Solar cells, a renewable, clean energy technology that efficiently converts sunlight into electricity, are a promising long-term solution for energy and environmental problems caused by a mass of production and the use of fossil fuels. Solution-processed organic solar cells (OSCs) have attracted much attention in the past few years because of several advantages, including easy fabrication, low cost, lightweight, and flexibility. Now, OSCs exhibit power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) of over 10%. In the early stage of OSCs, vapor-deposited organic dye materials were first used in bilayer heterojunction devices in the 1980s, and then, solution-processed polymers were introduced in bulk heterojunction (BHJ) devices. Relative to polymers, vapor-deposited small molecules offer potential advantages, such as a defined molecular structure, definite molecular weight, easy purification, mass-scale production, and good batch-to-batch reproducibility. However, the limited solubility and high crystallinity of vapor-deposited small molecules are unfavorable for use in solution-processed BHJ OSCs. Conversely, polymers have good solution-processing and film-forming properties and are easily processed into flexible devices, whereas their polydispersity of molecular weights and difficulty in purification results in batch to batch variation, which may hamper performance reproducibility and commercialization. Oligomer molecules (OMs) are monodisperse big molecules with intermediate molecular weights (generally in the thousands), and their sizes are between those of small molecules (generally with molecular weights <1000) and polymers (generally with molecular weights >10000). OMs not only overcome shortcomings of both vapor-deposited small molecules and solution-processed polymers, but also combine their advantages, such as defined molecular structure, definite molecular weight, easy purification, mass-scale production, good batch-to-batch reproducibility, good solution processability, and film-forming properties. Therefore, OMs are a good choice for solution-processed reproducible OSCs toward scalable commercialized applications. Considerable efforts have been dedicated to developing new OM electron donors and electron acceptors for OSCs. So far, the highest PCEs of solution-processed OSCs based on OM donors and acceptors are 9-10% and 6-7%, respectively. OM materials have become promising alternatives to polymer and/or fullerene materials for efficient and stable OSCs. In this Account, we present a brief survey of the recent developments in solution-processable OM electron donors and acceptors and their application in OSCs. Rational design of OMs with star- and linear-shaped structures based on triphenylamine, benzodithiophene, and indacenodithiophene units and their impacts on device performance are discussed. Structure-property relationships are also proposed. Furthermore, the remaining challenges and the key research directions in the near future are also addressed. In the next years, an interdisciplinary approach involving novel OM materials, especially electron acceptor materials, accurate morphology optimization, and advanced device technologies will probably bring high-efficiency and stable OSCs to final commercialization.