Article

The influence of the number of toys in the environment on toddlers’ play

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Abstract

We tested the hypothesis that an environment with fewer toys will lead to higher quality of play for toddlers. Each participant (n =36) engaged in supervised, individual free play sessions under two conditions: Four Toy and Sixteen Toy. With fewer toys, participants had fewer incidences of toy play, longer durations of toy play, and played with toys in a greater variety of ways (Z =−4.448, p < 0.001, r =−0.524; Z =2.828, p=0.005, r =0.333; and Z =4.676, p < 0.001, r = 0.55, respectively). This suggests that when provided with fewer toys in the environment, toddlers engage in longer periods of play with a single toy, allowing better focus to explore and play more creatively. This can be offered as a recommendation in many natural environments to support children’s development and promote healthy play.

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... It is significant to mention that number of toys in the child environment has its significant impact on child mental development. Duech et al. [78] raised the notion that fewer toys in the child environment will help the child to engage in longer period of play with single toy which in turn develops creative play. ...
... Playing is widely varied in children with ASD and differed completely from typically developed infants. However, the most extensively documented impairments are found in symbolic play [78,79]. An early lack of symbolic play (combined with a deficit in joint attention) is highly predictive for a later diagnosis of ASD [78]. ...
... However, the most extensively documented impairments are found in symbolic play [78,79]. An early lack of symbolic play (combined with a deficit in joint attention) is highly predictive for a later diagnosis of ASD [78]. Symbolic play has also been found to discriminate between children with ASD and children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder in the second year of life [5]. ...
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Background The development of early communicative skills has always been an area of interest in the medical field. Although the assessment of early communicative skills and its relation to language development is important, it is a deficient field of research among Egyptian children. Therefore the current work is aiming to explore the early communicative skills among a sample of infants and toddlers in Egypt and to develop an Arabic assessment tool for early communicative abilities. A cross-sectional study was carried on in the period between January 2015 and January 2018. The study developed an assessment tool for assessment of early communicative skills (Early Communicative Skills Assessment Checklist in Arabic (ECSAC)) and then examined these communicative abilities among a sample of normally developed 151 Egyptian infants and toddler [83 (55%) males and 68 (45%) females] aged between 6 and 24 months. Then, the normative data of development of the early communicative skills were determined for the children in the period from 6 to 12 months, 13 to 18 months, and 19 to 24 months. Results ECSAC was a valid and reliable tool for assessment of early communicative skills among Egyptian children. The normal age of development of different early communicative skills was determined. Both sexes performed equally on the checklist. Conclusion ECSAC is a valid and reliable assessment tool among Egyptian infants and toddler.
... Related to the form of stimulation, organizing the EIP on axes and with activities aimed at the expected motor behaviours favoured the adequacy and stimulation offered (Dauch, Imwalle, Ocasio, & Metz, 2018;Zago, Pinto, Leite, Santos, & de Souza Morais, 2017). This stimulation offer must be organized and have a planned toys quantity (Dauch et al., 2018), as proposed in the EIP, being a twice-weekly frequency suggested, with 40-45 min to 1-hour duration. ...
... Related to the form of stimulation, organizing the EIP on axes and with activities aimed at the expected motor behaviours favoured the adequacy and stimulation offered (Dauch, Imwalle, Ocasio, & Metz, 2018;Zago, Pinto, Leite, Santos, & de Souza Morais, 2017). This stimulation offer must be organized and have a planned toys quantity (Dauch et al., 2018), as proposed in the EIP, being a twice-weekly frequency suggested, with 40-45 min to 1-hour duration. Although there is no consensus about it (Timmons et al., 2012), this frequency was chosen because it wouldn't significantly alter the established routines at the daycare. ...
Article
This study aims at checking the effects of an early intervention program (EIP) on the neuropsychomotor development (NPMD) and quality of life (QoL) of 4–18 months old babies attending daycare, following the biopsychosocial (BPS) model of health and the International Classification of Functioning Disability and Health (ICF). It was a quasi-experimental cross-over study, with the evaluations (NPMD and QoL) and interventions (locomotor, stabilizer and manipulative in a circuit format) of 66 babies carried out in the daycare, following an EIP, twice a week, during 4 weeks. The EIP for favoured motor behaviours acquisition, demonstrating that the percentage of babies with risk/delay decreased just after the EIP and positive effects were identified in Physical Capacity in QoL. It is concluded that the proposed EIP program for 4–18 months old infants in daycare showed positive effects on NPMD and QoL, including domains of ICF of function, activity and participation.
... The number and the properties of toys in the environment affect children's play behaviors. Dauch et al. (2018) found that toddlers aged 18-30 months had longer durations of play and played with toys in a greater variety of ways (e.g., dumping, pretending, matching, inserting) when they had four compared to sixteen toys available. Similarly, Bjorklund and Bjorklund (1979) found that toddlers aged 12-20 months engaged in longer durations of play when there were three compared to twelve and twenty toys in the environment. ...
... Our findings clearly show that in the presence of fewer toys, joint attention interactions lasted longer. Building on previous work showing that children exhibit shorter durations of attention and play in the presence of more toys (Dauch et al., 2018;Ruff & Lawson, 1990;van Nguyen, 2011), we suggest that infants showed shorter periods of sustained attention and were more distracted when there were more toys in front of them leading to shorter joint attention interactions. Further, when there were more toys, mothers established joint attention more frequently with their infants to take into the scope of attention a more numerous set of toys, but spent less time on each toy before shifting to the next. ...
Article
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Establishing joint attention with a caregiver on a physical object provides an optimal environment for language learning for infants. In the present study, we investigated whether 12-month-olds and their mothers establish higher quality joint attention interactions in the presence of fewer compared to more toys. As a secondary goal, we investigated how different types of toys affect how mother-infant dyads establish joint attention. In a five-minute free play setting, mothers and infants participated in either Five Toy (n = 48) or Twelve Toy (n = 33) groups. They were given organizational (i.e., toys that require arrangement of parts), responsive (i.e., toys that emit sounds via manipulation), and symbolic toys (i.e., toys that elicit pretend play). Results showed that compared to the Twelve Toy group, joint attention interactions in the Five Toy group were less frequent, lasted longer, were more likely to be initiated by maternal following than by maternal directing of infants' attention, and more likely to be coordinated in which infants demonstrated awareness of the mothers' simultaneous attentional focus by looking at their mothers, vocalizing, or turn-taking. We further found longer joint attention durations on organizational compared to symbolic toys, which were preferred to a lesser extent by the dyads. With responsive toys, mothers were more likely to initiate joint attention by following their infants' attention. Joint attention interactions lasted longer and were more likely to be coordinated in the second half compared to the first half of the play session, suggesting that over time it became easier for the mothers and infants to settle on certain toys for more elaborate play. In sum, mothers and infants establish higher-quality joint attention with fewer toys in general and with organizational toys in particular.
... Brincar com brinquedos de várias maneiras reflete a exploração e a descoberta de suas possibilidades. Isso pode aumentar as oportunidades para o desenvolvimento da criatividade, imaginação, e desenvolvimento de habilidades (17) . O tipo de brinquedo pode melhorar o desenvolvimento das sensações, movimentos finos, e potencializar a capacidade cognitiva da criança, como pode também ser uma forma de treinamento para sua capacidade de pensar, raciocinar, ponderar riscos, de modo que ele possa enfrentar um ambiente em mudança mais facilmente (16) . ...
... Em contrapartida um estudo relacionou a quantidade de brinquedos presentes no ambiente com a qualidade da brincadeira. Notou-se que quanto menos brinquedos disponíveis, as crianças engajam em períodos mais longos, permitindo explorar mais o objeto de uma forma mais criativa (17) . Possível justificativa está no fato de famílias que não dispõem de recursos para oferecer grande quantidade de brinquedos, poderem garantir qualidade no brincar a seus filhos, reforçando o importante papel da família na mediação dos efeitos negativos da exposição da criança em ambiente com baixo nível socioeconômico (5,6) . ...
Article
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Purpose To identify the factors associated with the cognitive development of children from 24 to 42 months of age, as well as to characterize the availability of toys and resources present in the family environment, and the parental practices that signal family stability. Methods Cross-sectional analytical study conducted with children regularly enrolled in public and private educational institutions of a medium-sized city. Cognitive development was assessed by means of the Bayley test and the quality of the environment was evaluated using the Adapted Family Environment Resource Inventory (FERI). The children were allocated into two groups based on the cognitive test result and compared regarding activities performed at home; reports of outings and trips in the last year; presence of regular scheduled activities; activities developed with parents; toys the child has or has had; presence of newspapers, magazines, and books at home; the person responsible for monitoring the child during day-care; and routines of the child and family. Results Of the 104 children evaluated, 72% were enrolled in the public education network and 69% belonged to economic classes C and D. Regarding cognitive development, 55% had above-average development. In the bivariate analysis, it was observed that greater availability of toys and materials for the child and higher economic levels were related to better scores on the cognitive development test. These remained as predictors of cognitive development in binary logistic regression analysis. Conclusion Greater availability of resources in the family environment and economic levels were positively associated with cognitive development in children.
... One of the support needed child in developing all aspects of its development as stated Papalia, et al. [6] is support for expression, obtain reinforcement and appreciation to new abilities acquired, guidance in practice and expanding new skills, and protecting children from inappropriate punishment, as well as language stimuli and other communication symbols. Recent evidence from Dauch et al. [7] shows that one important aspect that needs to be considered in the process of child growth and development is the individual influence that allows children to explore and have fun. Also, other aspects that also need to be considered are elements that reduce children's involvement in play, namely instructions and reinforcement to maintain children's attention. ...
... One aspect that needs attention in children's exploration activities is an element that might reduce children's involvement in play, namely direction from others to strengthening and maintain children's attention. Dauch et al. [7]. Likewise, the opinion of Baretto et al. [4], that the quality of mother-child interaction and affection expression are factors that enhance cognitive development during childhood. ...
... As stated by Balck et al. (2017), affordable activities that can be done at home, such as story-telling, singing, playing with the household stuff are able to provide children with experiences that encourage their early development stages. Similarly, Dauch, Imwalle, Ocasio, & Metz (2018) point out that parents need to pay attention to the following aspects of home environment: influences from individuals surrounding the children, sensory stimulation, objects, as well as the playground flexibility and safety. ...
Article
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The presented study aimed to develop a cognitive stimulation package for 2–3-year-old children and examine the effectiveness of the product in facilitating children’s cognitive development at home. The study consisted of six phases, namely analysis, design, prototype development, formative evaluation, implementation, and summative evaluation. The analysis phase of this study involved 147 mothers and 3 experts. The participants in the formative evaluation phase consisted of 10 mothers, while the participants in the implementation and summative evaluation stages consisted of 20 mothers. The results of the experts’ and target users’ assessments suggest that the cognitive stimulation package developed in this study is valid and practical. In addition, the stimulation package has also been proven effective in facilitating the cognitive development of 2–3-year-old children at home.
... Additionally, our replicated play scenario was approximately 3 min long and children only answered four questions. Children's play is traditionally longer and more complex (Dauch, Imwalle, Ocasio, & Metz, 2018;Halliday-Scher, Urberg, & Kaplan-Estrin, 1995). Such longer and more complex scenarios may result in increased learning when the material is embodied through role play with puppets or costumes compared to presented without the child's physical engagement, but future research is necessary to elucidate this possibility. ...
Article
Research suggests that children can learn new information via pretense. However, a fundamental problem with existing studies is that children are passive receivers of the pretense rather than active, engaged participants. This preregistered study replicates previous learning from pretense findings (Sutherland & Friedman, 2012, Child Development), in which children are passive observers of pretense, and extends to two additional conditions that require children to partially (with puppets) or fully (with costumes) embody a character. Children (N = 144, 24–79 months) learned equally well, and better than those in the control condition, from all three play scenarios. At a 2‐week follow‐up, learning was equally retained across embodiment conditions for older, but not younger, preschoolers. Future research should consider embodiment’s role for more complex material.
... As stated by Balck et al. (2017), affordable activities that can be done at home, such as story-telling, singing, playing with the household stuff are able to provide children with experiences that encourage their early development stages. Similarly, Dauch, Imwalle, Ocasio, & Metz (2018) point out that parents need to pay attention to the following aspects of home environment: influences from individuals surrounding the children, sensory stimulation, objects, as well as the playground flexibility and safety. ...
... Esta privação advém, na maioria das situações, de condicionantes externas à criança (Gray & MacBlain, 2012), sendo que as crianças de grupos geracionais mais recentes têm menos tempo para brincar livremente que as de grupos geracionais anteriores (Cabrera, Tamis-Le Monda, Bradley, Hofferth & Lamb, 2000). Numa sociedade em constante mudança, que se depara com o paradoxo da expansão e desenvolvimento tecnológicos, em que se tende a valorizar a novidade, o desempenho ou o domínio e execução de múltiplas tarefas (Ferland, 1997;Dauch, Imwalle, Ocasio & Metz, 2018) assiste-se, também, a uma mudança nos tipos de brincadeiras adotados, nos brinquedos utilizados e no tempo e espaços destinados à brincadeira livre e espontânea. Este estudo partiu do pressuposto de que brincar é parte indissociável da infância. ...
Conference Paper
Resumo. A presente descrição qualitativa visa compreender, a partir do olhar dos intervenientes nos contextos de vida da criança, nesta caso, os pais de crianças até aos seis anos, que importância atribuem ao brincar, enquanto promotor do desenvolvimento infantil. Os dados foram recolhidos por entrevista semiestruturada a 20 pais selecionados de forma não-probabilística intencional. A análise de dados recorreu à codificação aberta por dois investigadores independentes, sendo a codificação final obtida por consenso. Os resultados mostraram que os pais de crianças em idade pré-escolar dão maior importância às atividades de caráter estruturado e educativo em detrimento de um brincar livre e a substituição de um brincar ativo ao ar livre por outro mais sedentário, em contextos mais controlados. O tempo de brincadeira entre pais e filhos é reduzido, em função das densas rotinas familiares. Verificou-se a introdução, cada vez mais precoce, de dispositivos tecnológicos em detrimento de outras formas de brincar. Palavras-chave: Brincar; Criança; Desenvolvimento infantil; Infância; Pais. Parents and the importance of playing: perceptions of a group of parents of children up to six years Abstract. The present qualitative description aims to understand, from the perspective of the actors in the contexts of the child's life, in this case, the parents of children up to the age of six, which importance they attribute to playing as a promoter of child development. Data were collected by semi-structured interviews with a non-probabilistic intentional sample of 20 parents. Data analysis resorted to open coding by two independent researchers, the final coding being obtained by consensus. The results showed that the parents of preschool children give greater importance to structured and educational activities at the expense of free play and the substitution of an active outdoor play for a more sedentary one, in more controlled contexts. Play time between parents and children is reduced due to the dense family routines. There has been an increasingly early introduction of technological devices to the detriment of other forms of play.
... In contrast, children of parents with low levels of participatory engagement may be negatively affected by a wide range of active-play equipment. In fact, there is evidence that young children play for longer periods of time if they have access to a limited rather than large number of toys [66]. ...
Article
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Background Preschool-aged children’s physical activity (PA) and screen time (ST) are important health-related behaviours likely influenced by PA opportunities, parental perceptions of neighbourhood safety and parenting practices pertaining to PA and ST. How these factors interact to impact on young children’s PA and ST, and whether their effects are generalisable across cultures and geographical location is not known. This study addressed these knowledge gaps by conducting pooled analyses of comparable data from two culturally and geographically diverse samples – Chinese parent-child dyads from an ultra-dense city (Hong Kong, China) and Latino parent-child dyads from a low-density city (Houston, USA). Methods The analytical sample consisted of 164 Hong Kong Chinese and 84 US Latino parent-child dyads with data on socio-demographic characteristics, parent-perceived neighbourhood destinations and facilities for children’s PA, physical and social safety-related neighbourhood attributes, PA-related parenting practices and child’s ST and accelerometer-assessed PA. Generalised linear models with robust standard errors accounting for neighbourhood-level clustering were used to estimate associations and interaction effects. Results Hong Kong Chinese children accumulated less PA than US Latino children, although the latter had more ST. Hong Kong Chinese parents reported more parenting practices promoting inactivity. Neighbourhood PA opportunities were positively related to children’s PA only if parental perceptions of neighbourhood safety were favourable, and the associations of physical neighbourhood environment characteristics with children’s PA and ST depended on PA-related parenting practices. Community cohesion was positively related to children’s PA and negatively related to ST, while parental promotion of ST was positively associated with children’s ST. Correlates of children’s PA and ST did not differ by city. Conclusions The substantial differences in activity patterns between Hong Kong Chinese and US Latino preschool-aged children observed in this study are likely due to a combination of cultural and built environmental factors. However, the fact that no between-city differences in correlates of PA and ST were detected indicates that both populations of children are equally affected by parent-perceived neighbourhood environmental characteristics and parenting practices. Overall, this study highlights the importance of considering how various individual-, home- and neighbourhood physical and social factors interact to influence young children’s health-promoting activity levels.
... The types of toys that are available affect the acquisition of various developmental skills in young children, with the characteristics of toys encouraging development in such areas as cognition, social skills, and fine and gross motor skills in children (Dauch, Imwalle, Ocasio, & Metz, 2018;Trawick-Smith, Russel, & Swaminathan, 2011). For example, structured toys improve sensory development, motor skills, and cognitive ability, whereas toys focusing on numbers and letters influence perceptual-motor and cognitive skills while playing with fluid materials such as sand, water, playdough, and clay encourages children to create shapes and structures, to learn about living and non-living things, to engage in conversation, to use their imagination (Auerbach, 2012;Bairaktarova, Evangelou, Bagiati, & Brophy, 2011;Vanover, 2018). ...
... A substantial body of research(e.g., Else, 2009;Pellegrini & Jones, 1994;Singer, 1994;Trawick-Smith et al., 2015) has shown the importance of play in young children's physical, social and intellectual development. An integral part of children's play, incorporating the right toys at an early age helps promote development and decreases the chances of developmental delays (Dauch, Imwalle, Ocasio, & Metz, 2018). Toys may serve as context and influence the nature and content of play (Pellegrini & Jones, 1994). ...
Chapter
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Toys are an important part of every child’s life. Toys are defined as any objects that children used in their play (Trawick-Smith, Wolff, Koschel, & Vallarelli, 2015). They may be items designed for such use or materials that are usually intended for other purposes. Research in early childhood settings has revealed that 90% of young children’s play involves toys (Tizzard, Phelps, & Plewis, 1976).
... They may engage in pretend use of the objects on their own, or in imitation with others. In later stages of toddlerhood, the same skills are utilised but in a more advanced and developed way (Dauch et al., 2018). By 3 years of age, imitation occurs but to a less extent indicating children are able to self-initiate their play. ...
Article
Introduction: Play is an indication of children's development and how they function. In occupational therapy it is regarded as an important occupation of childhood. Assessment of a child's play should be included in the test batteries of occupational therapists, who understand the construct validity of the assessment they have chosen. Our aim was to provide evidence of reliability, internal consistency and hypotheses testing of the construct validity of the cross-culturally adapted version of the Child-Initiated Pretend Play Assessment. Methods: Two hundred typically developing Brazilian children aged 3 years were evaluated individually using the Child-Initiated Pretend Play Assessment. Results: The internal consistency showed a Cronbach's alpha coefficient to Percentage of Pretend Play Actions (PEPA) of 0.86 and NOS of 0.81. There were significant differences between the younger children (aged 36-41 months) and the older children (aged 42-47 months) for elaborate play across both conventional-imaginative play (p = .002), symbolic play (p = .012), and the combined score (p = .005). There were significant differences between younger and older girls for elaborate play with symbolic play materials (p = .009) and elaborate play overall (p = .039). There were significant differences between young and older boys for elaborate play with conventional toys (p = .006) and elaborate play overall (p = .025). There were no significant differences for object substitution or imitated actions. Conclusion: The measurement properties of the cross-culturally adapted version of the Child-Initiated Pretend Play Assessment for 3-year-old Brazilian children identified evidence for response processes, internal structure, with discussion of consequences of testing for 3-year-old Brazilian children.
... Educational toys are playful objects designed for children with the aim of stimulating cognitive, physical, and psychological development [3]. Through educational toys, children will interact with the physical elements and social environment, allowing them to discover challenges and try new skills [7]. ...
Conference Paper
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The growth of gadgets' usage means that gadgets have become tools used in various daily activities by the society even among children. Gadgets have shifted the position of conventional toys as a major entertainment medium for most children, however gadgets have various negative effects on children. Conventional toys, in addition to being used as entertainment media, have a function as supporter of child development. This research is done by using design thinking approach to understand the problem and desire of children from a toy. Respondents will be grouped based on their interest in toys through observation and responses made at focus groups and interviews. The result of this study is an educational toy design that can meet the needs and desires of the users.
... As stated by Balck et al. (2017), affordable activities that can be done at home, such as story-telling, singing, playing with the household stuff are able to provide children with experiences that encourage their early development stages. Similarly, Dauch, Imwalle, Ocasio, & Metz (2018) point out that parents need to pay attention to the following aspects of home environment: influences from individuals surrounding the children, sensory stimulation, objects, as well as the playground flexibility and safety. ...
Article
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The article explores the key issues and needs of families of participants in anti-terrorist operation (ATO). The article defines and characterizes several types of families of ATO participants, who took part in an interview. Based on in-depth interviews and further analysis, the authors identified four categories of problems of these families, e.g., psychological, financial, legal, and problems with raising children. It was determined that violations of the life of the families whose members were ATO participants were caused not only by family-specific problems but also by several other factors. Based on the identified specific problems, the authors identified the main needs of the families of the members of antiterrorist operations.
... Nevertheless, we also highlight that an efficient and practical way to reduce exposure to priority chemicals present in plastic toys is to reduce the amount of new toys introduced into our households every year. This is also supported by a recent study showing that the quality of children play is negatively influence by the abundance of toys, and that fewer toys may help toddlers to focus better and play more creatively (Dauch et al., 2018). Beyond the regulation of chemicals, thus, strategies to address (over-) consumption and/or lifestyles should be considered when designing approaches to Chemicals of Concern (CoCs). ...
Article
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We present a list of Chemicals of Concern (CoCs) in plastic toys. We started from available studies reporting chemical composition of toys to group plastic materials, as well as to gather mass fractions and function of chemicals in these materials. Chemical emissions from plastic toys and subsequent human exposures were then estimated using a series of models and a coupled near-field and far-field exposure assessment framework. Comparing human doses with reference doses shows high Hazard Quotients of up to 387 and cancer risk calculated using cancer slope factors of up to 0.0005. Plasticizers in soft plastic materials show the highest risk, with 31 out of the 126 chemicals identified as CoCs, with sum of Hazard Quotients >1 or child cancer risk >10⁻⁶. Our results indicate that a relevant amount of chemicals used in plastic toy materials may pose a non-negligible health risk to children, calling for more refined investigations and more human- and eco-friendly alternatives. The 126 chemicals identified as CoCs were compared with other existing regulatory prioritization lists. While some of our chemicals appear in other lists, we also identified additional priority chemicals that are not yet covered elsewhere and thus require further attention. We finally derive for all considered chemicals the maximum Acceptable Chemical Content (ACC) in the grouped toy plastic materials as powerful green chemistry tool to check whether chemical alternatives could create substantial risks.
... Based on Hocevar (1979), who concluded that idea frequency is a key factor for idea generation, we assigned respondents to produce as many combination as possible. In addition, Dauch et al. (2018) showed that, among young children, less is more when using a number of items for idea generation. ...
Article
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Schools are institutions responsible for teaching children new skills and knowledge, the ability to think about future targets, and, when problems become complex, how to apply explorative thinking and inborn creativity to solve them. Even so, scholars point to the fact that school curriculums do not support ways to facilitate explorative learning or creativity for problem-solving. To successfully devise solutions never considered before, children need support with programs enabling them to facilitate openness for experience intellectually. This study suggests that dance activities should become regular in the curriculum as a strategy for maintaining schoolchildren’s cognitive flexibility.
... Focusing on toys, children can use toys to improve reasoning, physical coordination, and creative thinking skills. Toy exploration promotes the development of cognitive skills such as pretending, cause and effect, problem-solving, and a variety of other executive functions [33,34]. There is a range of different play styles in that children can engage with toys. ...
Article
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Parental interactions through play contributes significantly to child development of cognitive and executive functioning skills. In Thailand, there is little evidence of factors contributing to parental–child interactions. In response to SDG target 4.2.3 monitoring (the percentage of children under 5 years experiencing positive and stimulating home learning environments), this study aimed to assess the prevalence and profile of parental interactions with their children under the age of five. We analysed data from the 6th Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS) conducted by the National Statistical Office in 2019. Face-to-face interviews with mothers and/or legal guardians were conducted. A total of 8856 children under the age of five were enrolled in this survey. Most participants, 90.3%, had engaged in at least four out of six activities with their children. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that children raised by parents with secondary or post-secondary educations had a significantly greater chance to have parental interactions than children raised by parents who completed primary education (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 1.66, and AOR = 2.34 for secondary and post-secondary education). Children who possessed three or more children’s books and had experience of toy play had a significantly higher chance of having parental interactions (AOR = 3.08 for book possessing, and AOR = 1.50 for the experience of toy play). Children who spent 1–3 h daily screen time had a significantly lower chance of having parental interactions than those who spent less than one hour of screen time (AOR = 0.67). In conclusion, with the emerging influence of digital technology, we recommend family and community promote parental interactions through play with young children.
... This zone hosted the greatest abundance of toys and fixed equipment (ramp, play kitchen, benches, etc.) in each center. Interestingly, recent work by Dauch et al (2018) suggests that infants provided with fewer toys engage in longer periods of play with a single toy, allowing for more focused, creative and self-directed play. ...
Article
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This study utilized behavior-mapping to describe behavior and levels of activity in infants attending Early Childhood Education and Care (ECEC). Descriptive statistics were used to determine proportion of time spent in certain locations, body positions, activities and engagement with others. To establish whether location, the presence of equipment or engagement with others influenced levels of activity, a paired t-test was used. Results indicated that of all locations, infants spent the greatest amount of time in the meals area (35%), with half of this period spent physically inactive (sedentary). The indoor play area was where infants were most active. Infants also spent a significantly greater proportion of their upright time (64%) supported by either furniture or equipment than without (MD 28, 95% CI 13 to 44, p<0.01). Interestingly, infants displayed more sedentary behavior when engaged with others than when not engaged (MD 21, 95% CI 6 to 36, p < 0.01). The environment, presence of others and equipment availability appear to influence activity levels of infants in ECEC centers. Findings suggest that time spent in meal areas, provisions of furniture/equipment, and opportunities for infants to play independently warrant further exploration to determine their influence on activity levels in typically-developing infants.
Article
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The study presents the content-analysis (n=135) and factor analysis of students’ mental states of expectations (n=123). The understanding of mental states of expectations by education workers allows for the operationalization of the process of solving tasks of students’ academic and professional training. The purpose is to examine the structure, variables and interdependence of the factors of students’ mental states of expectations. The research methods are content-analysis, tests with standardized questionnaires, factor analysis. Factor analysis was used to determine the structure of mental states of expectations. The principal factor in this structure is F1“meaning-of-life moderation” (20.70%), which is interrelated with F2 “prag-matic regulation” (=.404; p≤.01) and F3 “subjective regulation” (=.357; p≤.01). The obtained results could be useful for education directors organizing the academic process of students, and also for scientists in the field of psychology of expectations, psychology of constructing the future.
Article
The paper presents the review of literature devoted to research of toys. The authors’ focus is on the main function or special characteristics of a toy, that make it a toy. A toy is understood as a specifically playing object which means that it possesses the main characteristic of a play – the discrepancy between real and semantic field, i.e. it possesses conditionality. Conditionality of a play object provokes a person to attribute some meanings to the object i.e. it stimulates him to create imaginary situations. Imagination or creation of an imaginary situation is connected with the inner world, with the personal experience of a player, which a toy can only discover, but not produce. This paper presents research data that show that a toy does not develop a child by itself. For example, it cannot be a source of aggressive behavior or early sexualization, just like it cannot teach kindness and mutual assistance.
Chapter
Toys play an important role in kids cognitive and physical development. Before starting the formal education with alphabets and numbers, the kids learn and understand different phenomena around them by experiencing things through their senses. They learn about different natural objects, creatures and phenomena by touching them or perceiving them through their other senses i.e. through seeing, smelling, hearing or tasting. In this cognitive journey of learning new things, the toys play a vital role. They try to imitate the real creatures and provide the related information in an effective way much before they actually come across those entities. Designing such toys in itself is an insightful experience. The paper discusses the process of developing one such toy i.e. Crocodile toy. And details the process of how different features of the real creature have been integrated to deliver important information about it in an interactive way. The paper concludes with discussion on tentative strategies to evaluate the efficacy of the toy.
Article
In the research process it has been determined, that the full-value development of a pre-school child takes place at the expanse of high-quality organization and effective use of the playing space. It has been outlined, that high-quality organization of the playing space favors the harmonic combination of psychic, physical and spiritual development of a child. The conducted theoretical analysis allowed to separate four main components that must be taken into account in the process of organizing the high-quality playing space of pre-school children, namely: content, material, organizational and personal. It has been noted, that a structural model of the qualitatively organized playing space of a pre-school child is based on acknowledgement of the child-centered orientation priority. It has been proved, that the agreed combination of four components of the playing space provides psychological safety of a pre-school child and favors the high level development of its cooperation in the process of interaction with others. It has been revealed, that the content of realized playing actions, material filling of the playing space, its dynamics and mobility, inclusion of all children in the active playing activity need essentially other approaches. There have been fixed contradictions between necessary and real ideas of teachers as to the organization quality of the playing space for pre-school children. The problem of quality organization of the playing space for pre-school children gains special importance under conditions of modern society that dictates new rules and requirements to the development of a successful person. The formation of the high level ability to understand own possibilities, to reveal initiative and comprehensively realize themselves in pre-school children provides the presence and interconnection of all structural components of the playing space.
Chapter
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Play in the home environment is important for cognitive and socio-emotional development in early childhood. Children’s home environments are made up of multiple play activities (e.g., toys, books, screen time, outdoor play) and are influenced by multiple factors (e.g., availability of resources, parenting behaviours, parental attitudes to play, socio-economic class, parents’ education). This chapter will describe the relevant literature and rationale that led to the Play and Learning in Early Years (PLEY) Study, an online survey of over 300 parents of children aged 6 or under, which measured play activities at home in early childhood and the factors that influence it. The findings of this broad survey shed light on various elements of play in the home environment for young children, such as the time spent in outdoor play, reading/storytime, playing with toys or games and on-screen time, for weekdays as well as weekends. The data collected in this survey also highlight the level of play resources for young children in the home environment such as the number of children’s books available, access to outdoor play equipment (e.g., bicycles, trampolines) and use of screen devices (e.g., television, tablet, smartphone, laptop). This research provides a timely snapshot of the play activities of young children today and discusses the importance of the home play environment. The findings from the PLEY Study are contextualised using a bioecological systems framework, which highlights the connection between the environment and child development.
Article
Three-dimensional (3D) books, which feature interactive learning environments for immersing learners in situated learning, have proven to be an effective mediating tool for vocabulary acquisition. However, traditional 3D books lack affordances for two-way communication and multimodal language input for language learners. This study aims to apply multimodal cues in a task-based learning system consisting of an educational robot and a 3D book supported by the Internet of Things (IoT) to enhance EFL children's vocabulary learning. Two fourth graders participated in two phases of research (Exploratory and Enhancement Phases) separated by a six-month systematic enhancement period. In the Enhancement Phase, the two learners took pre- and post-tests on vocabulary recognition and oral production. Results showed a significant improvement in oral production, which can be attributed to elicitation cues applied in the robot- and 3D book-supported learning environment. Further analysis revealed a learner difference in reacting to auditory cues. Pedagogical implications for similar future efforts in using multimodal cues to enhance vocabulary learning among EFL children are also provided.
Chapter
Spielzeug kommt in der Spielpädagogik und innerhalb der spielpädagogischen Forschung nur eine untergeordnete Rolle zu. Bisherige Forschungsbemühungen setzen sich vor allem mit dem Spielzeug selbst, mit seiner Beschaffenheit, seiner Gestaltung und seinem Spielwert auseinander. Ein wichtiger Aspekt bleibt dabei meist im Hintergrund: ‚Wie kommt Spielzeug eigentlich in Kinderzimmer, in pädagogische Einrichtungen und letztendlich in die Hände der Spielenden?‘ Diese Frage richtet den Fokus zum einen auf den Prozess der Spielzeugauswahl und zum anderen auch auf die darin implizierte Bewertung von Spielzeug.
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Occupational therapy theory, practice and research has increasingly emphasized the transactional relationship between person, environment and occupation. Occupational performance results from the dynamic relationship between people, their occupations and roles, and the environments in which they live, work and play. There have, however, been few models of practice in the occupational therapy literature which discuss the theoretical and clinical applications of person-environment interaction. This paper proposes a Person-Environment-Occupation Model of occupational performance which builds on concepts from the Occupational Therapy Guidelines for Client Centered Practice and from environment-behaviour theories. The model describes interactions between person, occupation and environment, outlines major concepts and assumptions, and is applied to a practice situation.
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Authors have argued that various forms of interventions may be more effective in younger children. Is cognitive training also more effective, the earlier the training is applied? We review evidence suggesting that functional neural networks, including those subserving attentional control, may be more unspecialised and undifferentiated earlier in development. We also discuss evidence suggesting that certain skills such as attentional control may be important as ‘hub’ cognitive domains, gating the subsequent acquisition of skills in other areas. Both of these factors suggest that attentional training administered to younger individuals ought to be relatively more effective in improving cognitive functioning across domains. We evaluate studies that have administered forms of cognitive training targeting various subcomponents of attention and the closely related domain of working memory, and we contrast their reported transfer to distal cognitive domains as a function of the age of the participants. Although negative findings continue to be common in this literature we find that cognitive training applied to younger individuals tends to lead to significantly more widespread transfer of training effects. We conclude that future work in this area should concentrate on understanding early intensive training, and discuss a number of practical steps that might help to achieve this aim.
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The current study examined the role of maternal behavior and toddlers' emotion regulation strategies in the development of children's sustained attention abilities. Participants for this study included 447 children (232 girls) obtained from three different cohorts participating in a larger ongoing longitudinal study. When the children were 2 years of age, mothers brought their children to the laboratory and were videotaped during several tasks designed to elicit emotion regulation and mother- child interaction. Sustained attention was also measured at the same visit via a laboratory task and in a subsequent visit when children were 4.5 years of age. Results indicated that toddlers' use of help-seeking emotion regulation strategies was positively related to sustained attention while avoidance behaviors and maternal behavior characterized by high levels of overcontrolling/intrusiveness were negatively related to sustained attention at age 2. Significant interactions emerged such that high levels of maternal warmth/responsiveness buffered the negative associations between low use of distraction and high use of self-comforting emotion regulation strategies and sustained attention at age 2. Maternal behavior characterized by high levels of warmth/responsiveness also predicted greater growth in sustained attention from age 2 to 4.5. These findings are discussed in terms of how maternal behaviors and children's use of active versus passive emotion regulation strategies relate to sustained attention abilities.
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This experiment tests the hypothesis that background, adult television is a disruptive influence on very young children's behavior. Fifty 12-, 24-, and 36-month-olds played with a variety of toys for 1 hr. For half of the hour, a game show played in the background on a monaural TV set. During the other half hour, the TV was off. The children looked at the TV for only a few seconds at a time and less than once per minute. Nevertheless, background TV significantly reduced toy play episode length as well as focused attention during play. Thus, background television disrupts very young children's play behavior even when they pay little overt attention to it. These findings have implications for subsequent cognitive development.
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During early development, significant changes occur in the neural regions that subserve attention and related skills. Although preschoolers typically have difficulty performing continuous performance tests, it is not clear if this is primarily due to an inability to selectively respond or an inability to maintain attention. A group of 52 children between 3.5 and 5.5 years of age performed 2 vigilance-type reaction time tasks. The tasks included short duration, continuously presented visual stimuli across several short blocks. Among the children under 4.5 years of age, 46% were unable to coordinate the necessary task demands, and those who could made significantly more omission errors than the older children. Active engagement was high during the reaction time tasks for all children. These results suggest that the skills necessary for vigilance tasks, particularly speeded response initiation and response selection, are still emerging during the preschool years but can be adequately measured after 4.5 years of age.
Book
This book provides both a review of the literature and a theoretical framework for understanding the development of visual attention from infancy through early childhood, including the development of selective and state-related aspects in infants and young children as well as the emergence of higher controls on attention. They explore individual differences in attention and possible origins of ADHD.
Article
Child psychotherapy is in a state of transition. On the one hand, pretend play is a major tool of therapists who work with children. On the other, a mounting chorus of critics claims that play therapy lacks demonstrated treatment efficacy. These complaints are not invalid. Clinical research has only begun. Extensive studies by developmental researchers have, however, strongly supported the importance of play for children. Much knowledge is being accumulated about the ways in which play is involved in the development of cognitive, affective, and personality processes that are crucial for adaptive functioning. However, there has been a yawning gap between research findings and useful suggestions for practitioners. Play in Child Development and Psychotherapy represents the first effort to bridge the gap and place play therapy on a firmer empirical foundation. Sandra Russ applies sophisticated contemporary understanding of the role of play in child development to the work of mental health professionals who are trying to design intervention and prevention programs that can be empirically evaluated. Never losing sight of the complex problems that face child therapists, she integrates clinical and developmental research and theory into a comprehensive, up-to-date review of current approaches to conceptualizing play and to doing both therapeutic play work with children and the assessment that necessarily precedes and accompanies it. © 2004 by Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc. All rights reserved.
In this review we consider the nature and possible developmental functions of three forms of play: pretend, social, and locomotor. Play is defined in terms of dispositional and contextual criteria. First, the frequency ofoccurrence of each form of play across the period of childhood is documented. Developmental function of play is conceptualised in terms ofimmediate or deferred beneficial consequences. Four strategies for examining developmental function are reviewed: arguments from design, correlational analyses, experimental enrichment and deprivation, and cost-benefit analyses. Whereas most theories of play implicitly assume thatduring childhood it occurs frequently and has benefits deferred until adulthood, we suggest that some benefits of play are immediate.
Article
This study examined the effects of nine toys on the play of 60 3- and 4-year-old children in culturally diverse preschool classrooms. The toys, which varied in their features and intended uses, were selected from a list of those that were nominated by teachers and parents as being developmentally beneficial. Each toy was video recorded for 240 h during free play time in four different classrooms. Researchers coded 828 two-minute segments of children’s play with these toys using a play quality with toys (PQT) rating instrument developed in a previous investigation. Toys were found to vary significantly in their impact on play quality. PQT scores were also found to vary for each toy depending on the gender, socioeconomic status, and ethnicity of the child playing with it, and the length of time it was available in the classroom. Implications for selecting toys for classrooms and observing children’s play with them are presented.
Article
This posthumous fragment of a book that Dr. Berlyne was writing at the time of his death was sent to MOTIVATION AND EMOTION by his colleagues at the University of Toronto. Its appearance in print is by permission of the Berlyne family and with appreciation to F. G. Hare and John Ogilvie of the University of Toronto and Seymour Weingarten of Plenum Publishing corporation, who were instrumental in providing a copy of the manuscript to the editor; to George Rappolt and Pat Monahan, of Clark University, who assisted in compiling the bibliography; and to Dr. Edward L. Walker, who provided some editing and wrote the brief introduction. References to figures (in Chapters 1 and 3) were deleted, as no figures could be found to accompany the manuscript. In any case, it appeared that these would have merely supplemented the text and were neither new nor original, insofar as could be judged. The reader may further note that perhaps a half dozen references are missing, and others may not have been those intended by Dr. Berlyne. While it seems unlikely that the chapters presented here were either complete or in their final draft stage, it was nevertheless felt that publication of even this fragment of Daniel Berlyne's last major work, with only minimal editing, would be of value to fellow students of motivation theory. M.H.A.
Article
The purpose of this project was to investigate the maintenance of focused attention in the first 5 years. In Study 1, 67 children were seen at 1, 2, and 3.5 years of age in free play with a number of age-appropriate toys. The duration of focused attention increased significantly over the ages studied. At 1 year, the children's focused attention showed a decline within the session; at the 2 older ages, however, focused attention neither decreased nor increased. In Study 2, children at 2.5, 3.5, and 4.5 years were also seen in free play. The results replicated the significant increase in focused attention over age and the lack of change within the session. Older children focused attention significantly more on construction and problem solving than did younger children, and manifested less inattention by physical movement away from the toys. The observed development in focused attention, therefore, is probably related both to the increased variety and complexity of the child's activities and to increasing inhibitory control. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
73 2.3–3.10 yr old children from preschools with high or low levels of adult-directed activity were presented with bowls with lids to be opened that contained various common objects. An adult presented the bowls, under either adult-directed or child-directed conditions. One or 5 toys were present, and the S could choose to play with them at any time. Observers recorded the amount of time spent (a) opening bowls, (b) in social interaction, (c) manipulating objects from the bowls, and (d) playing with the other toys. High levels of adult direction increased the amount of time spent with the objects and bowls, and it had a stronger effect on social interaction than on manipulation of the objects. Levels of adult direction in the schools had similar effects. Ss spent more time with toys when 5 toys were available and in a 2nd session, when the task was no longer novel. Males were more exploratory than females, who engaged in more social interaction. Results should be considered in designing preschool environments. (10 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Developmental differences in the ability to ignore irrelevant information have been assessed in terms of same/different judgments, speeded classification, selective listening, and incidental learning. Recent research suggests the presence of both quantitative and qualitative age differences in the operation of selective attention. Each of these paradigms has provided evidence for a progressive improvement with age in the ability to attend selectively to specific stimuli. Qualitative differences between older and younger children are manifested in the way each group perceives and organizes incoming information. It is suggested that more emphasis be given to understanding the basis of interference from irrelevant stimuli when it occurs. This would facilitate the understanding of developmental changes in the degree to which irrelevant stimuli interfere with performance. (47 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
A classification system for the physical environment was developed based on 3 dimensions of stimulation: (1) responsive vs nonresponsive, (2) background vs focal, and (3) animate vs inanimate. Two basic decision rules defining whether 8 categories of stimuli are physical or social in nature were developed. These rules are that (1) inanimate stimulation is physical in nature, and (2) nonresponsive animate stimulation is primarily physical rather than social in nature. Intercorrelations of physical and social environmental measures obtained for 88 12-mo-olds supported the validity of the 2nd decision rule. The relevance of the physical environment for understanding environmental theories is illustrated with reference to the confluence model (R. Zajonc; see PA, Vols 56:589 and 70:5694). (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Book
• This work, a second edition of which has very kindly been requested, was followed by La Construction du réel chez l'enfant and was to have been completed by a study of the genesis of imitation in the child. The latter piece of research, whose publication we have postponed because it is so closely connected with the analysis of play and representational symbolism, appeared in 1945, inserted in a third work, La formation du symbole chez l'enfant. Together these three works form one entity dedicated to the beginnings of intelligence, that is to say, to the various manifestations of sensorimotor intelligence and to the most elementary forms of expression. The theses developed in this volume, which concern in particular the formation of the sensorimotor schemata and the mechanism of mental assimilation, have given rise to much discussion which pleases us and prompts us to thank both our opponents and our sympathizers for their kind interest in our work. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
We longitudinally investigated the development of endogenous control of attention in 2 types of tasks that involve competition for attentional focus at 7, 9, and 31 months of age. At all 3 sessions, children participated in a multiple object free play task and a distractibility task. The results revealed both developmental differences and continuity of attentional skills. There was clear evidence of stability in distractibility between 9 and 31 months, and infant distractibility measures were related to toddler attention in the multiple object free play task. The results are discussed in terms of the development of endogenous control of attention and the underlying processes that may guide stability in attentional control.
Article
The pattern of 6- and 18-month-old infants' and their parents' attention to toys, a commercially available infant-directed video, and each other were examined in a 20 min free-play context as a function of whether the television was on or off. The results indicated that infants at both ages directed significantly more of their attention to the toys than the video when the toys were novel. Attention to the parent was low across the session. Parents directed most of their attention to the infants and the toys and relatively little to the video. They also talked to and played with their infants less when the video was on than when it was off. These results are discussed in terms of Cohen's (1972) model of attention-getting and attention-holding and the implications of this for learning and distractibility.
Article
This longitudinal study examined individual differences and correlates of focused attention when toddlers were approximately 18 months old (T1; n = 256) and a year later (T2; n = 230). Toddlers' attention and negative emotionality were reported by mothers and non-parental caregivers and rated globally by observers. Toddlers' focused attention also was observed during two mother-child interactions and an independent play task. Measures of maternal emotional support and control were obtained via self-report and observation. Some contemporaneous relations among indices of toddlers' attention were obtained, particularly for observed measures. Moreover, all measures of attention demonstrated stability across time. Negative emotionality was negatively related to toddlers' observed attention at both ages, whereas maternal praise had positive concurrent associations. Maternal control was negatively related to observed observed attention at T2 and also predicted longitudinally, but only for children who initially had low or moderate attention. The findings suggest that individual differences in focused attention evidence stability early in life but can be influenced by adult socialization.
Article
This study is a descriptive report of the capability to exercise self-control in very young children. 2 aspects of self-control were assessed (delay/response inhibition in the presence of an attractive stimulus and compliance with maternal directives in a cleanup task) for 72 children between the ages of 18 and 30 months. The results indicated that both aspects of self-control show age-related increases. However, a factor analysis of the behaviors observed in the cleanup task suggested that compliance could not be adequately described with a unitary, bipolar dimension (noncompliance vs. compliance). 2 patterns of non-compliance were observed, and 1 of these also increased with age. Cross-task consistency for the delay measures) and coherence across the 2 aspects of self-control showed a positive relationship with increasing age. Finally, correlational analyses of the self-control measures and developmental test data showed that individual differences in self-control were associated with differences in cognitive-developmental status (DA). The results are interpreted as evidence that the achievement of self-control can be considered as a major developmental accomplishment and as evidence that individual differences in self-control emerge and are consolidated during the second and third years of life.
Article
The study of the acquisition of motor skills, long moribund in developmental psychology, has seen a renaissance in the last decade. Inspired by contemporary work in movement science, perceptual psychology, neuroscience, and dynamic systems theory, multidisciplinary approaches are affording new insights into the processes by which infants and children learn to control their bodies. In particular, the new synthesis emphasizes the multicausal, fluid, contextual, and self-organizing nature of developmental change, the unity of perception, action, and cognition, and the role of exploration and selection in the emergence of new behavior. Studies are concerned less with how children perform and more with how the components cooperate to produce stability or engender change. Such process approaches make moot the traditional nature-nurture debates.
Article
One purpose of this qualitative study was to describe the work done by mothers as they manage the spaces and objects of the home to support the development of infants and toddlers at play. Eighteen mother-infant dyads participated in the study. Data were collected via monthly in-home videotaping of infants and monthly interviews with mothers, from 1 to 18 months of infant age. Data were analyzed with a grounded theory approach and computer-assisted video and text analysis. The results describe the everyday tasks of mothers of infants and toddlers, such as selecting commercial toys and household objects for play, positioning infants for play, maintaining and making play objects available, furnishing the home with child care equipment, controlling infant access to the spaces of the home, and monitoring for safety. This description contributes to our understanding of maternal work, infant and toddler development in context, co-occupations, and the neglected spatial dimension of occupation.
Article
This observational study describes the early development of attention and discractibility. Under several conditions of distraction, 172 children at 10, 26, and 42 months of age played with toys. Attention to the toys was coded as casual, settled, or focused. All 3 levels of attention changed with age, withcasual attention decreasing and focused attention increasing. The 10-month-olds were more distractible than the other children, even during focused attention. The infants were most distracted by the auditory-visual distractor, whereas the oldest children were most distracted by the visual distractor. Some 42-month-olds showed evidence of being more focused in the presence of distractors. Overall, the results point to a developmental transition in the processes underlying attention during play.
Life at home in the twenty-first century
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Arnold, J. E., Graesch, A. P., Ragazinni, E., & Ochs, E. (2012). Life at home in the twenty-first century. Los Angeles: UCLA.
An Exploratory study of toddlers' satisfaction with their toy environments
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Play as occupation and as an indicator of health
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Brasic-Royeen, C. (1997). Play as occupation and as an indicator of health. In B. Chandler (Ed.). The essence of play (pp. 1-16). Bethesda, MD: American Occupational Therapy Association.
Playthings: Toy use, accessibility, and adaptation
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DuBois, S. A. (1997). Playthings: Toy use, accessibility, and adaptation. In B. Chandler (Ed.). The essence of play (pp. 107-130). Bethesda, MD: American Occupational Therapy Association.
Why play = learning. encyclopedia on early childhood development
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Golinkoff, R. M., & Hirsch-Pasek, K. (2008). Why play = learning. encyclopedia on early childhood development. [Retrieved from http://www.child-encyclopedia.com/ play/according-experts/why-play-learning].
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Play as treatment and treatment through play
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Facilitating play Play in occupational therapy for children (pp. 72-95)
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Lane, S. J., & Mistrett, S. (2008). Facilitating play. In L. D. Parham, & L. S. Fazio (Eds.). Play in occupational therapy for children (pp. 72-95). (2nd ed.)). St. Louis, MO: Mosby Publishers.
The transformational toy manufacturing industry
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Multiple perspectives on play in early childhood education
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What happens when we play? A neurodevelopmental explanation
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Play in occupational therapy for children
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Focused attention in toddlers. measurement, stability, and relations to negative emotions. Infant child development. Gibson
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Gaertner, B. M., Spinard, T. L., & Eisenberg, N. (2008). Focused attention in toddlers. measurement, stability, and relations to negative emotions. Infant child development. Gibson, J. J. (1979). The ecological approach to visual perception. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin.