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Ryan, R. M. et Deci, E. L. (2017). Self-determination theory. Basic psychological needs in motivation, development and wellness. New York, NY : Guilford Press

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... A further limitation is the idea of intrinsic motivation, as indicated by Ryan and Deci's [34] self-determination theory, according to which someone that is motivated will be more productive than someone who is not. This may have biased our results. ...
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... The results indicated that the satisfaction of basic psychological needs, intention and perceived behavioral control predicted sport continuation (Gucciardi and Jackson, 2015). In addition, researchers explored other factors of persistent participation in youth sports, such as demographic, biological, psychological, cultural, environmental (Boiche and Sarrazin, 2009;Bouffard, 2017;Wendling et al., 2018;Soares et al., 2020). Many cross-sectional and longitudinal studies have also shown that persistent sports participation is associated with higher perceived competence, self-esteem, and better emotional and social adaptation (Duda, 2013;Smith et al., 2016). ...
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There are many factors affecting decisions to persistent participation in sports and various approaches have been used to frame these antecedents. The aim of this paper was to systematically review and quantify the primary factors of persistent participation and to assess their respective strengths of association with persistent participation in youth sport. Adhering to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyzes (PRISMA) guidelines, a comprehensive search was implemented on 31st December 2021 in five databases and meta-analytic procedures were applied to data from studies meeting inclusion criteria. The results revealed that sports enjoyment (meta r = 0.45, 95%CI [0.42, 0.49]) was highly correlated with persistent intention, while persistent intention (SMD = 1.13, 95%CI [0.70, 1.56]) was highly correlated with persistent behavior. In addition, parental support, coach support, peer support, basic psychological needs and sports competence were the primary factors associated with persistent intention and persistent behavior, respectively. This study identified the key factors related to persistent participation and provide a complete understanding of children and adolescents' decisions to continue their participation in organized sports. Referring to the key factors, it can provide information for sports clubs and policy makers to develop strategies to increase youth participation in organized sport. Systematic Review Registration PROSPERO, identifier: CRD42021229397.
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Coaches’ motivating style plays a key role in athletes’ motivational outcomes. However, limited research has explored the effects of athletes’ perceptions of coaches’ need-supportive and controlling styles on the bright and dark motivational pathways in the sport setting, and particularly in young water polo players, where one out of two players drops out of this sport as adults. Guided by self-determination theory, the objective of this study was to analyse the differentiated effects between water polo players’ perception of need-supportive and controlling style from their coaches on their reported basic psychological need satisfaction and frustration, motivation and sport commitment. In this cross-sectional study, 633 Spanish water polo players (33.96% women; M age = 14.74), from 43 clubs and three age groups (U-14, U-16 and U-18) completed validated questionnaires assessing study variables. Structural equation modelling showed a positive association of players’ perceptions of need-supportive style from their coaches with their reported need satisfaction, autonomous motivation and sport commitment. Similarly, perceived controlling coaching style was positively associated with reported need frustration, controlled motivation and amotivation. Regarding cross-paths, perceived need-supportive coaching style was negatively related to reported need frustration, while reported amotivation was negatively associated with reported sport commitment. These findings suggest the importance of water polo players’ perceptions of (de)motivating styles from their coaches on their reported motivational outcomes and sport commitment. Players’ perception of coach need-supportive behaviours and, in particular, the avoidance of perceived controlling behaviours, buffer against experiences of reported need frustration and, consequently, amotivation, which seems to play a key role in preventing lack of sport commitment in young water polo players.
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Executive functions play an important role in sports since the ability to plan, organize, and regulate behavior to reach an objective or goal depends on these functions. Some of the components of executive functions, such as inhibition of impulsive behavior and cognitive flexibility, are necessary for contact sports (e.g., American football) to carry out successful plays on the sports field. Executive functions have been studied in the sporting environment, but their relationship with the athletes' basic psychological needs (BPN), such as autonomy, competence, and relatedness, remains unexplored. Due to the importance of motivational processes over cognitive functions and in the generated adaptive results in athletes, this relationship should be taken into account. Therefore, the aim of this study was to analyze and compare executive functioning and psychological need thwarting overimpulsivity and psychological distress, before and after the season (4 months) in 28 undergraduate football players. Neuropsychological and psychological tests were applied. The results showed that there was an improvement in inhibition and planning at the end of the season. There was also an increase in attention and motor impulsiveness, and a decrease in need thwarting at the end of the season. A positive association between executive function, impulsiveness, psychological needs, and affective symptoms were also found. Our findings reveal the dynamics of sport-related psychological variables throughout the sport season in American football players, the association of these for the achievement of sport success, and the importance of encouraging proper management of emotions.
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Background In Canada, only 11% of stroke survivors have access to outpatient and community-based rehabilitation after discharge from inpatient rehabilitation. Hence, innovative community-based strategies are needed to provide adequate postrehabilitation services. The VirTele program, which combines virtual reality exergames and a telerehabilitation app, was developed to provide stroke survivors with residual upper extremity deficits, the opportunity to participate in a personalized home rehabilitation program. Objective This study aims to determine the feasibility of VirTele for remote upper extremity rehabilitation in a chronic stroke survivor; explore the preliminary efficacy of VirTele on upper extremity motor function, the amount and quality of upper extremity use, and impact on quality of life and motivation; and explore the determinants of behavioral intention and use behavior of VirTele along with indicators of empowerment. Methods A 63-year-old male stroke survivor (3 years) with moderate upper extremity impairment participated in a 2-month VirTele intervention. He was instructed to use exergames (5 games for upper extremity) for 30 minutes, 5 times per week, and conduct videoconference sessions with a clinician at least once per week. Motivational interviewing was incorporated into VirTele to empower the participant to continue exercising and use his upper extremities in everyday activities. Upper extremity motor function (Fugl-Meyer Assessment–upper extremity), amount and quality of upper extremity use (Motor Activity Log-30), and impact on quality of life (Stroke Impact Scale-16) and motivation (Treatment Self-Regulation Questionnaire-15) were measured before (T1), after (T2) VirTele intervention, and during a 1- (T3) and 2-month (T4) follow-up period. Qualitative data were collected through logs and semistructured interviews. Feasibility data (eg, number and duration of videoconference sessions and adherence) were documented at the end of each week. Results The participant completed 48 exergame sessions (33 hours) and 8 videoconference sessions. Results suggest that the VirTele intervention and the study protocol could be feasible for stroke survivors. The participant exhibited clinically meaningful improvements at T2 on the Fugl-Meyer and Stroke Impact Scale-16 and maintained these gains at T3 and T4. During the follow-up periods, the amount and quality of upper extremity use showed meaningful changes, suggesting more involvement of the affected upper extremity in daily activities. The participant demonstrated a high level of autonomous motivation, which may explain his adherence. Performance, effort, and social influence have meaningful weights in the behavioral intention of using VirTele. However, the lack of control of technical and organizational infrastructures may influence the long-term use of technology. At the end of the intervention, the participant demonstrated considerable empowerment at both the behavioral and capacity levels. Conclusions VirTele was shown to be feasible for use in chronic stroke survivors for remote upper extremity rehabilitation. Meaningful determinants of behavioral intention and use behavior of VirTele were identified, and preliminary efficacy results are promising. International Registered Report Identifier (IRRID) RR2-10.2196/14629
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The journey of graduate students through academia can be a difficult road plagued with several roadblocks due to several intersectional factors. These difficulties often impact the students’ mental health with severe consequences on their well-being and personal and academic achievements. There is a critical need for researchers to conduct studies in response to the positive mental well-being for this group of trainees, considering their peculiar role in the scholarly environment. This study aimed to explore the scientific research on the health and well-being of graduate students; typify the scientific landscape and development trajectory, cooperation networks, and fundamental research areas; and identify areas of needed research in this field. A bibliometric analysis of articles indexed in Scopus and published in the past decade (2012 to 2021) was undertaken. The results revealed that the research on graduate students’ mental health and well-being has increased over the years, significantly in the past two years, probably owing to the incidence of the COVID-19 pandemic and concerns around remote learning. The highest number of publications was from the United Kingdom (U.K.) and United States (U.S.), while the organizational affiliations were mainly from universities. The most prominent source type of publications was journal articles. The result also shows a weak collaboration across countries and organizations. The study identifies other areas of useful research, collaboration, intervention strategies, and policy review.
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Background: Exergames are increasingly being used among survivors of stroke with chronic upper extremity (UE) sequelae to continue exercising at home after discharge and maintain activity levels. The use of virtual reality exergames combined with a telerehabilitation app (VirTele) may be an interesting alternative to rehabilitate the UE sequelae in survivors of chronic stroke while allowing for ongoing monitoring with a clinician. Objective: This study aimed to determine the feasibility of using VirTele in survivors of chronic stroke at home and explore the impact of VirTele on UE motor function, quantity and quality of use, quality of life, and motivation in survivors of chronic stroke compared with conventional therapy. Methods: This study was a 2-arm feasibility clinical trial. Eligible participants were randomly allocated to an experimental group (receiving VirTele for 8 weeks) or a control group (receiving conventional therapy for 8 weeks). Feasibility was measured from the exergame and intervention logs completed by the clinician. Outcome measurements included the Fugl-Meyer Assessment-UE, Motor Activity Log-30, Stroke Impact Scale-16, and Treatment Self-Regulation Questionnaire-15, which were administered to both groups at four time points: time point 1 (T1; before starting the intervention), time point 2 (after the intervention), time point 3 (1 month after the intervention), and time point 4 (T4; 2 months after the intervention). Results: A total of 11 survivors of stroke were randomized and allocated to an experimental or a control group. At the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic, participants pursued the allocated treatment for 3 months instead of 8 weeks. VirTele intervention dose was captured in terms of time spent on exergames, frequency of use of exergames, total number of successful repetitions, and frequency of videoconference sessions. Technical issues included the loss of passwords, internet issues, updates of the system, and problems with the avatar. Overall, most survivors of stroke found the technology easy to use and useful, except for 9% (1/11) of participants. For the Fugl-Meyer Assessment-UE and Motor Activity Log-30, both groups exhibited an improvement in >50% of the participants, which was maintained over time (from time point 3 to T4). Regarding Stroke Impact Scale-16 scores, the control group reported improvement in activities of daily life (3/5, 60%), hand function (5/5, 100%), and mobility (2/5, 40%), whereas the experimental group reported varied and inconclusive results (from T1 to T4). For the Treatment Self-Regulation Questionnaire-15, 75% (3/4) of the experimental group demonstrated an increase in the autonomous motivation score (from T1 to time point 2), whereas, in the control group, this improvement was observed in only 9% (1/11) of participants. Conclusions: The VirTele intervention constitutes another therapeutic alternative, in addition to conventional therapy, to deliver an intense personalized rehabilitation program for survivors of chronic stroke with UE sequelae. International registered report identifier (irrid): RR2-10.2196/14629.
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Minority student school dropout represents a challenging issue for educational systems in many countries. Notwithstanding minority families' overall high academic aspirations, there is a stable achievement gap between majority and minority students. Minority students who are emotionally engaged with their school tend to be psychologically and socioculturally better adapted to their country of residence and, as a result, report higher academic success. Therefore, emotional school engagement represents a relevant factor for integration into the host society. The goal of this paper is to investigate the interrelation between ethnic and national identity, perceived discrimination, and perceived support from parents, peers, and teachers with emotional school engagement. Results indicate that cultural capital within the family, cultural self-identification, and perceived support from peers and teachers play an important role for students’ emotional school engagement.
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Conducted 2 laboratory and 1 field experiment with 24, 24, and 8 undergraduates to investigate the effects of external rewards on intrinsic motivation to perform an activity. In each experiment, Ss performed an activity during 3 different periods, and observations relevant to their motivation were made. External rewards were given to the experimental Ss during the 2nd period only, while the control Ss received no rewards. Results indicate that (a) when money was used as an external reward, intrinsic motivation tended to decrease; whereas (b) when verbal reinforcement and positive feedback were used, intrinsic motivation tended to increase. Discrepant findings in the literature are reconciled using a new theoretical framework which employs a cognitive approach and concentrates on the nature of the external reward. (26 ref.) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Human beings can be proactive and engaged or, alternatively, passive and alienated, largely as a function of the social conditions in which they develop and function. Accordingly, research guided by self-determination theory has focused on the social-contextual conditions that facilitate versus forestall the natural processes of self-motivation and healthy psychological development. Specifically, factors have been examined that enhance versus undermine intrinsic motivation, self-regulation, and well-being. The findings have led to the postulate of three innate psychological needs--competence, autonomy, and relatedness--which when satisfied yield enhanced self-motivation and mental health and when thwarted lead to diminished motivation and well-being. Also considered is the significance of these psychological needs and processes within domains such as health care, education, work, sport, religion, and psychotherapy.
Book
I: Background.- 1. An Introduction.- 2. Conceptualizations of Intrinsic Motivation and Self-Determination.- II: Self-Determination Theory.- 3. Cognitive Evaluation Theory: Perceived Causality and Perceived Competence.- 4. Cognitive Evaluation Theory: Interpersonal Communication and Intrapersonal Regulation.- 5. Toward an Organismic Integration Theory: Motivation and Development.- 6. Causality Orientations Theory: Personality Influences on Motivation.- III: Alternative Approaches.- 7. Operant and Attributional Theories.- 8. Information-Processing Theories.- IV: Applications and Implications.- 9. Education.- 10. Psychotherapy.- 11. Work.- 12. Sports.- References.- Author Index.
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Theories of motivation built upon primary drives cannot account for playful and exploratory behavior. The new motivational concept of "competence" is introduced indicating the biological significance of such behavior. It furthers the learning process of effective interaction with the environment. While the purpose is not known to animal or child, an intrinsic need to deal with the environment seems to exist and satisfaction ("the feeling of efficacy") is derived from it. (100 ref.) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved).
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Two rhesus monkeys, given 60 two-hour sessions with a six-device mechanical puzzle showed clear evidence of learning, the curve showing ratio of incorrect to correct responses appearing quite comparable to similar curves obtained during externally rewarded situations. When, on the thirteenth day of tests, the subjects were presented with the puzzle 100 times at 6-minute intervals, the number of devices manipulated decreased regularly throughout the day, although there was no significant change in the number of times the problem assembly was attacked.
Handbook of self-determination research
  • E L Deci
  • R M Et Ryan