ArticlePDF Available

Bread and Health

Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology 5 (2017) 821-826
doi: 10.17265/2328-2150/2017.11.005
Bread and Health
Kourkouta, L.1, Koukourikos, K.2, Iliadis, C.3, Ouzounakis, P.4, Monios, A.5 and Tsaloglidou, A.6
1. Nursing Department, Alexander Technological Educational Institute of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki 574 00, Greece
2. Nursing Department, Technological Educational Institute of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki 574 00, Greece
3. Private Diagnostic Health Center of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki 54623, Greece
4. General Hospital of Alexandroupoli, Alexandroupoli 68100, Greece
5. 7th High School of Athens, Athens 11634, Greece
6. Nursing Department, Technological Educational Institute of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki 574 00, Greece
Abstract: Introduction: Bread is a food full of flavors and nutrients and continues to be the basis of our daily diet. Aim: The aim of this
review was the investigation of bread’s usefulness in our daily dietary chain and health in general. Material-Method: Extensive review
of the recent literature was conducted in electronic databases (Medline, Scopus, and Google Scholar) through the Association of
Hellenic Academic Libraries (HEAL-Link) using the appropriate key words: bread, health, disease as well as a combination of them.
Results: Bread is an excellent source of complex carbohydrates that provide the body with the energy needed. Although bread is a basic
food of everyday human nutrition, it is implicated in a variety of situations that burden the human body, such as obesity. However, this
happens only when it is consumed in very large quantities and when it is part of an unbalanced diet. Conclusions: Bread, when is
consumed in balanced quantities can give the body plenty of nutrients essential for its good function.
Key words: Bread, health, disease.
1. Introduction
Bread or in Greek “artos” was considered in the past
as the most important human good after health and
water. The origin of the term “artos” is ancient Greek:
it comes from the verb “ararisko” which means connect,
match, put together or “artio” which means brew, and
prepare. The modern term “bread” derived from the
ancient verb “psoo” meaning rub and it is diminutive of
the word “psomys” ( bread = little bit, bite). Its
history begins thousands years ago and unfolds in the
depths of centuries [1, 2].
It belongs to the traditional diet, especially that of the
poor. It believed to be the most complete and cheap
food and basic auxiliary food in times of extreme food
poverty. It is the main food in Europe but also in the
cultures of America, Middle East and North Africa,
Corresponding author: Kourkouta Lambrini, Ph.D.,
professor, research fields: history of nursing, ethics and
unlike East Asia, where the main food is rice [3, 4].
The bread, therefore, a food with awesome variety of
flavors and nutrients remains the basis of our daily diet.
However, it is accused of contributing to weight gain
etc. [5, 6].
The purpose of this review is to highlight the
importance of using bread in our daily food chain and its
contribution to the promotion of our health in general.
2. Methods
The search for the sources of this review was made
on the Internet from specific databases such as Medline,
PubMed, Google Scholar, and the Hellenic Academic
Libraries Association (HEAL-Link). The search
included research articles of the last, mainly decades,
about bread and nutrition, its characteristics, its
nutritional value and its advantages. The criterion of
exclusion of the articles was language other than Greek
and English. The keywords that they used were: bread,
health and disease.
Bread and Health
3. History of Bread
Known as “the essence of life”, bread is already
made from 10.000 B.C. at the dawn of Neolithic period
and the spread of agriculture, where the seeds were the
main ingredient of bread. The first bread in a form
similar to the current one is found in Egypt in some of
the oldest surviving papyriin which instructions for
bread-making process are included. It was also written
there that the delay of the pyramids construction was
due to insufficient supply of bread to the workers [7, 8].
Bread was also widely known in Ancient Greece,
where, among other things, the ritual bread called
“psadista” was prepared from flour, oil and wine and
was offered to the gods. In general, barley bread was
produced. Solon also reports that wheaten bread was
produced only on festive days. Hesiod, Homer,
Herodotus and other important historians and writers
have been referred to bread. Moreover, since the 5th
century B.C., Athenians could buy bread from bakeries,
while in Rome the bakeries just appeared in the 2nd
century. Romans were also the ones who created the
first ovens in their craft form, especially during the
time of Emperor Trajan (87-117 AD), where a mass
production of bread was observed [9].
The importance of bread was recognized since that
era, a fact reflected in the term “opso/prosfagi” which
means the food that one eats with bread, as a
supplement used for the rest of the meal [10].
Bread was also used as a symbol in many religions.
It is reported in the Old Testament that when Israelites
left Egypt and found themselves in the wilderness, God
sent them a kind of bread called “manna” and the
people survived thanks to it [11]. In the New Testament,
the miracle of Christ, in which Christ with five breads
and two fish was able to feed five thousand people, is
mentioned [12]. Christ also likened himself as bread to
his disciples and anyone who could eat it, he would
have eternal life. In the Secret Supper Jesus blessed the
bread, cut it into pieces and said, “take, eat, that is my
body” [13].
The Industrial Revolution (18th-19th century)
brought rapid technological breakthroughs and
significant changes in bakery. The production of new
hard-grained cereals in America made it necessary to
create stronger mills than that of watermills and
windmills. The construction of roller mills that could
grind hard wheat, led to the production of whiter flour.
New varieties of wheat promising good quality bread
were also studied and discovered. [14]
4. Bread
The Code of Food, Beverage and Shared Objects
defines as “bread”, the product prepared by baking in
special furnaces and under defined conditions of mass
consisting of wheat flour, water, dough and a small
amount of salt (Article 111, 2nd Edition, April 2014).
Raw materials used for the bread production available
for consumption should meet the terms and provisions
of the Code. Where flour from another cereal or a
mixture of cereal flour has been used for making
bread, this bread must bear the name of such cereals,
such as wheat bread with rye [15].
Flour is the main material in making of bread and its
properties depend significantly on the properties of the
grain from which it is produced. The chemical
composition of the flour depends on the degree of
milling. Increasing the degree of milling reduces the
percentage of starch and increases the components
present in the bark such as inorganic ingredients,
insoluble fiber and vitamins [16, 17].
Wheat is the only cereal whose flour has the ability
to form dough when contacted with water. As a result,
flour has the exclusive property of shaping the structure
and appearance of bakery products [17].
Flour consists of proteins, starch and other
carbohydrate lipids, fiber, water and ash as well as low
levels of vitamins, minerals and enzymes [18]. Its
proteins, gliadins and glutenins interact with each other
when mixed with water creating the gluten grid. The
grid has the ability to bind the gases produced during
fermentation or produced by chemical blowing agents
in the form of bubbles and it swells causing the
Bread and Health
bloating of the dough [9]. The amount of protein
contained in the flour determines the amount of gluten
to be formed, which, in turn determines the strength,
shape and structure of the dough. Hard wheat has
higher protein content than soft and therefore the first is
used in bread production, as mentioned above [19]. In
addition to the proteins that constitute 10-12% of the
flour, most of it consists of starch (70-75%), while
water is about 14%. It is also composed of non-starch
polysaccharides (2-3%), with arabinoxylans and fats at
a similar rate. Although at low contents, these
ingredients are necessary for the production and quality
of the bread [20].
Flour is the main ingredient of bread and creates the
grid around which the other ingredients mix in proper
proportions to form the dough [21]. The wheat is,
furthermore, the only cereal whose flour has the ability
to form dough when it comes into contact with water.
As a result, the wheat flour has the exclusive property
of shaping the structure and appearance of bakery
products [17].
5. Bread’s Nutritional Value
Since bread is a basic food of the daily human
nutrition, various attempts have been made to prepare
various types of it.
Wheat flour is the main ingredient of bakery. Hard
wheat has high protein content and the corresponding
flour is used to make bread and other goods, such as
croissants, donuts etc. Soft wheat has low protein
content and the corresponding flour is used for pastry
preparations such as cakes, biscuits, etc. [9]
Some types of bread, such as the whole grain bread,
have high fiber content, which enhances the digestive
system’s action. Rye has the largest amount of dietary
fiber and as a result its products have a lower glycemic
index compared to wheat products, making them
suitable for diabetics [20].
From a nutritional point of view, the barley seed is
low in fat, high in dietary fiber and contains essential
amino acids in an amount equal to or greater than other
cereals. As such, barley flour is a beneficial food for
health. In particular, barley b-glucans are proven to
reduce blood cholesterol and glycemic load [22-23].
B-glucan, which, as mentioned above, has a positive
effect on health, is contained exclusively in barley and
no in other cereals. In addition, barley is a source of
tocoles (tocopherols and tocotrienols) that they have
antioxidant activity [24].
Corn flour is used to produce a variety of bakery
products, such as bread, cakes, donuts and other
products, most notably baby foods. It has high vitamin
A content, almost ten times more than the other cereals,
but it is also rich in carotenoids (lutein and zeaxanthin
constitute 70% of carotenoids in corn) that act as
antioxidants [25, 26].
Whole wheat flour also contains a significant
percentage (up to 75%) of higher amounts of vitamins,
minerals, antioxidants, fiber and other nutrients than
that of commonly processed wheat flour, as these
components are concentrated in the outer parts of the
fruit [27, 28].
The increased demand for bread products also
contributed to the manufacture of its functional
products such as shown in Table 1:
6. Advantages—Disadvantages of Bread
The bread therefore represents an excellent source of
complex carbohydrates, which provide the body the
energy it needs and play an important role in balancing
blood glucose levels [9].
Most types of bread contain low-value, low-fat
vegetable protein. They also contain B vitamins,
vitamin E and trace elements such as iron, potassium,
calcium and selenium, that are greatly provided in the
body. Vitamin B contributes significantly to the protein
metabolism and cell replacement, vitamin E is an
active antioxidant, iron is essential for growth and cell
oxygenation and potassium for the balanced function
of the cells. The calcium contributes to bone density
and Selenium is a powerful antioxidant [19].
Bread and Health
Table 1 Functional bread products.
1. Gluten-free
Celiac disease, also known as gluten sensitization enteropathy, is a systemic autoimmune small bowel disorder
caused by the consumption of cereals (wheat, barley, rye) containing gluten in people with genetic predisposition
[29]. In all cases, and especially in celiac disease, treatment is the lifelong exclusion of gluten from nutrition.
[30]. This created the need to produce gluten-free bread that should have quality features like those of the
common wheat flour. The majority of gluten-free products are of lower quality to that of common wheat flour.
Nutritionally they have lower concentrations of protein and fiber, but also vitamins and minerals [31, 32].
These products are often also lactose-free (nondairy-basedgluten-freebread), as a large proportion of celiac
atients experience lactose intolerance due to inadequate lactase production from damaged villi of the small
intestine [33].
2. Bread with
added fiber
The benefits of dietary fiber to people’s health are indisputable. Among these, the most effective glycemic
control, cholesterol control, protection against cardiovascular disease, weight control, bowel function regulation,
and colon cancer protection have been identified [34, 35]. According to European legislation (Regulation (EC)
1924/2006, 2006) the bread is characterized as a product rich in fiber and therefore positively affects the
physiology of the body when it contains at least 6 g per 100 g of product. Beta-glucans, the water soluble fiber
with high concentration in oats (3-8 g per 100 g dry weight) and barley (2-20 g per 100 g of dry weight), known
for the ability to increase the viscosity of the solutions, are mainly used as functional fibers [36].
3. Bread with low
or no added salt
The bread is a rich secret source of sodium. A slice of white, wheat bread (28 g) contains 134 mg of sodium (Na),
while a slice of rye bread (28.35 g) contains 171 mg of sodium (Na). By reducing salt content from the bread,
which is a basic food, the total intake of salt decreases resulting in lowering blood pressure and in the long term,
the decrease of the cardiovascular disease risk [37, 38]. According to European legislation, a food is labeled
“low in salt” when it contains less than 0.3% salt [39]. Bread products with low or no salt addition have been
studied and prepared. The taste of these products differs greatly from the taste of common bread and is not as
enjoyable to consumers as the common bread [40].
However, bread is implicated in various conditions
that burden the human body, as in the case of obesity.
Bread contributes to obesity only when consumed in
very large quantities and when it is part of an
unbalanced diet. Obesity is also associated with
diabetes mellitus [41]. Bread has a high glycemic index,
greatly increasing sugar and insulin secretion, which in
turn adds to obesity. In a balanced diet, carbohydrates
should be about 50% and 2 slices of whole-wheat bread
per day can be conveniently included in the daily diet
[7, 20].
Gluten, which is contained in bread, causes celiac
disease in gluten-sensitive people when they consume
bread. They present diarrhea, weight loss,
undernutrition, anemia, osteopenia, psychiatric
disorders such as irritability and others. These patients
should avoid eating grains containing gluten, such as
barley, rye, oats and wheat [42, 43].
7. Conclusions
Bread eaten in balanced quantities not only does not
contribute to obesity, but can provide the body with
plenty of nutrients essential for its good function. Thus,
when incorporated into a generally balanced, nutritious
diet, it can play an important role in helping consumers
to achieve and maintain the objective of intake of
specific calories daily.
Consumers, moreover, require today healthy, but
also pleasant pastries. It is necessary to continue
research in this field in order to prove the beneficial
effects of their action on the body and health in general.
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The main objective of this work was the selection of mixed starters with a combination of Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) and yeasts strains for traditional bread production in Morocco. For this, a total of 21 LAB strains and 36 yeast strains were isolated from different traditional sourdough. Dough fermentation were assessed by monitoring physicochemical parameters including, titratable acidity, decrease of pH and lactic acid, ethanol and CO2 production. A total of six yeasts and four LAB were selected for their technological performances. Morphological, physiological and biochemical identification performed using API identification kits confirmed that these strains belonged to Saccharomyes cerevisiae, Candida humilis and Saccharomyces exiguus species, and Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus casei species for yeasts and LAB respectively. The yeast S3-L2 and the LAB OD-BL5 strains exhibited the best performances among the selected ones; S3-L2 yeast strain were able to produce ΔV=23mL of CO2 and showed the highest values of ethanol and biomass production (2.87 g/L and 1.25 10^9 UFC/mL, respectively). Whereas OD-BL5 LAB strains produced 13.9 g/L of lactate in dough. These findings lead to consider these two strains very good candidates for the formulation of an effective mixed starter for bread preparation. Subsequently, sensorial analysis results showed that bread prepared using mixed starter No. 24 composed of the two selected species exhibited better exterior appearance, golden and crispy crust, large volume and honeycomb crumb, compared to the control.
Background : Bread is one of the basic food stuffs which have been eaten all over the planet. In recent years, consumers have selected various alternatives of white bread due to high glycemic index and low fiber content. Objective : This study prepares the sourdough bread with microbial strains for improving sensory attributes and enhancing availability of minerals. Materials and Methods : Three Lactic acid bacterial strains L. Plantarum Е90, L. Brevis Е12, and L. acidophillus ATCC4356 and specific doses of yeast Saccharomyces Cerevisiae were used to prepare sourdough bread. The standard solutions of minerals were run for analysis by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer (Model: AA-6300, Kayoto, Japan). The sourdough was evaluated for pH and minerals and sensory evaluated by different panels of expert judges using nine-point hedonic scales. Results : The results showed that overall sensory characteristics (crust color, acid flavor, acid taste, texture, chewability and acceptability) were obtained significant in culture dose of 2%, culture type C2 (L. Brevis Е120) and fermentation time of 6 hrs. Fermentation and optimum acidity (lower pH) was obtained in C2 (L. Brevis Е120) and C3 L acidophilus ATCC4356. The mineral bioavailability (Fe and Zn), significant results were obtained from culture type C3 (L. acidophillus ATCC4356), culture dose of 1.5% and 2% and fermentation time of 6 h. Conclusion : The sourdough bread prepares by using culture type C2 (L. Brevis Е120), improves sensory qualities and C3(L. acidophillus ATCC4356) improves nutritional level in sour dough bread.
Perishable goods play an important role in our daily lives as well as in the retail industry. For products such as bakery goods, inventory optimization is very much important as it has a shorter shelf life and uncertain demand due to dynamic consumer behaviour. Baked products are as popular as they've ever been, however, consumer demand is shifting in fascinating ways. Consumers are more conscious about their health than ever before and their demand for fresh foods has skyrocketed. There lies the importance of requirement of an effective inventory management system in the bakery sector to provide fresh products reducing the wastage. Mathematical formulation is framed for a single echelon system considering only the retailer with bread as an example. Two methods of inventory management are being compared, in the first one, the entire inventory is available in rack on the beginning of the day, whereas in the second case a reservation policy is being introduced. The best base-stock level of bread to be kept by the retailer for the above two cases are tested with two ordering policies namely order-up-to-S and (s, S) policies. Demand streams are generated following uniform distribution, as it gives equal probability over a given range.
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Bread is a commonly consumed staple and could be a viable medium to deliver plant-based ingredients that demonstrate health effects. This review brings together published evidence on the bioactive properties of bread formulated with plant-based ingredients. Health effects associated with the consumption of bread formulated with plant-based functional ingredients was also reviewed. Bioactive properties demonstrated by the functional ingredients fruits and vegetables, legumes, nuts and tea incorporated into bread include increased phenolic and polyphenolic content, increased antioxidant activity, and extension of bread shelf-life by impairment of lipid and protein oxidation. Acute health effects reported included appetite suppression, reduced diastolic blood pressure, improvements in glycaemia, insulinaemia and satiety effect. These metabolic effects are mainly short lived and not enough for a health claim. Longer term studies or comparison of those who consume and those who do not are needed. The incorporation of plant-based functional ingredients in bread could enhance the health-promoting effects of bread.
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The aim of this study was to improve the quality and nutritional value of Barbari bread using sourdough and whole wheat-barley flour. To optimize the fermentation condition, the effect of sourdough content (15–30%), temperature (30–45 °C), and time (30–120 min) of fermentation on Barbari bread characteristics (specific volume, porosity, textural characteristics, phytic acid and sensory properties) were investigated. The optimal conditions obtained by the model for the production of Barbari bread were found 30.00% sourdough, 39.39 °C temperature, and 55.81 min fermentation time. Under optimal condition, the overall acceptance, hardness, gumminess, chewability, volume, porosity, and phytic acid were 3.63, 38.58 N, 24.61 N, 193.50 N/mm, 1.69%, 17.71%, and 0.151%, respectively, which was consistent with experimental data. The phytic acid content significantly decreased by increasing sourdough and fermentation time, which resulted in the highest content of zinc and iron content.
Introduction. Bakery products are an important part of traditional Russian menu. Activated water helps to improve the quality of flour products. The present research objective was (1) to activate water with mechanical energy to change the physicochemical properties of the dough; (2) to evaluate the energy efficiency of the new technological process, and (3) to determine the quality indicators of bread. Study objects and methods. The research featured high quality wheat flour, drinking water, and pressed baking yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae). Standard research methods were used to assess the physical and chemical properties of water, namely acidity index (pH), surface tension coefficient, and biological activity. The physico-chemical properties of the dough were studied by maximum shear stress and adhesion. Results and discussion. The samples of activated water demonstrated the following technological properties. Its acidity due decreased as pH fell down to 6.05. With a total mixing time of 10 min, the surface tension decreased by about 10%; after 5 min, it decreased by 4%, while the biological activity of activated water increased by 1.5 times. Mechanically treated water used for bread production contributed to the overall energy saving during kneading and increased its water-binding ability. Moisture removal was by 30–40% more intensive than in the control dough sample. Also, the quality of gluten changed as a result of higher shear stress, which gave the experimental dough better forming properties necessary for the production of high-quality bread. The mechanically activated water increased the specific volume of bread from 2.05 to 2.38 cm3/g. Conclusion. The activated water improved the physico-chemical and rheological properties of dough, as well as the main sensory indicators of bread, e.g. porosity and bread crumb elasticity.
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High glycaemic index diet and α-glucosidase activity have been implicated in postprandial hyperglycaemia. Regulation of α-glucosidase activity and high glycaemic index diet has promising consequence on curbing the prevalence of type-2 diabetes mellitus. The present study investigated inhibitory effect of aqueous extract of Camellia sinensis (green tea) on α-glucosidase activity and glycaemic index of white bread. In vitro inhibition of α-glucosidase activity using p-nitrophenyl glucopyranoside as substrate and Camellia sinensis aqueous extract as inhibitor was investigated. Likewise, in vivo study on effect of the tea on glycaemic index of white bread using 30 healthy participants was carried out. The outcomes of the investigation revealed that Camellia sinensis aqueous extract reduced the activity of α-glucosidase to 17.50% with IC50 of 202.12 µg/mL. The mode of inhibition was mixed competitive. It also lowered the glycaemic index (GI) of white bread by 39.71% when bread consumption was delayed for 5 minutes after the extract consumption. In conclusion, report has shown that agent that reduces postprandial hyperglycaemia has an important role to play in the handling type-2 diabetes mellitus. This agent does this by lowering the GI of carbohydrate-rich food and/or inhibiting the activities of α-glucosidase enzyme. This study shows that aqueous extract of Camellia sinensis has a great potential to reduce the undue postprandial hyperglycaemia.
The purpose of this study was to use a mixture of whole wheat–barley flour mixture in the preparation of traditional Iranian bread (Barbari) in the optimum condition of fermentation to benefit from all available nutrients. In this study, bread parameters such as specific volume, porosity, textural characteristics, zinc, iron, phytic acid and organoleptic properties were investigated. In this research, different percentages of sourdough (15–30%) and fermentation time (30 – 120 min) were applied. Results showed that the phytic acid content significantly decreased ( p < 0.05) (0.23 – 0.14) by increasing sourdough and fermentation time, which result in increasing in zinc (17.49 – 22.89%) and iron (36.44 – 45.32%) content. Both the sourdough content and fermentation time parameters had a significant effect ( p < 0.05) on the better porosity (9.05 – 13.50%) and overall acceptability of bread (2.15 – 3.85). The hardness, gumminess, chewiness, porosity, phytic acid and overall acceptance parameters were used to optimize the fermentation conditions of Barbari bread by response surface methodology using a central composite design. Optimal conditions for the production of Barbari bread were 29.53% sourdough and 120 min fermentation time. Under optimal conditions, the overall acceptance, hardness, porosity, chewability, gumminess and phytic acid were 3.84, 60.81 N, 14.09%, 302.01 N/mm, 41.37 N and 0.15%, respectively.
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Secondary raw materials formed in the technological process of production of such products as pumpkin juice, beet sugar, etc. is a promising source of useful components, including fiber, pectin substances, macro- and microelements in bioavailability form, etc. It was determined that the water-binding capacity of powders from pumpkin pomace and sugar beet pulp, as well as oat flour, is higher than that of wheat and rye flour by 20.9-22.8%. The study developed the composition of a flour mixture including, %: peeled rye flour - 60, second grade wheat flour - 20, pumpkin pomace powder - 6.3, sugar beet pulp powder - 5.7, oat flour - 8. It is determined that preliminary soaking of powders of pumpkin pomace and sugar beet pulp, as well as oat flour has a positive effect on the physical and chemical properties of bakery products, as well as the content of aromatic compounds in them. The content of dietary fiber in the developed products is 20% of the daily requirement, which makes it possible to classify the developed bread as functional food products.
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Abstract Optimum nutritional status is important to derive maximum benefits of training the forces and it can affect health status and wellbeing of the servicemen. The present study was conducted to explicate the nutritional composition of different food items in the standard ration as well as device ration of servicemen considering geographical deployment location and physical activity level of servicemen keeping in view food guidelines standards of nutrients. Accordingly, food items of the selected rations were collected from different suppliers and were analyzed using food analysis techniques by AOAC. Results indicated carbohydrates content of 722.11 + 26.4 g (71.37%), fats 164.19 + 14.5 g (16.22%) and proteins 125.36 + 11.2 g (12.39%) as well as total caloric contents of 4867.59+ 205 Kcal/soldier/day. Further, Soldiers deployed at higher altitude i.e., at 15000 feet above sea level supplied with extra rations to cope up extra caloric requirement and replacement of fresh fruits and vegetables. Suggested caloric plan was advised for 4045.85 ± 114 kcals and macronutrients distribution of carbohydrates (68%), fats (17.5%) and proteins (14.5%) were recommended. Conclusively, calorie density of existing ration scale was higher which needs to be rationalization and nutrition awareness programs should be conducted to increase the knowledge of servicemen for better health and nutrition status.
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During the last few years, consumers and buyers are becoming increasingly aware of the importance of safe and high quality food products. Interest becomes greater since new products are introduced to the market and modern technologies are being used even in the production of traditional or conventional food products (use of freezing in bakery products). The objective of this work is to examine the factors, which influence the safety and quality characteristics of bread made from frozen dough. A common bread formula consists of wheat flour, water, active dry yeast, salt, sugar, margarine and ascorbic acid while the breadmaking procedure usually involves dough preparation, freezing, thawing and baking. For each ingredient, the main safety and quality parameters, the storage conditions and the requirements for specific use are presented and the potential microbiological, chemical or physical hazards throughout the breadmaking procedure are determined according to HACCP procedure. Finally, consideration is given on how raw material/dough characteristics (water content, pH, initial spore count etc.), and processing parameters, such as freezing time, temperature and duration, baking time and temperature affect bread quality and how they can ensure the safety of the final product.
Ever wondered why bread rises? Or why dough needs to rest? From cakes and biscuits to flat breads and standard loaves, the diversity of products is remarkable and the chemistry behind these processes is equally fascinating. The Science of Bakery Products explains the science behind bread making and other baked goods. It looks at the chemistry of the ingredients, flour treatments, flour testing and baking machinery. Individual chapters focus on the science of breads, pastry, biscuits, wafers and cakes. The book concludes with a look at some experiments and methods and goes on to discuss some ideas for the future. The Science of Bakery Products is an interesting and easy to read book, aimed at anyone with an interest in everyday chemistry.
While thousands of books on baking are in print aimed at food service operators, culinary art instruction, and consumers, relatively few professional publications exist that cover the science and technology of baking. In Bakery Products: Science and Technology, nearly 50 professionals from industry, government, and academia contribute their perspectives on the state of baking today. The latest scientific developments, technological processes, and engineering principles are described as they relate to the essentials of baking. Coverage is extensive and includes: Raw materials and ingredients, from wheat flours to sweeteners, yeast, and functional additives; the principles of baking, such as mixing processes, doughmaking, fermentation, and sensory evaluation; manufacturing considerations for bread and other bakery products, including quality control and enzymes;
Cereal products are consumed daily by the majority of the population, and for years the food industry has focused on increasing the nutritional value of these products. Enhancing the dietary fibre of baked products is challenging, and to this day such products are not widely accepted by the consumers. As new sources of fibre become available, and consumers are moving towards healthier diets, research on the use of fibre as functional ingredient in baking is becoming more extensive. The focus of this paper is on the recent findings and advances in cereal/bakery research and dietary fibre.
Studies were carried out on the dry milling characteristics of maize grains, which were dried previously from different IMC in a domestic microwave oven. The IMC ranged from 9.6% to 32.5% db. Drying was also carried out in a convective dryer at temperatures of 65–90°C. The drying rate curve showed a typical case of moisture loss by diffusion from grains. The dried samples were ground in a hammer mill and the Bond’s work index was calculated which was found to decrease with increase in duration of microwave drying. The proximate composition of the grains and the ground products showed that there was no change in protein and starch content. Viscosity measurements were made with 10% suspensions prepared out of the flour in water and heated to 80 and 90°C and cooled. Viscosity was found to decrease with increase in microwave drying time of the grains. The colour analysis showed that flour of the microwave-dried samples was brighter than the control and convective dried samples.
The author of this book examines the chemical events in the atmosphere and their impact on the environment. This book is divided into five parts. These parts discuss the structure, components and primary processes in the atmosphere, the atmosphere and the secondary processes which include the effect of geological and anthropic components, the effects on the environment of chemical reactions in the atmosphere, and final considerations and conclusions. Each part contains several written papers followed by discussions. The most recent scientific findings were put in a context of broad knowledge of chemistry and physics on the atmosphere. Of special importance is the discussion of the impact of chemical reactions occurring in the atmosphere on the biosphere. This book is written on a level which can be understood by students as well as chemists.
Barley flour was incorporated into wheat flour at 0, 10, 20, 30 and 40% substitution levels for the preparation of high-fiber rusks. The gluten content and sedimentation value of the prepared rusk samples and the mixing time of the dough decreased while water absorption capacity increased with increase in the level of barley flour incorporation. Protein and glutelin contents decreased significantly on blending of barley flour to wheat flour. The rusks prepared from the blends also varied in their loaf weight, loaf volume and sensory characteristics. The rusk volume decreased with increasing amount of barley flour substitution. The color of rusks changed from creamish white to dull brown and a gradual hardening of texture was observed as the addition of barley flour increased. At the higher levels, the acceptability declined because of the compact texture of the crumb and the strong flavor of the product. The addition of 20% of barley flour to wheat flour produced acceptable rusks shown by sensory scores. The present investigation relates to the use of barley flour incorporation in bakery product, such as rusks. Rusk is widely consumed in all countries; wheat flour is the main flour used, and the baking procedure includes mixing, fermentation, baking and roasting. At the present time, in India and also all around the world, there is an increased consumer demand for whole grain, and mixed grain baked products. Many consumers prefer products rich in fiber and have more health beneficial properties. However, modern consumer interest in nutrition and health may help restore barley's status as a significant component in the human diet. So, this investigation was undertaken to study the effect of barley flour supplementation on the functional, baking and organoleptic characteristics of high-fiber rusks.