and are frequently used as antibacterial agents [7,8]. The incorporation of metal nanoparticles (ZnO, TiO2 and silica) into composite films has resulted in nanocomposites that are light in weight, stronger in thermomechanical performance, fire resistant, and less permeable to gases. ...
Article
Full-text available
The current research work presented the synthesis of carboxymethyl cellulose–gelatin (CMC/GEL) blend and CMC/GEL/ZnO-Nps hydrogel films which were characterized by FT-IR and XRD, and applied to antibacterial and antioxidant activities for food preservation as well as for biomedical applications. ZnO-Nps were incorporated into the carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) and gelatin (GEL) film-forming solution by solution casting followed by sonication. Homogenous mixing of ZnO-Nps with CMC/GEL blend improved thermal stability, mechanical properties, and moisture content of the neat CMC/GEL films. Further, a significant improvement was observed in the antibacterial activity and antioxidant properties of CMC/GEL/ZnO films against two food pathogens, Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. Overall, CMC/GEL/ZnO films are eco-friendly and can be applied in sustainable food packaging materials.
... Multilayer packaging films are commonly used to preserve food, sustaining the shelf life of food (Anukiruthika et al., 2020;Yildirim et al., 2018). As compared to rigid containers such as bottles made of glass and polyethylene terephthalate (PET), multilayer packaging films are lighter and easier to transport. ...
Article
Highly acidic condiments such as hot sauce can deteriorate multilayer packaging films. To date, only a multilayer polymeric film (polyethylene terephthalate/ink/polyethylene/foil/polyethylene/SiOx coated polyethylene terephthalate/adhesives/Barex®) utilizing a proprietary resin, Barex® as one of its polymeric layers can preserve hot sauce for military rations. However, the production of Barex® stopped in 2016. To identify substitutes for Barex®, an immersion study of films in hot sauce was conducted with several commercially available multilayer films (Polyethylene terephthalate/ink/adhesive/polyamide/adhesive/polypropylene and polyethylene terephthalate/waste low-density polyethylene/aluminum foil/adhesive/polyester/low-density polyethylene) and a monolayer Barex® (acrylonitrile methyl acrylate copolymer) film. All films were immersed in hot sauce, acetic acid, and sodium chloride solutions at 50 °C for 12 weeks. The mass, thickness, morphology, and chemical compositions of each film were analyzed every three weeks. Hot sauce and acetic acid solution similarly deteriorated multilayer films, causing delamination and oxidative degradation, but not sodium chloride solutions. This indicates that the failure of the multilayer packaging of hot sauce was likely caused by the low pH environment, not heat or salt ions. The two primary innovations in this study are: 1) the finding that acidic components in hot sauce deteriorate multilayer packaging by transforming aluminum foil into a soluble salt and by oxidizing polyethylene, and 2) surface erosion plays a significant role in inducing polyethylene oxidation. This is the first study to describe how a highly acidic food deteriorates multilayer packaging used for military rations.
... In the modern global economy, packaging is crucial for the efficient distribution and preservation of food and other consumer goods, as well as for the convenience of their end-use and consumer communication (Mihindukulasuriya and Lim, 2014). The main purpose of packaging is to act as a container for the food, allowing for effective delivery across the whole supply chain, preventing any physical damage, and safeguarding against manipulation and theft (Yildirim et al., 2018). Some of the ongoing issues faced by the food and packaging sectors include non-sustainable production, a lack of recyclability, and poor mechanical and barrier qualities. ...
Preprint
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Studies were carried out to develop eco-friendly Packaging material for extended shelf-life of food products. Nano cellulose (NC) from Maize Cob was used as filler in the synthesis of Nanopolymers enriched with Thyme oil, Cinnamon oil, clove oil, and Rosemary oil. Characterization of nanopolymer coated bag and their effect on enhancing the shelf-life of food products in different temperature condition was also studied. Nanocellulose was extracted from the maize cob using steam coupled chemical treatment. The average size of NC extracted from the maize cob was found to be around 20–100 nm when observed under Scanning Electron Micrscope (SEM) and Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM). The polymer based nano-films were developed using NC (1%), Poly Lactic Acid (PLA) (7%), Glycerol Triacetate (3%) and the nano polymers were enriched separately with thyme oil, Cinnamon oil, Clove oil and Rosemary oil at a concentration of 5000 ppm. The functional characterization of the nanocomposites was done using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR) and the developed nanocomposite coated sheet showed that the peaks corresponding to the aromatic groups were obtained at 2981cm − 1 . The peaks of the cellulose were present at 1215 cm − 1 . The Triacetin compounds were present at the range of 1063 cm − 1 . The X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) pattern of the Maize cob, Cellulose and Nanocellulose exhibited strong peaks at 2θ ≈ 22.44°, 22.49°, and 22.03° respectively. The particle size of 213.5nm and zeta of -34mV was observed. TGA curve has shown that all the nanocomposites films got degraded at a temperature of 400°C. Approximately 95% of the samples degraded thermally above 360°C.The contact angle of uncoated paper sheet was found to be hydrophilic in nature with the angle of 78 o and the different essential oil based nanocomposite coated sheet of thyme, cinnamon, clove and rosemary exhibited the angle of 115.6°, 100.1°, 95.1° and 88.9° which are hydrophobic in nature. The insect repellency test was carried out for nanocomposite coated and uncoated bags and the result show that nanocomposite bags repel the insects with the efficiency of more than 80% and the uncoated bags with efficiency of 20%. The antifungal test was carried out for different essential oil based nanocomposites against Fusarium spp and the nanocomposites show good antifungal property with 100% inhibition zone.
... Natural antioxidant compounds, on the other hand, have sparked renewed interest in recent years. Various studies have reported improved oxidative stability in various foods using tocopherols, polyphenols, and plant extracts, including essential oils (Yildirim et al. 2018). ...
Chapter
Food packaging has a considerable vital effect in preserving the food quality from any physico-chemical and environmental damage. The requirement of consumers and industry for improved quality food has resulted in the production of active and intelligent food packaging technology in recent years. Traditionally, plastic material is applied in the food industry owing to its extensive accessibility and excellent mechanical properties at a low cost. The rising environmental and health concern of plastic packaging waste has conducted to the introduction of eco-friendly materials. Bio-based polymer materials can be treated for the formation of biodegradable plastics. To succeed in this aim, biopolymers should be inexpensive, biodegradable, and richly accessible. Bioplastic packaging substances derived from sustainable biomass could be applied as a continuous replacement to petrochemically derived plastic substances. This chapter highlights the progress in biopolymer-developed packaging with considering active and intelligent packaging.KeywordsBiopolymersBlendsExtrusionSolvent castingElectrospinning3D PrintingLayer by layer
... Natural antioxidant compounds, on the other hand, have sparked renewed interest in recent years. Various studies have reported improved oxidative stability in various foods using tocopherols, polyphenols, and plant extracts, including essential oils (Yildirim et al. 2018). ...
Chapter
Full-text available
Plastic application is one of the crucial concerns due to the global environmental impact, and shifting to biodegradable food packaging would be a favorable option. This review aims to use biodegradable microbial-derived polymers in food packaging. The main criteria in food application are mechanical and thermal characteristics and water vapor gas transfer. Among materials, microbial polymers, polysaccharides, and polyhydroxyalkanoate are desirable in food packaging due to being biodegradable, having better physical properties, and lower O2 and CO2 permeability with no catalysts residue. This article focuses on microbial polysaccharides (e.g., bacterial cellulose) and polyhydroxyalkanoate in food packaging. The necessity of using biobased polymers in food packages is expressed in the introduction part. The application of the most common biopolymers is described. The biopolymers production, polyhydroxybutyrate-based nanocomposites, and some microbial polysaccharide (e.g., BC) properties in food packaging are also discussed. Moreover, some improvement issues of polyhydroxybutyrate and microbial polysaccharide (e.g., BC) properties are explained, and the nanotechnology impresses on improving the physical properties. Eventually, the article includes some possible future trends.KeywordsPoly(hydroxybutyrate)Poly(hydroxyalkanoate)Food packagingPropertiesModificationsNanoparticlesMicrobial polisaccharides and bacterial celulose
... Active packaging can therefore be divided into packages with antibacterial properties, oxygen-absorbing packages, CO2-absorbing or emitting packages, ethylene-absorbing packages, ethanol-emitting packages, oxygen-absorbing packages, odor-absorbing/emitting packages and packaging protecting the color of the product [2]. ...
Article
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For some time, traditional food packaging has not been able to meet the current market demand in some segments. This is mainly due to the advancing market globalization, increasing product complexity, the changing and increasingly high expectations and needs of customers, increasing requirements for monitoring packaging materials and, consequently, food safety, as well as the revival of national and international initiatives to support the circular economy and minimize the carbon footprint of manufactured products. Therefore, smart packaging with increased functionality has become indispensable. On the one hand, this solution allows for the offering or adaptation of products that meet the stricter national and international regulatory requirements (in particular for food safety) and allows a tracking from the cradle to the grave; on the other hand, it can serve as a way to expand markets in the context of globalization. Moreover attention should be paid to the development of knowledge on environmental protection and the increasing environmental awareness of consumers. In connection with the above, in recent years there has been an increase in interest in the design and production of new packaging for food products based on the latest technical and technological solutions. It is primarily intelligent and active packaging that should be mentioned here. Hence, the aim of the article, as well as that of our own conducted research, was to analyze consumer attitudes and behaviors in the field of modern food packaging, as well as to check the level of awareness of consumers from Eastern Poland in relation to innovative active and intelligent packaging in the food industry. In addition, the intermediate aim was also to identify other factors influencing the attractiveness of food packaging and, consequently, increasing the willingness to buy them. To achieve these aims, a literature study was carried out, as well as empirical research using the diagnostic survey method, conducted among the inhabitants of South-Eastern Poland. Based on our own research, it can be concluded that the level of knowledge of the essence of intelligent and active packaging in Eastern Poland is still at a low level. Among the other factors increasing the attractiveness of packaging for food products, contemporary consumers from the analyzed region of Poland indicated primarily their environmental friendliness, the possibility of recycling, as well as the readability and transparency of the information contained on the packaging.
... Edible films act as a conduit for interactions between the environment, the product, and the packaging. Typically, these interactions involve a range of physical, chemical, and biological activities that change the natural environment in which the food is packed, improving the product's sustainability, safety, quality, and shelf life [111]. Perhaps, by modifying and controlling the internal environment of individual items, edible coatings on fresh foods can offer an alternative to modified atmosphere storage by decreasing quality changes and quantity losses. ...
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Over the past two decades, food packaging and packaging industry have paid close attention to create biodegradable and edible polymer films and coatings. In a broad way, edible polymers emerged as a new class of materials that garnered significant properties due to their advantages over synthetic petroleum-based films. When compared to conventional packaging materials, edible polymer films can fundamentally simplify products, improving their potential to be recycled. This work aims to give readers a thorough introduction to edible polymer films, by discussing present research trends, classification, functionality and composition, fabrication, and characterization. The work also emphasizes the advantages and disadvantages of edible polymer films based on meat, poultry, dairy products, fruits, nuts, and vegetables.
... Using active packaging instead of directly adding the substances to the bulk of the food can diminish the amount of substance required, especially through a controlled release, since the degradation or bacterial growth of food takes place mainly on the surface. However, the complex structure of food can vary the releasing or absorption rates and thus the efficiency and activity of the packaging, limiting the widespread use of active packaging [20]. ...
Article
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Polymers are extensively used in food and beverage packaging to shield against contaminants and external damage due to their barrier properties, protecting the goods inside and reducing waste. However, current trends in polymers for food, water, and beverage applications are moving forward into the design and preparation of advanced polymers, which can act as active packaging, bearing active ingredients in their formulation, or controlling the head-space composition to extend the shelf-life of the goods inside. In addition, polymers can serve as sensory polymers to detect and indicate the presence of target species, including contaminants of food quality indicators, or even to remove or separate target species for later quantification. Polymers are nowadays essential materials for both food safety and the extension of food shelf-life, which are key goals of the food industry, and the irruption of smart materials is opening new opportunities for going even further in these goals. This review describes the state of the art following the last 10 years of research within the field of food and beverage polymer’s applications, covering present applications, perspectives, and concerns related to waste generation and the circular economy.
... According to Yildirim [24], UV-C exposure may have a negative effect on food quality. To avoid this possible adverse effect, the light beam was focused on the ethylene and not on the fruit since the device is completely closed, except for two air inlet and outlet openings, the UV-C radiation does not leave the system. ...
Article
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This present study proposes an improvement for the postharvest preservation of the ‘Ercolini’ pear, a fruit that is little tested in the field, using a combination of ethylene elimination methods. The techniques used were potassium permanganate filters in devices with ultraviolet radiation and constant air flow to favour the contact of ethylene with the oxidising agents. The analysis carried out included weight, diameter, firmness, soluble solids content, total acidity, maturity index, ascorbic acid concentration, total phenolic compounds, antioxidant capacity via the ORAC method and a descriptive sensory analysis using experts. In addition, the ethylene removal method was tested at two storage temperatures: 1 °C, near optimal temperature, and 8 °C, the standard temperature for transport and storage of fruit on a commercial scale. The results showed a marked improvement in the maintenance of postharvest physicochemical quality using the proposed combination of methods. The sensory analysis confirmed what was observed in the laboratory, with higher organoleptic quality values observed in pears treated with the complete system under study consisting of filter and machine, highlighting the greater presence of flavours and odours related to green fruit. Ultimately, this innovation could be highly relevant for the food industry.
... Active packaging systems are designed to "deliberately incorporate components that would release or absorb substances into or from the packaged food or the environment surrounding the food." Active packaging materials are intended to extend the shelf life or to maintain or improve the condition of packaged food [4,5]. Garcia and Copetti (2016) [6] distinguished two kinds of antimicrobial packaging. ...
Article
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Polymeric materials including plastic and paper are commonly used as packaging for bakery products. The incorporation of active substances produces functional polymers that can effectively retain the quality and safety of packaged products. Polymeric materials can be used to produce a variety of package forms such as film, tray, pouch, rigid container and multilayer film. This review summarizes recent findings and developments of functional polymeric packaging for bakery products. Functional polymerics are mainly produced by the incorporation of non-volatile and volatile active substances that effectively retain the quality of packaged bakery products. Antimicrobial agents (either synthetic or natural substances) have been intensively investigated, whereas advances in coating technology with functional materials either as edible coatings or non-edible coatings have also preserved the quality of packaged bakery products. Recent patents demonstrate novel structural packaging designs combined with active functions to extend the shelf life of bakery products. Other forms of active packaging technology for bakery products include oxygen absorbers and ethanol emitters. The latest research progress of functional polymeric packaging for bakery products, which provides important reference value for reducing the waste and improving the quality of packaged products, is demonstrated. Moreover, the review systematically analyzed the spoilage factors of baked products from physicochemical, chemical and microbiological perspectives. Functional packaging using polymeric materials can be used to preserve the quality of packaged bakery products.
... In the last decade, the concept of active packaging emerged as an innovation in the field of food packaging technology. The active wrapping is developed based on the embedding active substances such as antimicrobials and/or antioxidants in the wrapping structure to reduce undesirable changes in food and enhance food safety and quality [2]. The slow release of active components from films structure on food surfaces reveals benefits compared to the direct use of natural preservatives in food due to their low effectiveness following the interaction with food compounds. ...
Article
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In this study, the active polycaprolactone (PCL)/ polylactic acid (PLA) films containing different ratios of polymers (100:0, 80:20, 70:30) and concentrations of green tea extract (GTE) (10, 20, and 30% w/w) were fabricated. The GTE was extracted by the traditional maceration method and the results indicated that its phenolic content was 64.76 mg gallic acid/g extract and IC50 as antioxidant potential was 0.251 mg/ml. Also, the diameter of the inhibition area in well-diffusion test against E. coli and L. monocytogenes was measured 12 ± 0.78 and 14 ± 0.56 mm, respectively. The highest release of GTE components from active composite films was obtained in a lipophilic simulant solution containing 50% ethanol. The variation range of antioxidant activity of films in lipophilic and hydrophilic solutions was 14–64% and 2–6%, respectively. The increase of GTE concentration in films improved their antioxidant and antimicrobial properties. The highest bacterial growth inhibition was 0.45–1.07 Log CFU/ml which was observed in the presence of PCL/PLA films containing 30% (w/w) GTE against pathogenic bacteria (L. monocytogenes and E.coli). The application of PCL/PLA- GTE (30% w/w) film as an active packaging could reduce microbial growth by 35.84% and lipid oxidation by 40% on sausage samples in comparison with the unwrapped control sample. The observations could offer novel PCL/PLA films containing natural active components with antibacterial and antioxidant properties for use as a green biodegradable wrapping and alternative to traditional packaging in the food industry to prolong the food shelf-life.
... According to European regulation (EC) No 450/2009, active materials and articles mean materials and articles that are intended to extend the shelf-life or to maintain or improve the condition of packaged food; they are designed to deliberately incorporate components that would release or absorb substances into or from the packaged food or the environment surrounding the food. Two types of active packaging systems are in practice: active scavenging systems or absorbers that remove undesirable substances, such as moisture, carbon dioxide, oxygen, ethylene or odor molecules from the packed food or its surroundings; and active releasing systems or emitters that release favorable compounds, such as antimicrobial compounds, antioxidants, flavor, ethylene or carbon dioxide, to the packed food or headspace to extend shelf life and enhance the safety and sensory characteristics without loss of product quality [137]. Doh et al. [138] manufactured seaweed nanocomposite biopolymer films reinforced with cellulose nanocrystals using the brown seaweeds kombu (L. ...
Article
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The marine macroalgae produce a collection of bioactive polysaccharides, of which the sulfated heteropolysaccharide fucoidan produced by brown algae of the class Phaeophyceae has received worldwide attention because of its particular biological actions that confer nutritional and health benefits to humans and animals. The biological actions of fucoidan are determined by their structure and chemical composition, which are largely influenced by the geographical location, harvest season, extraction process, etc. This review discusses the structure, chemical composition and physicochemical properties of fucoidan. The biological action of fucoidan and its applications for human health, tissue engineering, regenerative medicine and drug delivery are also addressed. The industrial scenario and prospects of research depicted would give an insight into developing fucoidan as a commercially viable and sustainable bioactive material in the nutritional and pharmacological sectors.
... According to the principles of reaction, TTI might be classified as diffusion-, microbial-, enzymatic-, and polymer-based devices. Gas indicators have to be placed in the headspace of the container to monitor the packaging integrity or the efficiency of gas scavengers informing via visual change followed chemical or enzymatic reaction (Dobrucka & Cierpiszewski, 2014;Yildirim et al., 2018). Freshness indicators give data on quality of the food by reacting with microbial growth metabolites (glucose, acetic or lactic acid, ethanol) or food degradation compounds (biogenic amines, carbon dioxide, ATP degradation products, and sulfuric compounds) as well as with natural aroma compounds that are produced when fresh produce ripens (Lee & Rahman, 2014). ...
Conference Paper
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According to the UN’s Food and Agriculture Organization, an estimated 1.3 billion tons of food are thrown away globally each year. It is nearly one third of all food produced for human consumption and this amount is more than enough to feed all the 815 million hungry people in the world. How is this possible? What can we do to reduce this awful loss? Food waste is an extremely complex problem with multiple underlying causes. No single effort can deliver a complete solution to this problem. Nevertheless, isolated issues of the food waste can be successfully tackled via targeted research activities. This position paper addresses the problem of food waste and its safety by discussing the advantages and drawbacks of developing pH indicator for packaging. Special attention will be paid to a key element of an intelligent packaging system – a real-time amine sensor, which main purpose would be to provide information regarding the freshness of packaged meat and fish products. Key words: food waste, intelligent packaging, pH indicators, biogenic amines
... Beside the more conventional curing methods, irradiation [66], pressure [67], and active packaging [68][69][70] are methods that are frequently used in an industrial production process. Since these methods appear very exotic for consumers, a PPA treatment is analogous to an ordinary curing method that might be advantageous for consumer acceptance. ...
Article
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The control of the pathogenic load on foodstuffs is a key element in food safety. Particularly, seafood such as cold-smoked salmon is threatened by pathogens such as Salmonella sp. or Listeria monocytogenes. Despite strict existing hygiene procedures, the production industry constantly demands novel, reliable methods for microbial decontamination. Against that background, a microwave plasma-based decontamination technique via plasma-processed air (PPA) is presented. Thereby, the samples undergo two treatment steps, a pre-treatment step where PPA is produced when compressed air flows over a plasma torch, and a post-treatment step where the PPA acts on the samples. This publication embraces experiments that compare the total viable count (tvc) of bacteria found on PPA-treated raw (rs) and cold-smoked salmon (css) samples and their references. The tvc over the storage time is evaluated using a logistic growth model that reveals a PPA sensitivity for raw salmon (rs). A shelf-life prolongation of two days is determined. When cold-smoked salmon (css) is PPA-treated, the treatment reveals no further impact. When PPA-treated raw salmon (rs) is compared with PPA-untreated cold-smoked salmon (css), the PPA treatment appears as reliable as the cold-smoking process and retards the growth of cultivable bacteria in the same manner. The experiments are flanked by quality measurements such as color and texture measurements before and after the PPA treatment. Salmon samples, which undergo an overtreatment, solely show light changes such as a whitish surface flocculation. A relatively mild treatment as applied in the storage experiments has no further detected impact on the fish matrix.
Chapter
The average production of agricultural products globally has reached 23.7 million tons of food per day in recent years, while the destruction and waste of food annually account for a significant amount of this reform [1]. The Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) estimates that about 1.3 billion tons of food is wasted annually, or about 15% of total annual production [2]. This number is equivalent to 33% of the average daily consumption of an adult. The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) says a significant portion of this food spoilage occurs at the retail level, most related to vegetables and fruits [3]. Smarter use of food packaging can significantly reduce the waste of various foods [4].
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Bionanocomposites are hybrid materials comprising inorganic nanoparticles or nanofillers disposed in a biopolymer matrix. Different functional materials have been prepared using a wide type of biopolymers (naturally or synthetic) and inorganic particles (silica, metal, carbon nanotubes, cellulose nanowhiskers or layered silicate clays) with different compositions and topologies. In this chapter, special attention is paid in layered silicates because of their availability, low cost and their easy intercalation chemistry. The natural polysaccharides (chitosan, starch and alginate), proteins and the synthetic polylactic acid incorporating to layered silicates of the smectite group constitute the bionanocomposites most studied for environmental applications. In this work, the physicochemical and structural properties of developed bionanocomposites including the different methods of preparation and characterization techniques have been discussed. Finally, environmental applications of bionanocomposites based on layered silicates in the field of food, agriculture, soil and water treatments, both in cleaning and desalination, are contemplated.KeywordsBionanocompositesBiopolymersLayered silicatesAdsorptionWater remediation
Article
This work investigates the thermal and rheological properties of the poly(L‐lactide‐co‐ε‐caprolactone), PLC, tapered block copolymer synthesized by ring‐opening polymerization (ROP) using stannous octoate (Sn[Oct]2) as an initiator. The PLC copolymer (LL: CL = 48.9:51.1 mol% from 1H‐NMR) was obtained as a transparent, elastomeric material with a tapered monomer sequencing (R = 0.38 from 13C‐NMR data) due to randomizing effect of transesterification. The Mn, Mw, and ĐM of the PLC copolymer from GPC are 8.04 × 104, 1.36 × 105, and 1.69 respectively. The obtained moduli of the copolymer at 100% and 300% strain are rather low at 0.91 and 1.16 MPa. The rheological properties of the PLC melt are studied in terms of steady and oscillatory shear flow. The master curves at a reference temperature of 150°C with 5% and 100% strain suggest that the copolymer melt may contain some regular microstructures, such as small crystalline domains of poly(L‐lactide), which remained intact at high strain deformation. The flow curve of the PLC melt at 150°C constructed from a cross model shows a Newtonian viscosity (η0$$ {\eta}_0 $$) of 6754 Pa‐s, a consistency index (k) of 0.59, and a Power Law index of 0.35 where the onset of Power Law behavior is observed at around 10 s−1. For the fabrication of the PLC nerve tubes, the best result is observed from the extruded PLC tubes with a combination of PEG porosifying agent leaching and phase immersion precipitation at 2°C using DMF/1,4‐dioxane (1:1) as a mixed solvent and ethanol/chloroform (9:1) as a non‐solvent. The porous tube obtained under this condition has a pore diameter and pore depth of approximately 2.3–2.5 and 30 μm respectively. A 50/50 tapered block PLC copolymer is synthesized and characterized in terms of its microstructural, thermal, and rheological properties. The PLC tube is fabricated by the combination of melt extrusion, porogen leaching, and phase immersion‐precipitation techniques giving the porous tube which could provide improved properties such as cell infiltration permeation as well as body fluid and nutrients for potential use as an absorbable nerve conduit.
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During the last few decades, scientists are engaged to develop cost-effective and eco-friendly synthetic natural therapeutic materials.
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Bionanocomposites are class of bio-based nanostructured hybrid materials, which exhibit at least one dimension on the nanometer scale. In general, bionanocomposites are comprised of biopolymers and other organic or inorganic sources. Cellulose and chitin are the two most abundant biological polymers in nature. In recent decades, cellulose and chitin-based bionanocomposites have triggered a great deal of attention to understand such composite materials and their applications. Thanks to their renewable, biodegradable, biocompatible, low-cost, low-density, eco-friendly properties, and low energy consumption, cellulose and chitin-based bionanocomposites are excellent green technology materials. Currently, cellulose and chitin-based bionanocomposites are widely used in a variety of fields, such as environmental protection, electronics device industry, biomedicine industry, food industry, and agriculture industry. In this chapter, the sources and properties as well as the extraction and preparation methods of the corresponding cellulose and chitin bionanocomposites are introduced. The environmental characteristics of cellulose and chitin-based bionanocomposites and their applications in various fields are reported.
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Several studies have demonstrated the advantage of using of edible pectin films in preserving fruits and vegetables. Findings suggest that these films/coats act as a barrier on the surface of fruits and vegetables, which allows better moisture and water retention. It creates a good barrier by maximizing the gases accumulation and delaying ripening process. Initiatives were taken to refine food films by incorporating essential oils and other polysaccharides. These additives are a vital factor in enhancing the functional properties of pectin-based films/coatings and extending the shelf-life of fruits and vegetables. This review covers current research on different fruit and vegetable preservation processes. Fruit and vegetable safety aspects are highlighted to ensure the competencies of phenols, EOs, and nano-forms utilization in edible films/ coatings meet the purpose.
Article
The consumption of fresh fruits and vegetables is restricted by the susceptibility of fresh produce to deterioration caused by postharvest physiological and metabolic activities. Developing efficient preservation strategies is thus among the most important scientific issues to be urgently addressed in the field of food science. The incorporation of active agents into a polymer matrix to prepare biodegradable active packaging is being increasingly explored to mitigate the postharvest spoilage of fruits and vegetables during storage. This paper reviews the composition of biodegradable polymers and the methods used to prepare biodegradable active packaging. In addition, the interactions between bioactive ingredients and biodegradable polymers that can lead to plasticizing or cross-linking effects are summarized. Furthermore, the applications of biodegradable active (i.e., antibacterial, antioxidant, ethylene removing, barrier, and modified atmosphere) packaging in the preservation of fruits and vegetables are illustrated. These films may increase sensory acceptability, improve quality, and prolong the shelf life of postharvest products. Finally, the challenges and trends of biodegradable active packaging in the preservation of fruits and vegetables are discussed. This review aims to provide new ideas and insights for developing novel biodegradable active packaging materials and their practical application in the preservation of postharvest fruits and vegetables.
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Given the breadth and depth of environmental concerns such as biodiversity loss and climate change, sustainability is a topic for all sectors of contemporary society, inclusive of outdoor recreation. The guiding global framework focus for sustainability is the United Nations Agenda 2030; this framework is used to support a transition to a more sustainable society. Within outdoor recreation, sustainability can be explored and pursued from a multitude of perspectives, for example, participant behavior, outdoor recreation product production, or outdoor resource management. This paper will provide one small example of how an element of outdoor recreation, prepared backcountry food, can serve as a model for the numerous other questions that need to be addressed to pursue more sustainable outdoor recreation. The research will highlight the complexity of the details of sustainability and the opportunity for sustainable transitions. Outdoor recreation participants make extraordinary decisions as they plan and execute their participation; sustainability can be one of those critical decisions. Management implications Research is needed to support the outdoor recreation industry, from producers of outdoor recreation products to resource managers, toward reaching the UN Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) of Agenda 2030 in their professional work, specifically: 1.Outdoor recreation product producers and outdoor recreation resource managers should use the SDGs as a framework to guide action on multiple levels, broad or very narrowly focused. 2.Outdoor recreation product producers and outdoor recreation managers can collaborate with other professionals, such as food scientists, to achieve Agenda 2030. 3.Producers need to provide missing sustainability information, such as sourcing ingredients or transport methods, to facilitate more comprehensive sustainability decision-making. 4.Outdoor recreation product producers and resource managers must recognize the importance of communicating sustainability factors to facilitate consumers' sustainable decision-making ability.
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Worldwide, consumers are demanding safe foods that are minimally processed and retain quality and health properties. Achieving these requirements calls for the development of effective food packaging materials. The challenge is that plastic polymers and synthetic preservatives are not suitable for developing active food packaging due to their harmful health effects and negative environmental impact. In this regard, innovations in active films through adding essential oils (EOs) onto degradable and bio-based polymers such as chitosan films are gaining more attention. Novel properties such as antimicrobial and antioxidant activities and the eco-friendly nature of chitosan and EOs-based films are of great interest in preserving perishable foods. Incorporating EOs into chitosan films improves the films' physical and mechanical properties, retards the growth of foodborne pathogens, and controls the production of harmful lipid oxidation products. This active packaging technology can be commercially optimized in the global market to preserve highly perishable food products.
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Although nanotechnology has revolutionized fields such as medicine, genetics, biology, bioengineering, mechanics, and chemistry, its increasing application in the food industry is relatively recent in comparison. Nanotechnology is being used to discover new methods for creating new flavors, extending food shelf life, and improving food protection and nutritional value. Nanotechnology in the food industry is now being explored for intelligent nutrient delivery systems, “smart” foods, contaminant detection nanodevices and nanosensors, advanced food processing, antimicrobial chemicals, encapsulation, and green nanomaterials. This new three-volume set, Nanotechnology Horizons in Food Process Engineering, addresses a multitude of topical issues and new developments in the field. Volume 1 focuses food preservation, food packaging and sustainable agriculture, while Volume 2 looks at nanotechnology in food process engineering, applications of biomaterials in food products, and the use of modern nanotechnology for human health. The third volume explores the newest trends in nanotechnology for food applications and their application for improving food delivery systems. Together, these three volumes provide a comprehensive and in- depth look at the emerging status of nanotechnology in the food processing industry, explaining the benefits and drawbacks of various methodologies that will aid in the improvement and development of food product sourcing and food hygiene monitoring methods.
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Chilled beef is inevitably contaminated with microorganisms, starting from the very beginning of the slaughter line. A lot of studies have aimed to improve meat safety and extend the shelf life of chilled beef, of which some have focused on improving the decontamination effects using traditional decontamination interventions, and others have investigated newer technologies and methods, that offer greater energy efficiency, lower environmental impacts, and better assurances for the decontamination of beef carcasses and cuts. To inform industry, there is an urgent need to review these interventions, analyze the merits and demerits of each technology, and provide insight into 'best practice' to preserve microbial safety and beef quality. In this review, the strategies and procedures used to inhibit the growth of microorganisms on beef, from slaughter to storage, have been critiqued. Critical aspects, where there is a lack of data, have been highlighted to help guide future research. It is also acknowledge that different intervention programs for microbiological safety have different applications, dependent on the initial microbial load, the type of infrastructures, and different stages of beef processing.
Article
Over the last few years, edible packaging has been employed in order to increase the health benefits of food and increasing its shelf‐life. Edible packaging is an alternative to typical food protection systems that is both environmentally and customer‐friendly. Concerns regarding healthy diet and well‐being have led to a worldwide surge in the usage of probiotic‐containing foods. This breakthrough has elicited the attention of scientists in the food industry, with an objective of producing novel probiotic foods and enhancing existing probiotic delivery techniques. In this context, edible packaging is being researched as a probiotic carrier with a vast array of applications. Probiotics have been added to a variety of foods and mixed into biopolymeric materials to create food packaging as a way to control foodborne pathogens, improve food safety and provide health benefits. The following review attempts to describe the edible packaging system with very current data, unexplored sources of probiotics and examines probiotics in edible packaging, its incorporation techniques and new breakthroughs in synbiotic edible packaging. The relevance of edible packaging is growing both in terms of industrial level and consumers health aspect. It is well‐known for being environmentally friendly, prolonging shelf‐life, fighting pathogens and so on. However, incorporating probiotics into it boosts the nutritional content and provides consumer greater health benefits. In this review, we have emphasised on the effective delivery of probiotic via edible packaging, variety of application, probiotic incorporation techniques and potential of prebiotics in promoting overall viability of probiotics in edible packaging.
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A novel one step route for the synthesis of tannic acid, lipoic acid and menthol functionalized polyvinyl chloride, PVC, (PVC-Tann, PVC-Lip, PVC-Mnt) and chlorinated polypropylene, PP-Cl, (PP-Mnt, PP-Lip) was applied imparting antioxidative properties to the newly-formed materials. The resulting modified polymers were characterized by stress-strain mechanical measurement, ¹H NMR, gel permeation chromatography (GPC) and thermogravimetric (TGA) analysis. Linseed oil, owing to its high linolenic acid content, was used to track the autoxidation process. The chloride functional groups were reacted with the hydroxyl /carboxylic acid of the natural compounds in the presence of a base. Linseed oil was poured into the natural compound functionalized PVC covered Petri dish to undergo autoxidation under white light. Each of the PVC- and PP-Cl-based polymers was active in delaying autoxidation. The PP-Mnt series and PP-Lip polymers all delayed autoxidation by 8 days over the PP-Cl precursor material. The autoxidation process was further confirmed by monitoring peroxide formation in the exposed linseed oil samples through differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) analysis.
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The cellulose nanofiber (CNF) is characterized by the nano-sized (fibers with a diameter between 5 and 20 nm and a length between 2 and 10 μm), flexible and cross-linked structure that confer enhanced mechanical and gas barrier properties to cellulosic fiber-based packaging materials. The purpose of this work was to develop an antimicrobial packaging film by direct mixing nisin with CNF, followed by coating it onto polyethylene (PE), polypropylene (PP), and polylactic acid (PLA) films. The antimicrobial effectiveness of CNF-Nis+PE, CNF-Nis+PP, and CNF-Nis+PLA was investigated both in vitro end in ex vivo tests. In the latter case, challenge test experiments were carried out to investigate the antimicrobial activity of the coupled films of CNF-Nisin+PLA to inhibit the growth of Listeria innocua 1770 during the storage of a meat product. The films were active against the indicator microorganisms Brochothrix thermosphacta and Listeria innocua in in vitro test. Moreover, a reduction in the Listeria population of about 1.3 log cycles was observed immediately after the contact (T0) of the active films with hamburgers. Moreover, when the hamburgers were stored in active films, a further reduction of the Listeria population of about 1.4 log cycles was registered after 2 days of storage. After this time, even though an increase in Listeria load was observed, the trend of the Listeria population in hamburgers packed with active films was maintained significantly lower than the meat samples packed with control films during the whole storage period.
Article
Silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) are increasingly used in the food industry because of their excellent antibacterial activity. They are integrated into coatings of various food packaging to help ensure longer product shelf life. Nonetheless, the risks associated with Ag NPs are currently not well known and their potential effects on humans are causing growing concern. Furthermore, it is not clear whether NPs have greater or lesser risk than dissolved silver ions or bulk phase Ag. Consequently, it is necessary to characterize the release of silver from silver-enhanced containers into food matrices using sensitive analytical techniques that allow one to distinguish between silver ions and nanoparticles. Single particle ICP-MS is a promising technique to quantify and determine size distributions of very small particles at low concentrations and distinguish between ionic and particulate forms of the analyte. This study focused first on the aging of Ag NPs in three different food simulants (Milli-Q water, 10% ethanol and 3% acetic acid) and in two beverages (orange juice and infant milk formula) in order to validate the technique for low NP concentrations. Acidic media caused significant NP oxidation while the organic macromolecules in the juice appeared to increase the stability of the NPs. Subsequently, a migration study from silver-enhanced containers showed that release was mainly due to ionic forms of the silver. Significant release of dissolved Ag occurred in 3% acetic acid (58% of the total Ag mass of the containers) with lower release being observed in Milli-Q water (33%), 10% ethanol (29%), orange juice (17%) and milk formula (5%). Heating led to a considerable release of silver (again dissolved), likely because of the swelling of the polymer containers. The study suggests that the risks to foods associated with Ag NP in packaging can be determined using existing regulations and guidelines based on (ionic) Ag.
Article
Listeria phage A511 were stabilized in whey protein concentrate/pullulan (WP) composite and poly (lactic acid) (PLA) bilayer films with different thickness ratios (100%, 70/30%, 50/50%, 30/70%). As the thickness of WP layer decreased, so did the phage recovery from the film. The highest phage recovery belonged to 30PLA/70WP, which was statistically similar to 100WP. Investigation of storage of phage-containing 100WP and 30PLA/70WP films for 60 days at 25 °C and 53% relative humidity revealed that films could maintain phage titers for up to 20 days. Phage-containing bilayer film was selected for studying chicken breast due to its better barrier, mechanical, and visual properties than 100WP and stability of these properties during storage. The maximum release of phages from 30PLA/70WP to the chicken breast fillet at 4 °C and 10 °C occurred after 24 hours. The phage-containing films had inhibition effects on Listeria in chicken fillets similar to free phage treatment.
Article
Active packaging aims to reduce food waste by extending food shelf life. Packaging materials developed from biodegradable, sustainable and renewable resources are required to reduce environmental pollution and conserve natural resources. Therefore, curcumin, a natural extract with antioxidant and antimicrobial properties, was encapsulated into zeolitic imidazole framework-8 nanocrystals (K-ZIF-8) in this study. Chitin nanocomposites, support materials of the designed active package, were extracted from the cultivated mushroom. Bioactive properties of the films improved as the amount of K-ZIF-8 increased. Addition of K-ZIF-8 did not have a significant effect on mechanical, barrier, optical, thermal and morphological properties of chitin films. Antimicrobial test revealed that chitin-based nanocomposite films were effective against E.coli, but not against S.aureus. The highest antimicrobial effect, total phenolic content and antioxidant activity was obtained in the film containing 10XMIC equivalent of K-ZIF-8 concentration. However, film durability tests indicated that these films are not suitable for long-term storage.
Chapter
Because of rising environmental concerns, the need for biodegradable packaging materials has recently surged. Due to their biodegradability, biopolymers and nanocomposites have become critical issues. Various nanoparticles can be regarded as an effective method for enhancing the functional qualities of the nanocomposites. Most nanoparticles considerably increase biopolymer resistance to humidity and water, improve mechanical characteristics, and decrease water vapor and gas permeability. As a result, wastes from packaging materials generate major environmental problems. Global regulations have boosted the need for bio-based, bio-renewable, and biodegradable materials. Because of their biodegradability and biocompatibility, novel packaging materials are becoming increasingly popular. As a result, using these materials can assist in alleviating the waste dilemma. Unfortunately, because natural polymers have a low barrier and mechanical qualities, the application of bio-based films for food packaging is severely limited. As a result, natural polymers were seldom chemically changed and were frequently blended with synthetic polymers to broaden their applications in food packaging industries. Although intriguing findings have been obtained, developing a viable bio-nanocomposite still presents several hurdles. Nanotechnologies open new avenues for increasing health, prosperity, and quality of life while minimizing environmental impact.KeywordsNanocompositesBiodegradable polymersBiocompatibilityFood packagingNanotechnologyMechanical properties
Article
An intelligent bionic trilayer fibrous membrane is developed via electrospinning for the moisture-adjusting of a storage space. The trilayer is composed of a hydrophobic inner layer of cellulose acetate (CA), a super hygroscopic intermediate layer of gelatin (GA) and a hydrophilic outer layer of ethylene-vinyl alcohol copolymer (EVOH). The hierarchical pore networks of EVOH/GA/CA (~2.45/~4.5/~36.0 μm) and the asymmetry wettability endow the membrane with outstanding directional water transport capacity. Specifically, the membrane has an excellent accumulative one-way transport index (1293 %), a remarkable overall moisture management capacity (0.91) and a reasonably high water evaporation rate (0.59 g h⁻¹). The target membrane can regulate the relative humidity (RH) from 75 % to 50 % without extra energy consumption, which is capable of extending the shelf-life of jerk beef by ~100 % under surrounding temperature of 25 °C and humidity of 75 % RH.
Chapter
Ready-to-eat (RTE) and packaged foods have gained popularity and have become an integral part of our daily life. The quality of RTE and packaged foods need to be maintained carefully to avoid any chance of foodborne illness. The probability of foodborne illness can be lowered by careful and real-time surveillance of quality during the supply chain. There are various technologies available such as active packaging, intelligent packaging, etc. which inform the customers about food quality. The technological advancement in the field of nanotechnology such as nanosensors and biosensors has permitted their use in determining food quality. Nanosensor systems such as indicator sensors, time-temperature, and oxygen indicators help to monitor the freshness and quality of food products. Such sensing technologies usually work by focusing on gas production, temperature, and microbial growth within the food package. To monitor the changes, sensors are incorporated inside the food package. All these kind of packaging not only enhances the shelf life but also helps to keep the food clean and protected from the external environment. Nanosensors help for detecting toxins, vitamins, fertilizers, dyes, smell, and even taste. In this chapter, various techniques which are having a great future for ensuring the quality, safety, and well-being of food after packaging are discussed. The technologies reviewed in this chapter have a great budding future in the food packaging field which helps in the real-time monitoring of food.
Article
Highly porous modified calcium carbonate (MCC) powder has been successfully integrated into packaging material as a coating and the coated packaging films were loaded with 5, 10 or 30 wt % thyme and rosemary essential oil (EO). Resulting MCC labels were applied as labels and showed antimicrobial activities against L. innocua in in vitro test. After 6 days MCC labels with 10 and 30 wt % thyme EO showed significant reductions in in vitro tests (2.9 and > 8.5 log CFU/filter). When MCC labels with rosemary EO were used, only 30 wt % loading showed a significant reduction (1.6 log CFU/filter). Subsequently, the antimicrobial activity of MCC labels with 30 wt % EOs against L. innocua on ready to eat meat product were studied under normal atmosphere and modified atmosphere (MA). Use of MCC labels with 30 wt % thyme EO loading combined with MA packaging showed a significant microbial reduction of 1.2 log CFU/g on cooked ham after 21 days (compared to untreated MCC labels packaged under MA). On the other hand, use of MCC labels loaded with 30 wt % rosemary EO (with MA) showed significant reductions of L. innocua on sliced cooked chicken breast (2.6 log CFU/g) as well as cooked ham (1.3 log CFU/g).
Article
Antioxidant food packaging aids in prolonging the shelf life of foods by retarding the rate of oxidation. In this study, we newly developed poly (vinyl alcohol) (PVA)/hydrothermally treated tannic acid (HTA) composite films (PVA/HTA) using a solution casting method for use as sustainable antioxidant and barrier films. TA was first treated using a hydrothermal method and subsequently incorporated into the PVA film. HTA with numerous OH groups strongly interacted with PVA via a crosslinking reaction. Accordingly, the crystallinity and crystalline size of PVA gradually decreased with increasing HTA content (from 0 to 5 %) owing to the lower chain mobility and chain disordering caused by the crosslinking. A higher crosslinking density also reduced the free volume in the matrix and compromised the swelling properties, which improved the oxygen barrier properties and imparted some hydrophobicity to the composite film, respectively. Further, adding HTA increased the rigidity of the film while reducing the elongation at break. The antioxidant capacity of the PVA/HTA composite films also significantly increased (4.2 % to 80.3 % in the DPPH assay and 4.6 % to 98.8 % in the ABTS assay) with increasing HTA content, owing to the radical scavenging ability of HTA. These results clearly indicate that the novel PVA/HTA composite film with antioxidant properties can be used as an active packaging material.
Article
Active antimicrobial materials for food packaging increase food shelf stability and reduce food additives. This study investigated the cold atmospheric plasma (CAP) for obtaining antimicrobial bilayer films formed by linear low-density polyethylene (LLDPE) and cassava starch suspension incorporated with zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO-NPs). The adherence between LLDPE and starch was promoted by treating LLDPE with CAP from a dielectric barrier discharge reactor (DBD) operated at 32 kV and 132 Hz for 120 s, which increased LLDPE surface free energy and hydrophilicity. The antibacterial activity of the bilayer films was tested against pathogenic and spoilage bacteria, Staphyloccocus aureus, Salmonella Enteritidis, and Lactobacillus sakei. The films inhibited the three bacteria effectively, although L. sakei was less sensitive to the ZnO-NPs. The bilayer packaging material presented mechanical properties similar to those of the single LLDPE. Therefore, LLDPE-Starch-ZnO-NPs films have a high potential for use as active food packaging to increase food safety and shelf life.
Article
This study aimed to improve the physicochemical properties of chitosan (CS) film by riboflavin (RF)-induced cross-linking under ultraviolet (UV) light for different times (0, 2, 4, 6 h). It was found that the water vapor resistance, tensile strength, optical property, and thermal stability of the film were significantly enhanced under RF-induced photo-crosslinking, especially when illuminated for 6 h. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) verified the molecular bonding of CS and RF, as well as scanning electron microscope (SEM) showed a tighter and more uniform film structure was formed through UV crosslinking. Thus, the CS-RF films have the potential to replace petrochemical materials as a novel type of environmentally friendly packaging material.
Article
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Nanomaterials are present in almost any industrial sector and addressed in corresponding legislation. The EC has developed a recommendation of the term nanomaterial for regulatory purposes. Due to uncertainties regarding the safety of nanomaterials, it is necessary to develop best practices and facilitate harmonization of assessment practices. However, more research with specific relevance for regulatory questions is still needed, in particular regarding the implementation of the definition of nanomaterials, the enforcement of product labeling, the development of methods for safety testing and risk assessment, and a better availability of quality data on nanomaterials for regulatory purposes.
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Food packaging industry presents one of the fastest growing industries nowadays. New trends in this industry, which include reducing food as well as packaging waste, improved preservation of food and prolonged shelf-life together with substitution of petrochemical sources with renewable ones are leading to development of this industrial area in diverse directions. This multidisciplinary challenge is set up both in front of food and material scientists. Nanotechnology is recently answering to these challenges, with different solutions-from improvements in materials properties to active packaging solutions, or both at the same time. Incorporation of nanoparticles into polymer matrix and preparation of hybrid materials is one of the methods of modification of polymer properties. Nano scaled materials with antimicrobial properties can act as active components when added into polymer, thereby leading to prolonged protective function of pristine food packaging material. This paper presents a review in the field of antimicrobial nanomaterials for food packaging in turn of technology, application and regulatory issues.
Article
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An active packaging system has been designed for the shelf life extension of ready to eat meat products. The package included an inner surface coated with a chitosan film with thyme essential oil (0%, 0.5%, 1%, and 2%) not in direct contact with the meat. Our aim was to reduce the impact of thyme essential oil (EO) on meat sensory properties by using a chemotype with low odor intensity. The pH, color parameters, microbial populations, and sensory properties were assessed during 4 weeks of refrigerated storage. The presence of EO films reduced yeast populations, whereas aerobic mesophilic bacteria, lactic acid bacteria, and enterobacteria were not affected by the presence of the EO in the films. Meat color preservation (a *) was enhanced in the presence of EO, giving a better appearance to the packaged meat. The presence of the chitosan-EO layer reduced water condensation inside the package, whereas packages containing only chitosan had evident water droplets. Thyme odor was perceived as desirable in cooked meat, and the typical product odor intensity decreased by increasing the EO concentration. Further studies should point towards developing oil blends or combinations with natural antimicrobial agents to be incorporated into the film to improve its antimicrobial properties.
Article
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The packaging of food is one of the most essential parts of the food manufacturing process, since it provides sustainability for the quality and storage of food products. In this study, bactericidal materials to be used as food packaging applications were developed. Oxidized regenerated cellulose microparticles (ORCs) were synthesized and used as filler in a poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) matrix for food packaging materials. In order to examine its usage in food packaging, the water uptake, water vapor and oxygen permeability were tested. Compared to pure PCL, addition of 4 % ORC decreased 93 and 70 % of the oxygen and water permeability, respectively. In vitro bactericidal activity was indicated against gram-negative Escherichia coli and gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus. Bactericidal activity against Listeria monocytogenes was also examined on salami to investigate the preservation and maintenance of food safety. Fifty percent of the total colony-forming units on salami was dead after 14 days of being packaged in ORC containing PCL composite material. Taken together, these results are promising for the development of ORC-containing active food packaging materials.
Article
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An oxygen scavenger based on a catalytic system with palladium (CSP) was recently developed to remove oxygen in food packagings. Although the CSP worked with various types of food, with some foods, an inhibition of the CSP was observed. Because such catalytic systems are susceptible to poisoning by sulfur-containing compounds, the aim of this study was to understand the inactivation of palladium-based catalysts in presence of foods containing volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs). To achieve this, the oxygen scavenging activity (OSA) of the CSP was evaluated in presence of selected food products. Afterwards, VSCs mainly present in these foods were exposed to the CSP, and the influence on the OSA was evaluated. Finally, headspace analysis was performed with the diluted VSCs and with the packaged food products using proton transfer reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometry. It was found that the catalytic activity of the CSP was inhibited when VSCs were present in the headspace in concentrations ranging between 10.8-36.0ppbv (dimethyl sulfide, DMS), 1.2-7.2ppbv (dimethyl disulfide), 0.7-0.9ppbv (dimethyl trisulfide), 2.1-5.8ppbv (methional) and 4.6-24.5ppbv (furfuryl thiol). It was concluded that in packaged roast beef and cheese, DMS may be the compound mainly responsible for the inactivation of the CSP. In packagings containing ham, the key compounds were hydrogen sulfide and methanethiol; in peanuts, it was methanethiol; and in par-baked buns, an accumulation of methional, DMS, butanethiol and methionol. When potato chips were packaged, it was demonstrated that when VSCs are present in low concentrations, oxygen can still be scavenged at a reduced OSA.
Article
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Silver (Ag) nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesised and characterised, and their antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Pseudomonas fluorescens and microflora derived from raw chicken, beef or cooked ham was determined. Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) films or antimicrobial Ag/PVC nanocomposite films were manufactured via a solvent casting method and the mechanical and thermal properties of these materials determined. Manufactured antimicrobial Ag/PVC nanocomposite films were used to wrap chicken breast fillets, followed by modified atmosphere packaging (using conventional laminates and employing a gas mix of 60 % N2/40 % CO2), and compared against PVC control films. In general, Gram-negative bacteria were more sensitive to Ag NPs than Gram-positive bacteria and microflora isolated from meat products were more resistant than pure culture bacteria. However, the most sensitive bacteria to Ag NPs were Pseudomonas fluorescens. No significant differences (p > 0.05) in tensile strength and elongation at break were observed, but glass transition temperatures (T g) of Ag/PVC nanocomposite films were lower (p < 0.05) when compared to PVC control films. Results also indicated that antimicrobial Ag/PVC nanocomposite films significantly (p < 0.05) extended the shelf-life of chicken breast fillets and reduced lipid oxidation of chicken breast fillets compared to PVC-wrapped equivalents. Overall, results indicated that antimicrobial Ag/PVC nanocomposite films can potentially be used as antimicrobial packaging for food packaging applications.
Article
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Natural antioxidants, including polyphenols, flavonoids, anthocyanins and carotenoids, play an important role in the treatment and prevention of a large number of diseases. However, studies indicate that natural antioxidants can act as prooxidants, which produce free radicals and cause DNA damage and mutagenesis. The prooxidant activity is typically catalyzed by metals, particularly transition metals such as Fe and Cu, present in biological systems. In this article, we aim to review new in vitro and in vivo evidence of the prooxidant activity of phenolics, flavonoids, anthocyanins and carotenoids. We highlight the role of catalyzing metals, including transition metals, non-transition metals and metalloids, in the prooxidant activity of natural antioxidants. Prooxidant structure-activity relationships of simple phenolics, flavonoids and anthocyanins and the role of cellular antioxidant defense, including endogenous antioxidant compounds and antioxidant enzymes, are also addressed in this review. In addition, we discuss the question, With respect to in vitro evidence of the prooxidant activity of antioxidants, can we translate this activity into biological systems and the human body?
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Concerns on environmental waste problems caused by non-biodegradable petrochemical-based plastic packaging materials as well as consumers' demand for high quality food products has caused an increasing interest in developing biodegradable packaging materials using annually renewable natural biopolymers. However, inherent shortcomings of natural polymer-based packaging materials, such as low mechanical properties and low water resistance, are causing a major limitation for their industrial use. The recent advent of nanocomposite technology raised renewed interest in the use of natural biopolymers in food packaging applications. Polymer nanocomposites, especially natural biopolymer-layered silicate nanocomposites, exhibit markedly improved packaging properties due to their nanometer size dispersion. These improvements include increased mechanical strength, gas barrier, and water resistance without sacrificing the biodegradability and optical clarity of the packaging material. Additionally, biologically active ingredients can be added to impart the desired functional properties to the resulting packaging materials. Such biopolymer-based nanocomposite packaging materials with bio-functional properties have huge potential for application in the active food packaging industry.
Chapter
At present, there is a great need to develop techniques to maintain the natural qualities of cooked ready-to-eat (RTE) foods without using chemical preservatives, for example, vacuum packaging or modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) (Day, 1998). Foods must be prepared at relatively high temperatures (around 100°C) and then packed in vacuum or modified atmosphere (MA). The process is finalized with a rapid cooling step followed by refrigerated storage. The final product should be reheated at approximately 70°C for 2 min before consumption (Sallares, 1995).
Article
Gelatin was chemically cross-linked with lactose in order to analyze the effect of this reaction in the antioxidant capacity of gelatin films. Since phenolic compounds are formed during cross-linking, the antioxidant activity of gelatin films was assessed. Although these cross-linking films showed certain antioxidant capacity, the incorporation of tetrahydrocurcumin (THC) into the films forming solutions greatly increased the antioxidant capacity of gelatin films. Total phenolic content, expressed as mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE), increased from 14 to 43 mg GAE/L. Furthermore, free radical scavenging capacity showed a three-fold increase, as shown by inhibition values. The changes observed were related to the differences found in the film surface, such as lower gloss and higher roughness.
Article
To explore the use of starfish gelatin (SFG) films as a biodegradable material, SFG from starfish was extracted and used as a film material. In addition, to provide antimicrobial activity and enhanced flavor of SFG films, vanillin was incorporated. As the concentration of vanillin increased, the tensile strength of the films increased and water vapor permeability decreased. With regard to the structural characteristics of SFG films containing vanillin, the microstructure of the SFG films was not affected by the addition of vanillin. In addition, the SFG films containing vanillin exhibited antimicrobial activity against Listeria monocytogenes. As the application of the SFG films, crab sticks were packed with SFG films containing 0.05% vanillin. During storage, the populations of L. monocytogenes inoculated on crab sticks wrapped with SFG films containing vanillin were lower than those on the control sample, suggesting that SFG films containing vanillin can be useful in active food packaging.
Article
The Panel on Food Additives and Nutrient Sources added to Food (ANS) provides a scientific opinion on the safety of advantame as a sweetener for use in the food categories specified in the dossier. Advantame is stable under normal storage conditions. The Panel noted that there is an indication of advantame instability in acidic beverages and thermally treated foods. Metabolism and toxicokinetics of advantame and its main metabolite, ANS9801-acid, have been studied in mice, rats, rabbits, dogs and humans. Advantame is rapidly but poorly absorbed and the main excretion route is via faeces. The Panel concluded that advantame does not raised concern with regards to genotoxicity and carcinogenicity. The critical effect observed in animal studies was maternal toxicity (gastrointestinal disturbances) in the prenatal developmental toxicity study in rabbits. The NOAEL for this effect was 500 mg advantame/kg bw/day. Advantame was well tolerated in single or repeated doses up to 0.5 mg/kg bw/day by normo-glycemic or diabetic subjects. The Panel established an ADI of 5 mg/kg bw/day based on the application of a 100-fold uncertainty factor to the NOAEL of 500 mg/kg bw/day for maternal toxicity from the prenatal developmental toxicity study in the rabbit. Conservative estimates of advantame exposure for high level adults and children consumers were below the ADI for the proposed use levels.
Article
This scientific opinion of EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids deals with the safety assessment of the active substances palladium metal (CAS No 7440-05-3, FCM No 993) and hydrogen gas (CAS No 1333-74-0, FCM No 1038), which are intended to be used as an oxygen scavenger in packages of foods and beverages at room temperature or below. The active article is designed as a gas permeable but liquid impermeable laminated pad, which is placed within a cap or closure or as an adhesive label on tray lids. The palladium metal is not in direct contact with the food being separated from it by different layers of passive materials. The specific migration of palladium metal into conventional food simulants was not detected at the limit of quantification of 0.6 µg/kg. Palladium was considered to be non genotoxic and of no toxicological concern under a low exposure level resulting from a concentration up to 50 µg/kg food in a previous evaluation (EFSA CEF Panel, 2012). Based on these previously drawn conclusions and given the intended conditions of use leading to non-detectable migration, the CEF Panel concluded that the active substances palladium and hydrogen do not raise a safety concern for the consumer when used as an oxygen scavenger in packages for foods and beverages at room temperatures or below. Palladium should not be in direct contact with food and should be incorporated in a passive structure impermeable to liquids which prevents the migration at detectable levels.
Article
The ability of superabsorbent polymers (SAP) in drying maize and controlling aflatoxin contamination was studied under different temperatures, drying times and SAP-to-maize ratios. Temperature and drying time showed significant influence on the aflatoxin formation. SAP-to-maize ratios between 1:1 and 1:5 showed little or no aflatoxin contamination after drying to the optimal moisture content (MC) of 13 %, while for ratios 1:10 and 1:20, aflatoxin contamination was not well controlled due to the overall higher MC and drying time, which made these ratios unsuitable for the drying process. Results clearly show that temperature, frequency of SAP change, drying time and SAP-to-maize ratio influenced the drying rate and aflatoxin contamination. Furthermore, it was shown that SAP had good potential for grain drying and can be used iteratively, which can make this system an optimal solution to reduce aflatoxin contamination in maize, particular for developing countries and resource-lacking areas.
Article
Antimicrobial nano-silver packaging (ANP) films were synthesized by blending polyethylene and highly dispersed Ag/TiO2 powder for rice storage at 37 °C and 70% relative humidity. ANP films were characterized by X-ray diffraction and silver migration. The antimicrobial activity of the films was assessed on Aspergillus flavus (A. flavus) by scanning electron microscope and total plate count, and the storage quality of rice was evaluated by texture analyzer and rapid viscosity analyzer. The results show that ANP had a quite beneficial effect on the antimildew and physicochemical property as compared to the normal PE packaging. During 35 days storage, the migration of silver into rice was not evident. A lower microbial population is observed on ANP that should be attributed to the presence of Ag/TiO2. Furthermore, rice packed by ANP shows an enhanced quality with regards to texture and pasting properties. Therefore, ANP is a promising packaging material for rice storage.
Article
We prepared and characterized active, oxygen-scavenging, low density polyethylene (LDPE) films from a non-metallic-based oxygen scavenging system (OSS) containing 1, 3, 5, 10, and 20% of gallic acid (GA) and potassium chloride (PC). We compared the surface morphology and mechanical, permeability, and optical properties of the oxygen-scavenging LDPE film with those of pure LDPE film. The surface morphology, gas barrier, and thermal properties indicate that the OSS was well incorporated into the LDPE film structure. The surface roughness of the film increased with the amount of oxygen scavenging material. The oxygen and water vapor permeability of the developed film also increased with the amount of oxygen scavenging material, though its elongation decreased. The oxygen scavenging capability of the prepared film was analyzed at different temperatures. The initial oxygen content (%) in the vial headspace, 20.90%, decreased to 16.6% at 4 °C, 14.6% at 23 °C, and 12.7% at 50 °C after 7 days of storage with the film containing 20% OSS. The film impregnated with 20% organic oxygen scavenging material showed an effective oxygen scavenging capacity of 0.709 mL/cm2 at 23 °C. Relative humidity triggered the oxygen scavenging reaction. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 2016, 133, 44138.
Article
Twenty-seven animals (½ Angus - ½ Nellore) were fed for four months with one of the following diets: without addition of essential oils (E0.0), with 3.5 (E3.5) or 7 (E7.0) g/animal/day of an essential oil blend (oregano, garlic, lemon, rosemary, thyme, eucalyptus and sweet orange). Chemical composition, fatty acid profile and meat color were evaluated in _Longissimus_ muscle. In addition, the effects of aging (one, seven and 14 days) on the meat water holding capacity, texture and lipid oxidation were evaluated. Essential oils had no effect on chemical and fatty acid composition, meat color, water holding capacity or texture, but an inclusion of 3.5 g/d decreased lipid oxidation. The addition of 7.0 g/animal/day had a pro-oxidant effect on meat during aging and resulted in higher values for lipid oxidation at 14 days of aging. Aging significantly affected thawing losses and texture. A dose of 3.5 g/animal/day could be recommended in feedlot animals, but greater doses could have a pro-oxidant effect.
Article
Bacterial growth, microbiota and sensory quality of cod loins (farmed Atlantic cod, Gadus morhua) was studied during 15 days of storage (2 °C), packaged in vacuum or in modified atmosphere package (MAP, 60% CO2/40% N2, g/p ratio 1.6/1), with a CO2 emitter pad or a liquid absorbent pad. The objective was to investigate how packaging with CO2 emitter can prolong shelf life in vacuum, and in low headspace MAP. Sensory analysis showed that the initial freshness was better preserved by adding a CO2 emitter in both vacuum and MAP. The MAP had equal antibacterial effect compared to vacuum added CO2 emitter. 16S rDNA sequencing showed that CO2 emitter did not alter the dominant bacterial composition and that Photobacterium sp. dominated all packaging methods. Vacuum packaged samples past shelf life after 7 days of storage, vacuum added a CO2 emitter and MAP after 9 days, and MAP added a CO2 emitter after 13 days.
Article
A novel bionanocomposites packaging material prepared using chitosan (CH), carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC), and zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO-NPs), namely CH/CMC/ZnO bionanocomposites, was prepared by casting method. The CH/CMC/ZnO bionanocomposites were investigated using FT-IR, TEM, SEM, XRD, and TGA. The acquired bionanocomposites exhibited improved mechanical and thermal properties compare with the biocomposites (CH/CMC) blend. The soft white cheese were manufactured, packaged within the prepared bionanocomposites films and stored at 7 °C for 30 days. The influence of packaging material on packaged cheese (rheological properties, colour measurements, moisture, pH and titratable acidity) were assessed. Furthermore, the effect of packaging material on the total bacterial counts, mold & yeast and coliform in cheese was evaluated. The prepared bionanocomposites displayed good antibacterial activity against gram positive (Staphylococcus aureus), gram negative (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli) bacteria and fungi (Candidia albicans). Moreover, the packaging films assisted in increasing the shelf life of white soft cheese. Therefore, it can be used in food packaging applications.
Article
In the present study, a new innovative procedure to incorporate an antimicrobial agent in a multilayer active material was used to prepare several antimicrobial packaging materials. For this purpose, the activity of six antimicrobial substances was evaluated and three of them were selected as active agents. Among the active materials prepared, those containing polyurethane adhesive free of isocyanates and different concentrations of cinnamon essential oil as active agent were the most effective. Therefore, these materials were studied in depth. Migration assays demonstrated that cinnamaldehyde was released from these active packaging materials to the food simulant. However, the degradation of cinnamaldehyde in the food simulant was also observed. Finally, the antimicrobial activity of the material was evaluated in tomato puree, obtaining high efficiency for Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Saccharomyces cereviase but not for Mucor mucedo.
Article
A 125 μg/mL of nisin and 30 mM of disodium ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA) were immobilized on the surface of the nanocrystal (CNC)/chitosan nanocomposite films by using genipin as a cross-linking agent. The effect of low-dose gamma irradiation on the antimicrobial activity of the films was tested in vitro against Escherichia coli and Listeria monocytogenes. The genipin cross-linked films prepared by irradiating at 1.5 kGy demonstrated the highest antimicrobial activity against both the bacteria at the end of 35 days of storage at 37 °C showing an inhibition zone of 27.1 mm for E. coli and 27.7 mm for L. monocytogenes as compared to 23.4 mm and 23.8 mm for the same respective bacteria at day 1. The films restricted the growth of psychrotrophs, mesophiles and Lactobacillus spp. (LAB) in fresh pork loin meats and increased the microbiological shelf-life of meat sample by more than 5 weeks. The films also reduced the count of E. coli and L. monocytogenes in meat samples by 4.4 and 5.7 log CFU/g, respectively, after 35 days of storage.
Article
The efficiency of an oxygen scavenging film based on a catalytic system with palladium (CSP) was used to prevent the discoloration of cooked cured ham. Sliced ham was packed under modified atmosphere (2 vol.% O2, 5 vol.% H2, 93 vol.% N2) or normal atmosphere in high barrier trays with or without CSP. Packages were stored for 21 days at 4 ± 1 °C under illumination or in darkness. Samples stored in the dark did not show any discoloration, whereas ham stored under illumination showed a pronounced loss in redness. In packages with the CSP, the headspace oxygen concentration of 2 vol.% was removed within 35 min. There was no discoloration observed in samples with CSP although they were stored with 24 h/day illumination. Significant differences (p < 0.01) in redness between the illuminated samples with and without CSP could already be observed after 2 h of storage.
Book
Smart Packaging Technologies for Fast Moving Consumer Goods approaches the subject of smart packaging from an innovative, thematic perspective: Part 1 looks at smart packaging technologies for food quality and safety Part 2 addresses smart packaging issues for the supply chain. Part 3 focuses on smart packaging for brand protection and enhancement. Part 4 centres on smart packaging for user convenience. Each chapter starts with a definition of the technology, and proceeds with an analysis of its workings and components before concluding with snapshots of potential applications of the technology. The Editors, brought together from academia and industry, provide readers with a cohesive account of the smart packaging phenomenon. Chapter authors are a mixture of industry professionals and academic researchers from the UK, USA, EU and Australasia.
Article
Three different packaging systems: vacuum packaging, rosemary active packaging, and oxygen scavenger packaging were compared for their ability to counteract lipid oxidation in pork patties upon storage at 5 °C for 60 days following high pressure processing (HPP) (700 MPa, 10 min, 5 °C). Lipid oxidation was studied at the surface and the inner part by measuring secondary lipid oxidation products (TBARs) and the tendency to form radicals by electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy. Lipid oxidation was lower in the inner part than at the surface for all three packaging systems. Rosemary active packaging was the most effective method to protect pork patties from the HPP-induced lipid oxidation, while oxygen scavenger packaging was not effective since residual oxygen remained in the package in the initial period of storage. The kinetics of the oxygen trapping by oxygen scavengers appears to be a crucial factor for this application.
Article
For packaged fresh produce, inappropriate high relative humidity (RH) levels and condensation of water vapour cause premature spoilage. Humidity-regulating trays were developed to solve this issue. They were made from a thermoformed multilayer structure: polyethylene (outside)/foamed hygroscopic ionomer (active layer) with 0 or 12 wt% NaCl/hygroscopic ionomer (sealing layer, inside). Moisture absorption kinetics of the humidity-regulating trays with 0 and 12 wt% NaCl (T-0 and T-12, respectively) was investigated under different RH conditions (76, 86, 96 and 100 %) at 13 °C for 16 days. Additional trays containing 7 g of distilled water were closed with a high barrier lidding film, and the headspace RH was continuously monitored as a function of time. As control, a polypropylene (control-PP) tray was used. Strawberries and tomatoes were used to test capability of the trays to regulate in-package RH. The amount of water absorbed by the T-0 and T-12 trays was 7.6 and 13.2 g, respectively. Active hygroscopic ionomer layer was effective in water vapour absorption, and the integration of NaCl into this active layer increased the water vapour absorption capacity of the tray. The Weibull model adequately described the moisture sorption kinetics of the individual packaging trays as a function of time. The headspace RH of trays covered with a lidding film was found to be 89.8, 99.6 and 100 % in the T-12, T-0 and control-PP trays, respectively. The T-12 trays containing fresh produce best regulated the in-package RH below 97 % and maintained overall quality, but at the expense of slightly higher product weight loss (2–3 wt% for strawberry, 1 wt% for tomatoes) compared to the control-PP trays (0.3–0.6 wt%).
Chapter
MAP machinery;modified atmosphere packaging (MAP);controlled atmosphere (CA);modified atmosphere (MA)
Chapter
The packaging of a food is normally understood to include the packaging process as well as the materials used to fabricate the package or container. Accordingly, the way in which the food is treated while being placed in the package, as well as the atmosphere and the extent of protection from external or internal influences, can alter the extent to which it needs or can benefit from additives.