Article

Sport as a Factor of Nation Branding: A Quantitative Approach

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Abstract

In recent times, governments have become increasingly aware of the significance of shaping the international image of a state. However, the multidimensional character of the state’s brand causes difficulties in measuring it. The aim of the paper is to investigate whether good performance in sport shapes the brand of a nation, thus, making sport a tool of nation branding. The paper is both theoretical and empirical. Theoretically, a conceptualization of nation branding has been presented. The empirical part is focused on analyzing the influence of the level of sport on the international image of states. The level of sports was measured on the basis of the states’ achievements at the Summer Olympics, and on the international image of 10 selected countries with the use of available data concerning a states’ brand.

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... The literature on sport and diplomacy relates to how sport serves as a structural tool to influence diplomatic interests through international sporting events (Cha 2009;Grix and Brannagan 2016;Murray 2012;Murray and Pigman 2014;Zhang 2013;Kobierecki and Strożek 2017;Keys 2006;Merkel 2008). As Murray and Pigman (2014) point out that the relations of sport and diplomacy can be understood in two ways: sport as a diplomatic tool employed by governments and international-sport-as-diplomacy. ...
... In addition, such sport mega-events play a part in all 'five-interlinked resources' , namely 'Culture, Tourism, Branding, Diplomacy and Trade, that are required for a successful soft power strategy' (Grix and Brannagan 2016, 260-261). Additionally, Kobierecki and Strożek (2017) argue from their findings that good results in sporting events tend to translate into an enhancement of a nation's branding. The mere participation and winning of medals in mega sporting events manifest themselves as a form of soft power for a nation. ...
Article
In 1997 and 2000, a series of golf games between Singapore’s Prime Minister Goh Chok Tong and United States’ President Bill Clinton created opportunities that amended strained relations between both states and led to the initiation of US-Singapore Free Trade Agreement. It created an environment that allowed the political leaders to relax and discuss issues in private. Hence, it strengthened diplomatic relations and created opportunities for both countries to amend their relations after falling out over Singapore’s insistence to cane an American teenager named Michael Fay for committing vandalism and mischief in 1993.This article explores the effectiveness of golf as a form of diplomatic tool through the Singapore-US case study, specifically serving as a diplomatic lubricant. Despite this success, the future of golf as a diplomatic tool in Asia is not certain as younger leaders appear to avoid using it for ethical reasons, but an alternative sport is not apparent either.
... In today's world, powerful countries use their sporting victories and successes to promote their country's brand, and weaker countries try to be seen more internationally through such successes. It has been hypothesized that the number of medals won in the Olympics can be an indicator of a country's brand promotion (Kobierecki, 2017). Therefore, by increasing sports success in the identified indicators and using them, we should seize the opportunity and take the necessary advantage to present a strong and positive image of the country to witness the growth of our country's brand. ...
Article
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Objective: The purpose of this study was to present a model of sport indicators affecting the brand of the country. Methodology: This is a correlational study and the statistical population of this study is PhD students in sports in Iran (N = 400). Based on Morgan's table, 144 Individuals were selected by random method. In order to achieve the research goals, a comprehensive list of sports indicators was prepared and adjusted and a researcher - made questionnaire was developed. The validity of the questionnaire was confirmed by 15 sports management professors and their reliability was in a preliminary study with 30 subjects and Cronbach's alpha was calculated to be 0.909 . Descriptive and inferential statistical methods such as exploratory factor analysis, and confirmatory factor analysis were used to analyze the data using SPSS and LISREL software. Results: The results showed that the main variables have eight general dimensions of sport tourism, sport diplomacy, sports investment, sporting-cultural, sports exports, sports people-sports, sports achievements and media sports, and has a total of 50 indicators. Conclusion:According to the results of the research and the identified indicators, the proposed model is a suitable theoretical model for sport indicators affecting the brand of the country.
... Nations ought to carry out their external policies from a position of strength and self-interest with the aim of gaining a prominent economic advantage. Country branding is a marketing strategy that targets outside markets and communicates a specific image of national identity to deliver economic interest of the nation such as increasing exports, tourism, investment, and the influx of gifted workforce (Kobierecki & Strozek, 2017). Policy makers should be aware of and avoid inconsistency among the nation's objectives (Kotler, Jatusripitak, & Maesincee, 1999). ...
Article
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This paper sought to establish the vital issues that should be addressed to work on a national image. The country image is significant as it supports attracting foreign direct investment, tourists, foreign students, and expatriate workers who might bring managerial skills and technological exchange to the country. The paper tried to investigate how much political instability has impacted the national image, analyse the impact of policies on the country image and establish the effect of infrastructure on a country image, and contribute to the literature on the effect of the vital elements on the country image. The research contributes to the components of the national image. The country image is positively interrelated with a view on product integrity, pride of ownership, product gratification, enthusiasm to purchase from specific countries, and general product knowledge (Papadopoulos & Heslop, 2002). Nations historically branded themselves through icons. Symbols like flags, military uniforms, currencies, anthems, and ideology are due to regime changes and stereotypes (Fan, 2010; Dinnie, 2008; Fan, 2006). This research was based on a descriptive approach methodology, combining subjective and quantitative techniques. It was based on 100 stakeholders including politicians, media personnel, community development personnel, traditional leaders, church leaders, and academics and entrepreneurs. The study established that Zimbabwe’s image has been affected by political instability emanating from political activities, policy inconsistencies have affected inward investment in the country and the country’s infrastructure has an immense contribution to the national image. For the country to attract meaningful investment and foreign tourists it needs to deal with its image
... When it comes to the impact of sports on a national brand, people tend to try to quantify. Strożek and Kobierecki (2017) analyzed the relationship between Olympic achievements and the available brand ratings for a country. In the few publications in this area, dedicated to Belarus, as a rule, the relationship between the holding of sporting events and the growth of the country's recognition rates in the world is analyzed. ...
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Research background: With the processes of globalization in the modern world is inextricably interlinked the growing role of non-force methods in foreign policy, as well as the increased attention of the leaders of all leading states to improving the image and increasing the attractiveness of their country, which is directly related to the concept of soft power. To assess the degree of use of soft power in the foreign policy, various ratings are currently being constructed based on the analysis of public opinion, expert assessments, and the estimation of integral quantitative indicators. The data incomparability, as well as the subjective nature and not always adequate results of assessing public opinion, often lead to ratings inconsistency. In addition, Belarus is not included in most of the ratings. Purpose of the article: Assessment of the potential of soft power concept use for Belarus, in particular, based on the development of an integral indicator of the country’s image and popularity. Methods: The methodology of the Moscow School of Management Skolkovo and the British audit and consulting company Ernst and Young. When constructing the integral indicator, the principal component analysis and the ordered multiple-choice were also used. Findings & Value added: The assumption about the inconsistency between the considered soft power ratings was confirmed. Based on the results of the assessment of the soft power index and the integral indicator, it was concluded that Belarus can be classified as a country with an average level of potential for the use of soft power instruments.
... According to Murray, sport 'can transform layers and networks into positive diplomatic relationships and, more importantly, offer an alternate channel for entrenched relations to move beyond the status quo' (Murray 2012: 588) and sports diplomacy can then be considered as one of the 'soft power' tools of the state (Melissen 2005;Grix -Brannagan 2016;Abdi -Talebpour -Fullerton et al 2019). As a respective part of public diplomacy (Özsarı et al. 2018), sports diplomacy plays an important role in communication, which is focused on achieving positive ideas about a country and aims at heightening the image and attractiveness of a country (Štulajter -Barteková -Štulajter 2013;Knott -Fyall -Jones 2015;Kobierecki -Strożek 2017). ...
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The article focuses on the role of equal opportunities and gender in the sports environment, examining their impacts on the creation and functioning of sports diplomacy. Subsequently, in the form of a case study it first concentrates on the Czech sports environment and women’s representation in international and national sports federations. In the final part, it examines the basketball environment and analyses its individual structures. Women are not sufficiently represented as coaches, referees or officials. Several main challenges are mentioned: the perception of sport as a predominantly male phenomenon, the overall society setting fixed on traditional perceptions of the role of women and men in the Czech Republic, a small number of suitable female sports models, the time-consuming character of the activities, gender stereotypes at work, the absence of suitable conditions for reconciling family and work life and the low self-confidence of female candidates. The article concludes that the Czech sports environment (including basketball) is markedly masculine, and women face a number of barriers, which in practice are reflected in the Czech Republic’s representation in international sport organisations and the way in which sports diplomacy is used as a foreign policy tool.
... Mit der Ausrichtung durch die BRICS-Staaten sind aber weitere Motive hinzugekommen. Für diese stellen die eigenen globalen Präsentationsmöglichkeiten durch das Event, verbunden mit einer erhofften Zunahme an Bekanntheit im Sinne des "Nation Branding[s]" (Nauright, 2013;Kobierecki & Strożek, 2017) sowie ein potenzieller Imagegewinn (Gripsrud, Nes & Olsson, 2010), ebenfalls zentrale Motive dar. Hinzu kommt, dass Sportgroßveranstaltungen auch verstärkt als Instrument eingesetzt werden, das im Sinne der Popularitäts-und Legitimationssteigerung von Regierungen oder Verbänden die nationale Öffentlichkeit beeindrucken soll. ...
Chapter
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The Olympic Idea moves almost permanently between idealized and uncritical enthusiasm on the one hand and strict, almost hostile rejection on the other. The aim of this work is to take a well-founded look at various aspects of the Olympic reality and to summarize texts on interesting, current and discussion-intensive Olym-pic topics in one volume. The well-founded examination of complex topics, which allows a multifaceted view and the formation of one's own opinion, offers thought-provoking impulses and a basis for discussion for readers from very different target groups (students, lecturers, trainers, athletes, sports enthusiasts).
... The image of a nation through sports is usually associated with organizing major sporting events, while winning in sports has been considered with a lot of prestige (Kobierecki & Strożek, 2017). Sports can be considered a unique case of world politics, which as a policy field at the global level is regulated by nongovernmental organizations or organizations (Chatzigianni, 2018). ...
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The beauty of philosophy and approach in Islam is that it wants to provide a dignified and decent life for all human beings regardless of their race, ethnic or their nationality. To uplift humanity and protect their honour, Islam introduces the concept of solidarity in jurisprudence and solidarity regulated in Islamic law. In order to strengthen solidarity in the field of sports, the Islamic Solidarity Sport Federation (ISSF) was formed to serve the needs of Muslims in sports. For the first time the biggest sporting event for Muslims was held outside the Middle East region, precisely in the city of Palembang, Indonesia. The Islamic Solidarity Games (ISG) event aims to strengthen relations for countries that are predominantly Muslim. This article aims to provide an overview of the implementation of the Islamic Solidarity Games 1st, 2nd, 4th, and especially in the 3rd edition in Palembang, Indonesia, covering the background, objectives, implementation, and real impact for the host of the event as well as the dynamics of the strength of the international sports system. This study uses a literature review to support the achievement of the objectives of writing this article. The findings from this literature study are that the ISG as a form of sport can be a solution behind the tensions between the Arabian Peninsula countries. ISG has the potential to become a new force in the international sports system
... Also, a sufficient number of publications are devoted to assessing the impact on the image of the state of the policy in the field of education [10], the level of SHS Web of Conferences 92, 0 (2021) Globalization and its Socio-Economic Consequences 2020 8015 https://doi.org/10.1051/shsconf/20219208015 development of sports in the country and achievements at international competitions [11,12]. ...
Article
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Research background: When it comes to conducting international events in a country with a small open economy, the issue of assessing the ratio of costs of the event to subsequent economic effects is relevant. If the evaluation of short-term revenues in the country is quite realistic, then quantifying the long-term effect on a country’s image is much more difficult, and directly related to the concept of soft power and its evaluation as a neutral instrument in international relations. The study was based on the concept of soft power and its instrument, such as the international image of the state, the improvement of which is possible by conducting various events of an international level. Purpose of the article: The opportunity was of interest to assess the effect of using one of the neutral tools of the so-called soft power, such as holding international sports events. Methods: To test hypotheses, time series models were used on the example of Belarus data. Also, for Belarus, the Soft Power Index was calculated according to the methodology of the Moscow School of Management Skolkovo and the British audit and consulting company Ernst and Young. Findings & Value added: The conclusion is confirmed that the holding of sports events of an international scale directly affects the increase in indexing in the search queries of keywords characterizing the country, which in turn through the components of the globalization index positively affects its values for the country. Also, the holding of sports and cultural events has a positive effect on the influx of foreign tourists into the country.
... 73 Manzenreiter 2008, 415. 74 Field 2014Kobierecki andStrożek 2017, 702-703. 75 Shobe andGibson 2017, 955- that the CONIFA members had a strong connection to. ...
Article
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International relations and sport have become increasingly intertwined, with sport and sports events being used for various diplomatic and political goals. Yet, membership of FIFA and the IOC is largely organised along lines of sovereign statehood. Like other fora of diplomacy, this excludes contested territories that wish to engage in diplomacy for various political, economic, and cultural reasons. Yet, these entities can engage in international sports (diplomacy) through membership of the Confederation of Independent Football Associations ( CONIFA ). This paper finds that while the participating entities often make a political statement, there is little evidence that participation in CONIFA has positively impacted their foreign policy goals. Furthermore, beyond CONIFA , contested territories have been unable to advance their sporting sovereignty or engage in diplomatic relations with recognised states. However, CONIFA aids in nation branding through hosting rights and media attention, and contributes to strengthening the ‘national’ identity of the participants.
... Sports victories belong to the most traditional means of increasing a state's prestige and are often observed as indicators of the effectiveness of political leaders or the general vitality of a nation. Countries that are successful in the Olympic Games or international football competitions tend to be assessed more highly in nation brand rankings in the area of culture (Anholt 2009) and have a generally improved international image (Kobierecki and Strożek 2017). This is because international sports provide an avenue for governments to present their national identities to the international public (Houlihan 2004). ...
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The research presented in the article is dedicated to the issue of utilizing sports to positively affect a state’s image according to the example of staging sports mega-events. The aim of the research was to analyze if and to what extent hosting sports mega-events allows states to increase their international visibility and familiarity. The analysis was undertaken on the basis of fluctuations in the number of Google searches for the names of the countries that hosted the Olympic Games and FIFA World Cups between 2004 and 2018. Linear econometric models were constructed in order to measure the scale of the influence of hosting respective sports mega-events on the number of searches for respective countries in the Google search engine.
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Political tensions and conflicts have been accompanying modern sports for a long time. The objective of this study was to determine the political reasons for not hosting football matches between Iranian and Saudi football teams. To address the research objective, a mixed method approach was used. First, in the qualitative part, the political reasons for not hosting the matches identified through the content analysis and interviews were reviewed and evaluated by Delphi Group (25 people) in the second and third stages. Secondly, in the qualitative section of the study, the questionnaire was also used to rank the reasons. The research findings showed that tensions between Tehran and Riyadh increased after the Saudi Embassy attack in Tehran and Mashhad (January 2016) and the execution of Sheikh Nimr, a Shia sheikh opposed to the Saudi government. Saudi Arabia has requested that the Asian Champions League matches against Iranian opponents be held on neutral ground in order to ensure the safety of its players. It is therefore recommended that sports managers and politicians in Iran reduce the political tensions between the two countries. In addition, they need to strive toward creating peace, friendship, and security between the two countries.
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The first European Games hosted in the crossroad Republic of Azerbaijan in 2015 provides a framework for studying both the contemporary approach of this profoundly Eastern society to the European community and the limits of the enlargement of the European political edifice. As conceived by the Azerbaijani elite, the largest national event to be held in this post-Soviet state since its independence in 1991 was meant to reflect the attainment of modern standards as expected by the European and Western world. Conversely, however, it also served for the portrayal of the new national narrative of Azerbaijan without further integration into the European political framework and its normative dogmas of society. The article employs a qualitative methodology and analyses 20 in-depth interviews conducted with relevant local figures of the sports event.
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