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Mediterranean diet: fresh herbs and fresh vegetables decrease the risk of Androgenetic Alopecia in males

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It is well established that Androgenetic Alopecia (AGA) occurs in genetically predisposed individuals but little is known of its non-genetic risk factors. The aim of the study was to investigate the role of the Mediterranean diet in determining the risk of AGA. A hospital-based case-control study was conducted in the outpatient clinics of the hospital “Istituto Dermopatico dell’Immacolata, Rome, Italy”. We included 104 males and 108 controls not affected by AGA. Controls were frequency matched to cases. Information on socio-demographic characteristics, medical history, smoking and diet were collected for all patients. Logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratio and 95% confidence intervals. After controlling for age, education, body mass index and family history of AGA, protective effects for AGA were found for high consumption (≥ 3 times weekly) of raw vegetables (OR 0.43; 95% CI 0.21–0.89) and high consumption of fresh herbs (3 or more regularly) (OR 0.44; 95% CI 0.22–0.87). We suggest that some foods of the Mediterranean diet, say fresh herbs and salad, may reduce the risk of AGA onset.
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Archives of Dermatological Research (2018) 310:71–76
Mediterranean diet: fresh herbs andfresh vegetables decrease therisk
ofAndrogenetic Alopecia inmales
CristinaFortes1· S.Mastroeni1· T.Mannooranparampil1· D.Abeni1· A.Panebianco2
Received: 3 October 2017 / Revised: 20 November 2017 / Accepted: 21 November 2017 / Published online: 27 November 2017
© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2017
It is well established that Androgenetic Alopecia (AGA) occurs in genetically predisposed individuals but little is known of
its non-genetic risk factors. The aim of the study was to investigate the role of the Mediterranean diet in determining the risk
of AGA. A hospital-based case-control study was conducted in the outpatient clinics of the hospital “Istituto Dermopatico
dell’Immacolata, Rome, Italy”. We included 104 males and 108 controls not affected by AGA. Controls were frequency
matched to cases. Information on socio-demographic characteristics, medical history, smoking and diet were collected for
all patients. Logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratio and 95% confidence intervals. After controlling for age,
education, body mass index and family history of AGA, protective effects for AGA were found for high consumption (≥ 3
times weekly) of raw vegetables (OR 0.43; 95% CI 0.21–0.89) and high consumption of fresh herbs (3 or more regularly)
(OR 0.44; 95% CI 0.22–0.87). We suggest that some foods of the Mediterranean diet, say fresh herbs and salad, may reduce
the risk of AGA onset.
Keywords Androgenetic Alopecia· Diet· Risk factors· Case control
Male baldness or Androgenetic Alopecia (AGA) is a der-
matological condition characterized by a severe shrinking
of hair follicles and in the worst case complete hair loss.
The prevalence of AGA is race-dependant and varies from
14 to 50%. The presence of androgen dihydrotestosterone
and genetic factors are suggested to play an important role
in the development of AGA. Genome-wide association stud-
ies indicate that genetic variants at the level, or close to the
androgen receptor gene and in locus at 20p11 are associ-
ated with an increased risk of AGA [19]. However, single
nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) found to be associated
with AGA; so far, are characterized by an apparent reduced
penetrance into the phenotype suggesting a role of other fac-
tors in the aetiology of AGA, including lifestyle factors [3,
21, 26]. Diet could contribute to the aetiology of AGA since
hair function, and appearance have been reported to depend
on adequate and balanced nutritional intake [9]. Moreover,
epidemiological studies show that AGA is associated with
an increased risk of many chronic diseases including cancer
[4, 24, 27], in particular, prostate cancer, suggesting com-
mon individual and behavioural risk factors. In fact, the
5α-reductase is an important enzyme in the steroid metabo-
lism and it is involved in the pathogenesis of both AGA and
prostate cancer [10, 13]. Polyphenol compounds which are
present in the Mediterranean diet have been suggested as
inhibitors of the 5α-reductase enzyme and the Mediterra-
nean diet is very rich in those [11]. It has been suggested that
normal growth and function of the prostate are linked to the
reduction of testosterone to DHT by 5α-reductase and that
high levels of DHT are involved in the pathogenesis prostate
cancer [10]. It is interesting to note that AGA does not occur
in men with a genetic deficiency of the type 2 5α-reductase
enzyme [13].
The Mediterranean diet has an important role in modulat-
ing cancer risk [8, 20]. In view of the link between prostate
cancer and AGA [27] and the protective effect of the Medi-
terranean diet for the prevention of prostate cancer [20],
* Cristina Fortes
1 Epidemiology Unit, Istituto Dermopatico dell’Immacolata
(IDI-IRCCS-FLMM), Via dei Monti di Creta, 104,
00167Rome, Italy
2 Medical Direction, Istituto Dermopatico dell’Immacolata
(IDI-IRCCS-FLMM), Rome, Italy
Content courtesy of Springer Nature, terms of use apply. Rights reserved.
... However, interpretation of the results from both studies was impacted by a lack of detail provided in the smoking history and age of AGA diagnosis [18,19]. Questionnaire results from a hospital-based, controlled study reported no statistical difference in the frequency of subjects with or without AGA who were current smokers of <10 cigarettes per day (n = 214 M) (p = 0.13) [20]. The study results are limited by the younger age of subjects with AGA (28.5 years) compared to controls (38.9 years), which may limit the generalizability of the results [20]. ...
... Questionnaire results from a hospital-based, controlled study reported no statistical difference in the frequency of subjects with or without AGA who were current smokers of <10 cigarettes per day (n = 214 M) (p = 0.13) [20]. The study results are limited by the younger age of subjects with AGA (28.5 years) compared to controls (38.9 years), which may limit the generalizability of the results [20]. In a case-controlled study including 256 subjects with AGA and 256 agematched controls, no significant difference in cigarette smoking status was reported between subjects with or without AGA (p = 0.550). ...
... Severe presentations of AGA were observed in subjects who smoked a larger quantity of cigarettes per day [8,[10][11][12][13]. Several studies reported no association between smoking and alopecia [17][18][19][20][21][22][23][24][25][26][27]. Among these, a cross-sectional retrospective study reported a higher prevalence of scarring alopecia, severe FFA, in subjects with no previous tobacco exposure [24]. ...
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Smoking is not only a preventable cause of significant systemic disease but also affects the follicular growth cycle and fiber pigmentation. Ambient tobacco smoke exposure results in nicotine accumulation in hair follicles and the hair shaft. This review summarizes the evidence on the association between smoking and hair health, as denoted by alopecia and premature hair graying (PHG). In July 2020, a review of the literature using PubMed/MEDLINE and CINAHL databases identified 32 studies investigating the relationship between smoking, PHG, and alopecia (androgenetic alopecia and frontal fibrosing alopecia). The prevalence of hair loss and PHG is more prevalent in smokers than nonsmokers. Smoking is associated with negative effects on hair health as evidenced in PHG and alopecia. Smoking status should be assessed in patients who are presenting to their dermatologist for evaluation of alopecia and PHG.
... In this regard, there is an increasing interest in nonhormonal factors that play a role in AGA pathogenesis and their relationship with hormonal status [6]. In particular, micronutrients (trace elements, vitamins, and essential amino acids), a number of which have shown a positive effect on the growth and strengthening of hair roots capture the attention of researchers [7][8][9][10][11]. ...
... The regular use of food supplements, a topical L-carnitine tartrate, zinc, niacin, branched chain amino acids, and biotin treatment, led to a decrease in the rate of hair loss and an increase in the anagen/telogen ratio in individuals with AGA [12]. These data are also supported by studies that demonstrated that the Mediterranean diet-fresh herbs and vegetables-reduces the risk of AGA development in men [6], including due to the effect on low-grade inflammation observed in alopecia [13]. Deficiency of micronutrients, such as iron, selenium, zinc, folic acid (FA), and vitamins A, B, C, D, can be a modifiable risk factor associated with the AGA development, prevention, and treatment [14]. ...
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Androgenetic alopecia (AGA) is the most common variant of male pattern baldness in which occurrence and development of multiple genetic, hormonal, and metabolic factors are involved. We aimed to estimate plasma element content (Mg, Ca, Zn, Cu, Se, Fe), vitamin status (B12, D, E, and folic acid) in patients with AGA using direct colorimetric tests or atomic absorption spectrometry, and the influence of these parameters in the formation of various hair loss patterns. The study included 50 patients with I–IV stages of AGA divided into two groups with normal and high levels of dihydrotestosterone compared with 25 healthy individuals. The presence of two patterns of pathological hair loss in the androgen-dependent (parietal) and androgen-independent (occipital) areas of the scalp was confirmed. It was shown that all patients with AGA have a deficiency of elements (Zn, Cu, Mg, Se) and vitamins (B12, E, D, folic acid). However, the hair loss rate was not due to their content. А positive interrelation between quantitative trichogram parameters in the occipital region and iron metabolism in pairs “hair density vs Fe” and “hair diameter vs ferritin” was shown. In turn, in the parietal region, an inverse correlation of hair diameter with plasma Cu level was found, the most pronouncing in patients with high levels of dihydrotestosterone. The obtained results indicate the importance of multiple micronutrient deficiencies in the AGA occurrence accompanied by the existence of two different hair loss patterns, differently related to the content of certain trace elements and androgens in the blood.
... In addition, it has been reported that epigallocatechin-3-gallate, the main component of tea polyphenols, can reduce the risk of androgenetic alopecia by inhibiting 5α-reductase, which increases hair growth in humans [96]. Essential fatty acids (linolenic, linoleic, oleic, myristoleic, palmitoleic, and stearic acids) found in olive oil, which has an important place in the MD, have inhibitory effects on 5α-reductase (5AR) that provide hair regrowth [4,18,97]. It has been reported that hair loss and depigmentation are seen in hair and eyebrows in people affected by linoleic acid and alpha-linolenic acid deficiency [83]. ...
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Hair loss is a widespread concern in dermatology clinics, affecting both men's and women's quality of life. Hair loss can have many different causes, which are critical to identify in order to provide appropriate treatment. Hair loss can happen due to many variables, such as genetic factors or predisposition, vitamin and mineral deficiencies, skin problems, hair growth disorders, poor diet, hormonal problems, certain internal diseases, drug use, stress and depression, cosmetic factors, childbirth, and the che-motherapy process. Treatment for hair loss varies depending on the type of alopecia, deficiency, or excess of structures such as vitamins and minerals, and also on hair and skin structure. The Mediterranean diet is characterized by low amounts of saturated fat, animal protein, and high amounts of unsatu-rated fat, fiber, polyphenols, and antioxidants. The main nutrients found in the Mediterranean Diet are rich in antioxidant, anti-inflammatory components. It also has an important place in hair loss treatment, since recently treatment strategies have included polyphenols and unsaturated oils more and more frequently. The goal of this work was to review published articles examining alopecia and its types, the many micronutrients that affect alopecia, and the role of the Mediterranean diet in alo-pecia. The literature shows that little is known about hair loss, nutritional factors, and diet, and that the data collected are conflicting. Given these differences, research into the function of diet and nutrition in the treatment of baldness is a dynamic and growing topic.
... The rumored association of western diet and AGA prompted consideration of the Mediterranean diet to ameliorate the effects. A statistical analysis of dietary habits and degree of AGA progression demonstrated a protective effect of fresh herbs and raw vegetables (Fortes et al., 2018). In such cases protective affects might be partly mediated by improved glycemic control and lower cholesterol (Tzima et al., 2007). ...
Background The success of 5α-reductase inhibitors in the 1990s vindicated the role of androgens and cast doubt on the role of diet in androgenetic alopecia (AGA). However, poor glucose control and high cholesterol are now recognised as comorbidities, which are salient characters of the ‘western diet’. Scope and approach In glucose potentiated hair loss, continuous monosaccharide flux to the liver promotes the polyol pathway, causing fatty liver and attenuating synthesis of sex hormone binding globulin, accommodating the increased ratio of dihydrotestosterone (DHT) to testosterone. The scalp of the balding phenotype is characterised by overactive PPAR-γ receptors, increased fatty acid synthesis, enlarged sebaceous glands and sebum secretions. Sebum feeds lipophilic bacteria, such as Propionibacterium acnes, which augment the expression of prostaglandin-type (PGD2 & 15d-PGJ2) ligands of PPAR-γ and increase local insulin sensitivity via Akt/mTOR pathways. In hyperglycaemic events the androgen dependent polyol pathway depletes glucose and generates purine by-products that antagonise adenosine receptors. Mitochondrial reactive oxygen species accumulate, and ATP levels reduce, slowing gluconeogenesis in the outer root sheath keratinocytes of the hair follicle. Furthermore, the current commentary suggests that an important mineral in hair health is magnesium, which is relevant to both glucose and cholesterol potentiated hair loss. Magnesium deficiency not only reinforces insulin resistance, but in cholesterol potentiated hair loss, local magnesium dependent monooxygenase enzymes that metabolise cholesterol and vitamin D are impaired. Furthermore, magnesium deficient muscles at the occipital and temporal region of the skull create mechanical strain against the galea aponeurotica. Key findings and conclusions Taking all of this into consideration, treatment options for androgenetic alopecia should include a low cholesterol and low glycaemic index diet, improved glucose control, and fortification with magnesium. Furthermore, the current narrative does not endorse severe caloric restriction for obvious health reasons.
... Here, we provide an overview of the currently available literature devoted to alternative natural dietary treatments for HL (Figure 1). Among others, a recent work paid attention to Mediterranean diet supporting the hypothesis that some fresh herbs and salad, rich in phytochemicals such as carotenoids and polyphenols, may reduce the risk of AGA [16]. In the present review, we started for a query for "alopecia" OR "hair loss" AND "Rosmarinum officinalis L." (and other 6 botanicals) in ARTICLE (Title/Abstract/Keyword) in PUBMED and Web of Sciences database. ...
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Abstract: Hair loss is a disorder in which the hair falls out from skin areas such as the scalp and the body. Several studies suggest the use of herbal medicine to treat related disorders, including alopecia. Dermal microcirculation is essential for hair maintenance, and an insu�cient blood supply can lead to hair follicles (HF) diseases. This work aims to provide an insight into the ethnohistorical records of some nutritional compounds containing flavonoids for their potential beneficial features in repairing or recovering from hair follicle disruption. We started from a query for “alopecia” OR “hair loss” AND “Panax ginseng C.A. Mey.“ (or other six botanicals) terms included in Pubmed and Web of Sciences articles. The activities of seven common botanicals introduced with diet (Panax ginseng C.A. Mey., Malus pumila Mill cultivar Annurca, Co�ea arabica, Allium sativum L., Camellia sinensis (L.) Kuntze, Rosmarinum o�cinalis L., Capsicum annum L.) are discussed, which are believed to reduce the rate of hair loss or stimulate new hair growth. In this review, we pay our attention on the molecular mechanisms underlying the bioactivity of the aforementioned nutritional compounds in vivo, ex vivo and in vitro studies. There is a need for systematic evaluation of the most commonly used plants to confirm their anti-hair loss power, identify possible mechanisms of action, and recommend their best adoption.
Genetic factors, androgens, and follicular micro-inflammation play key roles in causing “androgenic” hair loss (see Chaps. 11 and 14, Vol. 1) In order to affect the course and progression of AGA through diet or lifestyle, the only parameter in AGA that could be “manipulated” is the hormonal one, which includes several sub-components:Only the production and transfer steps could be modified through dietary and lifestyle changes, either towards a favorable decrease or an—unwanted—increase in overall androgen availability. The consumption of androgen-containing foods could exacerbate FPHL in some women, but it is unlikely that men would experience any detrimental effects because of high endogenous androgen levels. In the following sections, those lifestyle factors that could impact the course of AGA/FPHL, either by affecting androgen metabolism or by directly influencing the hair follicle physiology, will be examined.
Background. Androgenic alopecia (AGA) is the most common form of pathological hair loss with multiple micronutrient disorders involvedin its occurrence and development. Aimto evaluatethe effectiveness of personalized treatment of micronutrient deficiencies in patients with early stages of AGA and conservative therapy using a vasodilator drug minoxidil based on evidence-based medicine. Methods. A total 48 patients with stages IIV of AGA (according to the NorwoodHamilton scale) were recruited to experimental prospective clinical study evaluating the effectiveness of pharmaceutical forms of trace elements and vitamins. The primary diagnosis of micronutrient deficiency was carried out by comparing laboratory parameters of patients with AGA and 25 healthy volunteers. After that, conservative treatment with 5% topical minoxidilin AGA patients was enriched with 2-month personalized systemic supplementation of pharmaceutical forms of trace elements and vitamins. At the end of the study, the correspondence between changes in trace elements and vitamins content in the plasma and the trichogram parameters before and after conservative therapy was assessed. Results. The majority (96%) of the examined patients with AGA were characterized by mono- or polynutrient deficiencies. Personalized correction made it possible to restore the content of Se, Mg, Fe and vitamin E to the baseline levels and to achieve a significant increase in Zn, vitamin D and folic acid plasma content. The relationship between changes in the level of micronutrients and trichogram parameters was recorded only for Se (decrease in anagen hairs: r = 0.43; p = 0.037; decrease in hair density: r = 0.45; p = 0.028) and folic acid (an increase in anagen hairs: r = 0.41; p = 0.024); the positive effect of vitamin E on hair density was also detected. Conclusion. The results of the study allow to recommend a personalized treatment of folic acid and vitamin E deficiencies, with possible refusal to use the Se-containing drugs in conservative therapy of patients with the early stages of AGA.
Objectives: Androgenic alopecia (AGA) is the most common type of alopecia. At present, the study on AGA mostly focuses on drugs, laser technology and hair transplantation, while the lifestyle factor that may delay the course of AGA and improve the condition of AGA is neglected. This study aims to investigate the relationship between the exercise and severity of androgenic alopecia, and to help AGA patients to choose suitable forms and amounts of exercise. Methods: Patients, who were diagnosed with AGA from May 13, 2020 to August 25, 2020, were the subjects of the survey. Through the internet online questionnaire survey, the information regarding demographics, exercise forms (lifestyle exercises, stretching exercises, aerobic exercises, and anaerobic exercises), exercise frequency (0-2 times/week, 3-4 times/week, and 5-7 times/week), exercise duration (<30, 30-60, and >60 min/time), and family history (androgenic alopecia, alopecia areata, and scarring alopecia) was obtained. Combination of patient self-assessment and doctor's photo examination was used to evaluate the changes (improvement, aggravation, and natural course) of the condition after 6 months of exercise. Single factor analysis and logistic regression analysis were used to study the factors related to the changes before and after exercise. Results: A total of 592 AGA patients were recruited. Among them, 215 were male patients (36.32%), and 377 were female patients (63.68%); 91 patients (15.37%) were improved after 6 months of exercise, 448 patients (75.68%) were in natural progress, and 53 patients (8.95%) were aggravated. A total of 439 AGA patients were involved in non-life sports. After 6 months of exercise, 137 patients (31.21%) with scalp itching and scaling were reduced, 65 patients (14.81%) with greasy scalp was reduced, and 204 patients (46.47%) with anxiety and depression symptoms were improved compared with the previous period, and 356 patients (81.10%) showed that their sleep quality was improved compared with before. The changes in the condition before and after exercise are related to exercise style (P<0.001), exercise frequency (P=0.033), exercise duration (P=0.044), but not related to gender (P=0.358) and family history (P=0.052). The degree of improvement in AGA patients, who performed aerobic exercise, was 5.416 times of those who only performed life-like exercises (OR=5.416, P<0.001); the degree of improvement in AGA patients with each exercise time >60 min was 3.106 times of those with each exercise time <30 min (OR=3.106, P=0009). Conclusions: Doing aerobic exercise or each exercise time >60 min helps to delay the progress of AGA and improve the symptom of AGA.
Background: Early-onset androgenetic alopecia (AGA) is the most common cause of alopecia in men under 30 years of age; however, its prevalence and non-genetic risk factors are not well documented. Our aim was to determine the early-onset AGA prevalence and to evaluate its relationship with lifestyle and dietary habits. Methods: This study was conducted on 1507 male university students aged 18-30 years. Students with AGA were grouped as mild and moderate-severe according to the Hamilton-Norwood classification. They were asked to complete a questionnaire regarding information about lifestyle and dietary habits including The Adolescent Food Habits Checklist (AFHC) and International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) short form. Results: The prevalence of early-onset AGA was 19.2 % in the students. Each year over the 18 years age, positive family history, unhealthy vegetable-fruit and red meat consumption, presence of a hair disease apart from AGA and smoking were associated with increased risk for early-onset AGA. The median score of AFHC was lower than those without early-onset AGA which reflects the unhealthy dietary habit. Students with moderate-severe AGA had a higher body mass index and waist circumference than those with mild AGA (p < 0.05). Conclusions: In addition to family history, lifestyle and dietary habits have roles in earlyonset AGA. Therefore, regulation of lifestyle and dietary habits may have a possible contribution in the prevention of early-onset AGA.
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Many studies have investigated the Mediterranean diet as a risk factor for cancer, none of which has included cutaneous melanoma. The latter is usually fatal, rendering knowledge about prevention extremely important. We assessed the role of some food components of the Mediterranean diet and cutaneous melanoma. A hospital-based case-control study was conducted in the inpatient wards of IDI-San Carlo Rome, Italy including 304 incident cases of cutaneous melanoma and 305 controls, frequency matched to cases. Information on socio-demographic characteristics, medical history, smoking, sun exposure, pigmentary characteristics and diet was collected. Logistic regression was the method used to estimated odds ratio and 95% CIs. After careful control for several sun exposure and pigmentary characteristics, we found a protective effect for weekly consumption of fish (OR, 0.65, 95%CI = 0.43-0.97), shellfish (OR, 0.53, 95%CI = 0.31-0.89), fish rich in n-3 fatty acids (OR, 0.52, 95%CI = 0.34-0.78), daily tea drinking (OR, 0.42, 95%CI, 0.18-0.95; P(trend) = 0.025) and high consumption of vegetables (OR, 0.50, 95%CI = 0.31-0.80, P(trend) = 0.005) in particular carrots, cruciferous and leafy vegetables and fruits (OR, 0.54, 95%CI =0.33-0.86, P(trend) = 0.013), in particular citrus fruits. No association was found for alcohol consumption and any other food items. Overall, our findings suggest that some dietary factors present in the Mediterranean diet might protect from cutaneous melanoma.
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The importance of chronic low-grade inflammation in the pathology of numerous age-related chronic conditions is now clear. An unresolved inflammatory response is likely to be involved from the early stages of disease development. The present position paper is the most recent in a series produced by the International Life Sciences Institute's European Branch (ILSI Europe). It is co-authored by the speakers from a 2013 workshop led by the Obesity and Diabetes Task Force entitled 'Low-grade inflammation, a high-grade challenge: biomarkers and modulation by dietary strategies'. The latest research in the areas of acute and chronic inflammation and cardiometabolic, gut and cognitive health is presented along with the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying inflammation-health/disease associations. The evidence relating diet composition and early-life nutrition to inflammatory status is reviewed. Human epidemiological and intervention data are thus far heavily reliant on the measurement of inflammatory markers in the circulation, and in particular cytokines in the fasting state, which are recognised as an insensitive and highly variable index of tissue inflammation. Potential novel kinetic and integrated approaches to capture inflammatory status in humans are discussed. Such approaches are likely to provide a more discriminating means of quantifying inflammation-health/disease associations, and the ability of diet to positively modulate inflammation and provide the much needed evidence to develop research portfolios that will inform new product development and associated health claims.
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Background Association of androgenetic alopecia (AGA) with increased incidence of hypertension, a strong risk factor for coronary artery disease, has been suggested. However, there are no data on arterial stiffness measures of asymptomatic young adults with AGA.Objective In this study, we aimed to investigate the association of the AGA with arterial stiffness assessed by cardio-ankle vascular index (CAVI), in asymptomatic young men.MethodsA total of 162 asymptomatic men aged between 18 and 45 years were consecutively enrolled to the study. Subjects were considered to have AGA if they have ≥3 grade vertex alopecia according to Hamilton–Norwood scale. Arterial stiffness was assessed by CAVI and defined as abnormal if CAVI is ≥8.ResultsFrequency of abnormal CAVI was higher in patients with AGA (29.3% vs. 10.0%, P = 0.003). Subjects with AGA had higher mean CAVI than subjects without AGA (7.56 ± 0.93 vs. 7.15 ± 0.79, P = 0.004). Binary logistic regression analysis demonstrated that presence of AGA (OR, 5.6; 95% CI, 1.7–20.0, P = 0.006), age (OR, 1.1; 95% CI, 1.0–1.2, P = 0.03) and diastolic blood pressure (OR, 1.1; 95% CI, 1.0–1.3, P = 0.005) were independently associated with abnormal CAVI.Conclusion We concluded that, AGA might be an indicator of arterial stiffness in asymptomatic young adults.
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Although the genetic basis of androgenic alopecia has been clearly established, little is known about its non-genetic causes, such as environmental and lifestyle factors. This study investigated blood and urine heavy metals concentrations, environmental exposure factors, personal behaviors, dietary intakes and the genotypes of related susceptibility genes in patients with androgenic alopecia (AGA). Age, AGA level, residence area, work hours, sleep patterns, cigarette usage, alcohol consumption, betel nut usage, hair treatments, eating habits, body heavy metals concentrations and rs1998076, rs913063, rs1160312 and rs201571 SNP genotype data were collected from 354 men. Logistic regression analysis was performed to examine whether any of the factors displayed odds ratios (ORs) indicating association with moderate to severe AGA (≧IV). Subsequently, Hosmer-Lemeshow, Nagelkerke R(2) and accuracy tests were conducted to help establish an optimal model. Moderate to severe AGA was associated with the AA genotype of rs1160312 (22.50, 95% CI 3.99-126.83), blood vanadium concentration (0.02, 95% CI 0.01-0.04), and regular consumption of soy bean drinks (0.23, 95% CI 0.06-0.85), after adjustment for age. The results were corroborated by the Hosmer-Lemeshow test (P = 0.73), Nagelkerke R(2) (0.59), accuracy test (0.816) and area under the curve (AUC; 0.90, 0.847-0.951) analysis. Blood vanadium and frequent soy bean drink consumption may provide protect effects against AGA. Accordingly, blood vanadium concentrations, the AA genotype of rs1160312 and frequent consumption of soy bean drinks are associated with AGA.
Introduction: Even though androgenetic alopecia (AGA) is the most common type of alopecia, factors associated with AGA severity have been poorly investigated. Objectives: The objective of our study was to investigate risk factors for AGA severity among a Caucasian population. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among AGA subjects in the outpatient clinic of a reference hospital for skin diseases in Rome, Italy. A total of 351 Caucasian subjects with AGA, mean age 35.6 years, were enrolled in the study. Information on educational level, family history of AGA, diet, alcohol consumption, the presence of chronic diseases, the use of pills including dietary supplements, BMI, and smoking was collected by a face-to-face interview using standardized questionnaires. Norwood and Ludwig classifications were used to assess the degree of AGA. Results: Subjects with a BMI of 25 or more and current smokers had circa six times an increased risk of having moderate or severe AGA (OR: 6.72; 95% CI: 2.57-17.6). In the multivariate model, after controlling for gender, age, education, dyslipidemia, dietary supplements, and wine consumption, the effect of high BMI and smoking (OR: 5.96; 95% CI: 1.65-21.5) on AGA severity remained. Only age and gender, besides the effect of BMI and smoking, remained statistically significant in the multivariate model while education, the presence of dyslipidemia, dietary supplements, and wine consumption did not remain statistically significant. Conclusions: Our study shows that the combination of overweight and smoking is associated with an increased severity of androgenetic alopecia.
We used male pattern baldness as a proxy for long-term androgen exposure and investigated the association of dermatologist-assessed hair loss with prostate cancer–specific mortality in the first National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey Epidemiologic Follow-up Study. From the baseline survey (1971–1974), we included 4,316 men who were 25–74 years of age and had no prior cancer diagnosis. We estimated hazard ratios and used Cox proportional hazards regressions with age as the time metric and baseline hazard stratified by baseline age. A hybrid framework was used to account for stratification and clustering of the sample design, with adjustment for the variables used to calculate sample weights. During follow-up (median, 21 years), 3,284 deaths occurred; prostate cancer was the underlying cause of 107. In multivariable models, compared with no balding, any baldness was associated with a 56% higher risk of fatal prostate cancer (hazard ratio = 1.56; 95% confidence interval: 1.02, 2.37), and moderate balding specifically was associated with an 83% higher risk (hazard ratio = 1.83; 95% confidence interval: 1.15, 2.92). Conversely, patterned hair loss was not statistically significantly associated with all-cause mortality. Our analysis suggests that patterned hair loss is associated with a higher risk of fatal prostate cancer and supports the hypothesis of overlapping pathophysiological mechanisms.
Low-grade inflammation is characterised by raised concentrations of inflammatory markers in the absence of any overt symptoms and is recognized as a risk factor for a number of chronic diseases including cancer, cardiovascular, cerebrovascular and neurodegenerative diseases. Many studies suggest that low-grade inflammation is mitigated by health-promoting behaviours such as healthy eating patterns, physical activity, body weight maintenance and tobacco cessation. To date, large-scale studies were mainly focused on circulating markers and little evidence is available on cellular biomarkers. The MOLI-SANI study is a prospective cohort study that has recruited 24,325 men and women aged ≥35 from the general population of the Molise Region, a Southern Italian area, with the purpose of investigating genetic and environmental risk/protection factors for cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease and cancer. Within this cohort, a composite score of low-grade inflammation based on the use of plasmatic (C-reactive protein) and cellular (leukocyte and platelet counts and granulocyte/lymphocyte ratio) biomarkers has been proposed and validated. This score accounts for all possible synergistic effects of such inflammatory markers, thus overcoming any potential bias linked to the multi-collinearity of these variables. Of notice, the MOLI-SANI study was the first to address the relationship between the traditional Mediterranean diet and platelet and leucocyte counts as emerging cellular biomarker of low-grade inflammation. The present review paper will discuss the main findings derived from the MOLI-SANI study on the association of low-grade inflammation with a Mediterranean eating pattern, with a particular emphasis on the associated dietary polyphenols. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
The aim of this research study was to meta-analyze the effects of adherence to Mediterranean Diet (MD) on overall cancer risk, and different cancer types. Literature search was performed using the electronic databases MEDLINE, SCOPUS, and EMBASE until 10th January 2014. Inclusion criteria were: cohort or case-control studies. Study specific risk ratios (RR) were pooled using a random effect model by the Cochrane software package Review Manager 5.2. 21 cohort studies including 1,368,736 subjects, and 12 case-control studies with 62,725 subjects met the objectives and were enclosed for meta-analyses. The highest adherence to MD category resulted in a significantly risk reduction for overall cancer mortality/incidence [cohort; RR: 0.90, 95% CI 0.86 to 0.95, p < 0.0001; I2=55%], colorectal [cohort/case control; RR: 0.86, 95% CI 0.80 to 0.93, p < 0.0001; I2=62%], prostate [cohort/case control; RR: 0.96, 95% CI 0.92 to 0.99, p = 0.03; I2=0%], and aerodigestive cancer [cohort/case-control studies; RR: 0.44, 95% CI 0.26 to 0.77, p = 0.003; I2=83%]. Non-significant changes could be observed for breast cancer, and gastric cancer, and pancreatic cancer. The Egger regression tests provided limited evidence of substantial publication bias. High adherence to a Mediterranean diet is associated with a significant reduction in the risk of overall cancer mortality (10%), colorectal cancer (14%), prostate cancer (4%), and aerodigestive cancer (56%). © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Androgenetic alopecia (AGA) is the most common type of hair loss, and is characterized by the transformation of terminal scalp hair into vellus hair. The epidemiology of AGA is not fully understood. A strong genetic basis has long been identified, although little is known of its nongenetic causes. To evaluate the association of AGA with a number of environmental factors, including smoking, drinking and sleeping habit. In total, 3114 Korean individuals with AGA who attended any one of 17 dermatology clinics in 6 cities in South Korea between March 2011 and February 2012 were enrolled in the study. Epidemiologic a data were collected using a standard questionnaire. No association was seen between eating or sleeping habits and severity of hair loss. However, drinking and smoking were associated with the severity of AGA in male patients. We also found that patients of both genders with a family history had more advanced types of hair loss, and the age of onset of AGA in male patients with a family history was earlier than that in male patients without a family history. Although the evidence for an environmental influence on AGA remains very weak, we did find an association between hair loss severity and certain environmental factors, such as smoking and drinking. Family history with more severe hair loss and an earlier age of onset.
Obesity is a risk factor for multiple health problems, but its association with androgenetic alopecia (AGA) remains controversial. We sought to determine the association between body mass index (BMI) and alopecia severity in men with AGA and early-onset AGA. A cross-sectional study was conducted. The medical charts and photographs of men with a clinical diagnosis of AGA were reviewed. In all, 189 men were enrolled with a mean age of 30.8 years. In male-pattern AGA (n = 142), men with severe alopecia (grade V-VII) had higher BMI than those with mild to moderate alopecia (grade I-IV) (25.1 vs 22.8 kg/m(2), P = .01). After multivariate adjustments, the risk for severe alopecia was higher in the overweight or obese (BMI ≥24 kg/m(2)) subjects with male-pattern AGA (odds ratio 3.52, P < .01). In early-onset male-pattern AGA (n = 46), the risk for having severe alopecia was also higher in the overweight or obese subjects (odds ratio 4.97, P = .03). Parameters used to evaluate obesity were limited because of the retrospective nature of the study. Higher BMI was significantly associated with greater severity of hair loss in men with male-pattern AGA, especially in those with early-onset AGA.