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Rice in Religion and Tradition

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Abstract

Role of Rice in Religion and Tradition
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... This diversity was achieved through prolonged experimentations which were repleted with trials and errors(Chang 2002;Salick 2012). As most tribal groups maintained their personal seed stock merited for ritual purposes(Ahuja and Ahuja 2006) and most probably rarely exchanged those with neighbouring tribal communities, it consequently led to genetic isolation and differentiation largely because of disparate ancestry, selection, and genetic drift. High values of GST and its standardized forms also implied the presence of a highly structured population. ...
Thesis
Rice aroma is one of the major economically important rice crop traits which are culturally selected during domestication. The compound underlying this much acclaimed perceptible aroma of rice is 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline (2-AP). Probing into the genetic basis of aroma in rice revealed badh2 to be the candidate gene for expression of aroma. It is situated on chromosome 8 and codes for the enzyme betaine aldehyde deydrogenase homologue 2 (BADH2), the key tuning the 2-AP formation pathway. An 8-bp deletion in badh2 gene also called badh2.1 is reported as the major cause of fragrance in different aromatic rice. However, those studies were focussed on mostly japonica rice samples. Very few of those studies have included the enormous untapped genetic diversity of Indian aromatic rice landraces involving indica, japonica and aus sub-populations. I investigated the genetic underpinnings of aroma in a set (55) of rare aromatic indica rice landraces. The occurrence of this functional mutation badh2.1 was diagnosed in 80% of aromatic indica rice landraces thereby refuting the notion of its occurrence in mainly tropical japonica rice. Moreover, 11 rice landraces which were found to be aromatic during the qualitative assessment, lacked 8-bp deletion in badh2 gene indicating the presence of mutation other than badh2.1. None of the wild rice samples examined in the study had this deletion. My study rekindles the question regarding origin of aroma in subsp. indica landraces. The occurrence of a large number of aromatic landraces, without badh2.1 allele evokes an alternate origin hypothesis which is deep-rooted in two primary lines of evidence. Firstly, most of the previous studies were focussed only on O. rufipogon almost abandoning O. nivara although closer relation between indica group and O. nivara is now well reported. Secondly, certain geographic regions are over-represented in rice domestication studies while some of the most promising areas having immense potential to instigate further investigation on domestication centers, e.g. cryptic diversity in north-eastern states and Jeypore tract have been ignored. Hence disentangling the evolutionary history of the aroma summons a rigorous sampling and inspection of understudied progenitors and domesticates. My study further instigates on the evolutionary history of another set of aromatic rice landraces from North-Eastern India using both model-based & multivariate analyses. The study unraveled a high differentiation & divergent genetic history of those rice landraces that promoted formation of culture-specific distinct groups. The study further revealed the presence of aus-type short and medium grained aromatic rice anticipating an independent origin of aroma in aus. The biochemical aspect of my study involves an investigation of inter-linkage between drought stress tolerance and 2-AP aroma biosynthetic pathways in rice.
... Tulisan ini dihasilkan dari studi literatur berbagai referensi baik yang berasal dari hasil penelitian maupun berbagai kajian pembahasan. Berbagai tulisan mengenai petani padi ladang biasanya dikaitkan dengan tradisi, ritual adat, agama, budaya, kearifan lokal dan potensi ekonomi dan wisata (Ahuja & Ahuja, 2006;Flynn, 2014;Hamid, 2010;Handayani, 2016;Kurniawan, 2019;Silvi et al., 2017). Walau ada tulisan yang mengaitkan petani ladang dengan kesejahteraan (Widjaya, dkk, 2019) tetapi tidak berbicara mengenai kapital spiritual dan kemampuan untuk bertahan hidup. ...
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Para petani yang menanam padi ladang masih cukup banyak di Indonesia, dan cukup banyak di antaranya yang masih hidup dalam kemiskinan. Walaupun demikian, masih cukup banyak di kalangan mereka yang masih terus menjadikan bertanam padi ladang sebagai mata pencaharian utamanya. Hal ini terjadi karena adanya tradisi turun temurun yang harus tetap dijaga dan dilestarikan, serta ketidaksadaran akan kemiskinannya. Di tempat-tempat tertentu, kapital spiritual yang ada di kalangan masyarakat memampukan mereka untuk terus bertahan hidup, namun tidak membawa mereka keluar dari kemiskinan. Dibutuhkan suatu tindakan stimulus bagi masyarakat yang dapat membuat kapital spiritual di tempat tersebut meningkatkan pendapatan para petani. Oleh karena itu, tulisan ini hendak menggambarkan bagaimana kapital spiritual yang ada di dalam masyarakat komunal menjadi kekuatan bagi mereka untuk bertahan hidup di tengah belenggu kemiskinan, dan bahkan bisa meningkatkan pendapatan jika ada tindakan stimulus bagi mereka
... Till today, the earliest known record of the word "Basmati" is that in the great saga of Heer Ranjha of Waris Shah (in circa 1766) [Ahuja et al. 1995;Ahuja and Ahuja , 2006;Thakrar and Ahuja, 1993]. However, another reference traced is in Awadi dialect of Hindi, in the epic poem "Padmavat" by Malik Mohamad Jayasi (year 1540) [Shirreff, 1944] a contemporary of Goswami Tulsi Dass of Ram Charit Manas. ...
Article
Abstract Basmati is an important food item as well as export commodity. Indian subcontinent has been bestowed by Mother Nature for this exclusive food and production area. Three colour variants have been known in Basmati as in many other rice varieties. Basmati surpasses all other scented varieties in shape, appearance, taste and quality. It has been the subject of debate and discussion in many seminars, symposia and adorned pages of books, magazines, websites and newspapers world over. In addition to its special cooking quality and medicinal value, it is a sought after donor in number of breeding programmes. So far, the earliest reported record of word Basmati is that of Heer Ranjha of Waris Shah (1766). This review presents additional records on word Basmati, historical area of cultivation, folk songs, folk tales, proverbs, associated with Basmati in states of Himachal Pradesh, Punjab, Uttarakhand, UP and Bihar. Basmati is not only an ambrosial food item but has been used to convey various aspects of life as a teaching medium, used as simile and as an adjective too. In addition it finds place in prayer offered to God. Of all the states, Uttarakhand seems to be proud and the richest source of Basmati folklore. This review on basis of large number of folkloric records corroborate with Dr. Khush’s postulation of Himalyan belt as Centre of diversity and spread of aromatic rices. Keywords: Basmati, growing areas, history, folklore, folksongs, folktales
... The choice of diverse cultural groups over centuries or millennia has tapped and curated the diversity in these heirloom crop landraces through a long process of experimentation replete with trials and errors (Chang, 2002;Salick, 2012). Apart from cultivation, most or many cultural groups also maintained their own seed stock valued for ritual uses (Ahuja and Ahuja, 2006).They perhaps rarely exchanged seeds with different neighboring groups, this resulted into genetic isolation and differentiation largely owing to divergent ancestry, selection, and drift (Zeven, 1998;Villa et al., 2005). The fact was reflected in the high values of fixation indices, implying a presence of high population structure. ...
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The rice-based agriculture of the Indian subcontinent has been interwoven in the rich socio-cultural fabric of the country. Of which, bio-culturally diverse North-Eastern states nurture thousands of landraces with poorly tapped agronomic traits. In the present study, 27 standard microsatellite data from 171 rice landraces from six states were analysed to understand their genetic diversity and population structure. Further, combining with a global dataset, we determined subpopulation identity using both model-based and multivariate analyses to uncover their history. We found moderate to high genetic diversity and high differentiation [standardized G ” ST = 0.57]. The AMOVA partitioned overall variance into within population (75%) and among population (25%). The landraces from six states remained at various degrees of differentiation (pairwise FST = 0.09–0.41). We have detected a preponderance of aus -type in a majority of aromatic landraces. Rests were japonica and admixed with a little representation of indica . The presence of aromatic aus probably implied assimilation into local culture from the primary aus growing region of Bangladesh and India. Likewise, the arrival of japonica may stem from the exchange of goods among neighbouring dynasties via Southern and Southwestern Silk routes. The shared ancestry may reflect a merger of two ancient cultures. Our analyses also uncovered the existence of aus -type short and medium grain aromatic rice predicting an origin of aroma in aus subpopulation. Collectively, it demonstrated the diversity and divergent history of the rice landraces have been shaped by various socio-cultural interactions operative over time and space.
... Another possibility could be to study innovation in religions as independent systems of cognitive beliefs or as systems that function within one or more wider cultures that host them. Related aspects are discussed in Disbrey 1994. 40 See, e.g., Synodikon of Orthodoxy 313 Gouillard: Τοὺς παραχαράττοντας τὰς ἀποστολικὰς καὶ πατρικὰς καὶ συνοδικὰς παραδόσεις τῆς ἐκκλησίας καὶ ἄλλο τι καινοτομοῦντας ἢ ἐπινοοῦντας κατὰ τῆς πίστεως, ἀνάθεμα ("To those falsifying the traditions of the apostles and the fathers and the councils of the Church, and any other thing innovating or excogitating against the faith, anathema"). ...
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It is a topos in Byzantine studies is that Byzantium was a conservative civilization, negative –if not hostile– to innovation. This general idea influenced the study of innovation in Byzantium, which has been presented by modern scholars as either absent or as being decisively opposed to. After a presentation of some preliminary questions on the use of terms as innovation in modern historical writing this article examines the use of Byzantine terms related to the concept of innovation in Byzantine lexicographical, historiographical and theological texts. The comparison of these works to ancient Greek ones demonstrates that the Byzantines continued using words and concepts as innovation, novelty etc. in a way similar to that used by their predecessors. Furthermore, the article demonstrates that the Byzantines probably had more than one understandings of innovation and were not negative towards innovation as such.
Article
Recent years have seen notable progress on issues of gender and human rights in standard-setting and to some extent application of those standards through international and domestic legislation and jurisprudence, and in institutional programming and development. Some international and regional human rights bodies now go beyond just including ‘women’ in a list of ‘vulnerable’ groups, and have begun to incorporate women's experiences and perspectives into recommendations for structural changes needed to bring about full enjoyment of human rights by women and girls. In addition, recent years have seen the human rights of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and intersex people being taken up beyond the first human rights bodies that addressed them, and developments have taken place in standard-setting. Despite this progress, many challenges remain. Violence against women continues at a staggering rate. Gender-based discrimination persists in the workplace, housing, education, disaster relief, health care, and countless other areas. Access to justice continues to be hindered by a range of obstacles. Religion, tradition, and culture continue to be used as a shield for violating women's rights. Same-sex conduct is still criminalized in scores of countries, and it carries the death penalty in seven states. The traditional human rights law paradigm, with its focus on the state, may be obsolete in dealing with human rights abuses by such diverse non-state actors as powerful militias and global corporations. This article highlights just a few opportunities and challenges to come for international human rights advocacy on gender issues.
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