India, the second‐most populous country in the world, and with a booming economy, is now facing difficulties in ensuring water security in terms of both quantity and quality. It is an outcome of the increased pressure on water recourses due to rapid growth in population, industrialization, rampant urbanization, and extensive agricultural practices. Trends indicate that India will become “water‐stressed” by 2025 and “water‐scarce” by 2050. Climate change has affected the quantity of surface water and groundwater resources in India by the melting of glaciers and narrowing of the rainfall pattern with several flood and drought events. Also, the water quality of available surface and groundwater resources is being deteriorated by contaminants like arsenic, fluoride, iron, nitrate, lead, cadmium, and uranium. Further, climate change is also increasing the rate of deterioration of water quality by affecting the level of dissolved oxygen, carbon, nitrate, and other parameters of water due to increased temperature. Climatic warming and the unpredicted rainfall pattern have also increased the frequency of both water‐borne (like cholera, diarrhea) as well as vector‐borne diseases (like malaria and dengue). The Government of India has taken several successful initiatives like rainwater harvesting, groundwater recharge projects, the construction of arsenic‐free wells in arsenic‐affected areas, and launched several other schemes such as National Rural Drinking Water Mission, Namami Ganges, and River Basin Management. In this direction, to improve the quality of river water, the government has also established “River Development and Ganga Rejuvenation” under the ministry of Jal Shakti. India can turn these challenges into opportunities by good governance, proper management, hydro‐diplomacy with neighbor countries, adopting new technologies (deficit irrigation, detection of pipe leakage Danish technology), and making stringent rules and regulations. This chapter provides an overview of India's water‐related issues including scarcity, water quality, and water‐related diseases, their influence by climate change, and possible mitigation measures for water security.