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SPATIAL RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN MOBILITY OPPORTUNITIES AND CONSTRAINTS OF TRANSPORT DISADVANTAGES: THE CASE OF SANTIAGO DE CALI, COLOMBIA

Authors:
SPATIAL RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN
MOBILITY OPPORTUNITIES AND CONSTRAINTS
OF TRANSPORT DISADVANTAGES:
THE CASE OF SANTIAGO DE CALI, COLOMBIA
ALEJANDRO L. GRINDLAY1, CIRO JARAMILLO2 & CARMEN LIZÁRRAGA3
1Department of Urban and Regional Planning, University of Granada, Spain
2School of Civil Engineering and Geomatics, University of Valle, Colombia
3Department of Applied Economics, University of Granada, Spain
ABSTRACT
The objective of this paper is to explore the spatial distribution of the mobility opportunities linked to
the access of the population to the public transport system and its transport disadvantages constraints
in relation to socio-economic variables of the districts and estimated local public transport needs.
It focuses on the third most populated urban area in Colombia, the metropolitan area of
Santiago de Cali. The analysis uses and correlates two spatialized indexes. The index of social transport
needs and the index of public transport provision are calculated, both in absolute and relative terms.
A statistical analysis has been made, and a spatial analysis of distribution in term of standard deviation.
Both indexes were contrasted in absolute and relative terms, and they were spatially studied in a
cartography that showed the balance between supply and need in each zone. Lastly, correlation
coefficients such as Pearson and Spearman were calculated along with levels of significance to validate
the results. The results revealed that distribution of the indexes, the absolute transport social needs and
the relative public transport provision, presents a normal distribution, in contrast to the other two
indicators. Regarding the standard deviation maps, the distribution of the values below the average is
shown to be the majority in the case of the relative index of public transport provision on the periphery
of the study area. On the other hand, the spatial distribution of the absolute and relative index of
transport social needs in the central areas is below or at the average of the study area. It can be concluded
that the opportunities for access to the public transport system are relatively less concentrated in
disadvantaged districts with low socio-economic levels.
Keywords: public transport provision, mobility opportunities, transport disadvantages, transport
social needs, Santiago de Cali, Colombia.
1 INTRODUCTION
Considering the relationship existing between mobility, accessibility and social exclusion,
a lack of access and mobility is usually a factor of social exclusion which shows itself to a
great extent in peripheral groups with restricted access to opportunities that do not allow them
to break out of the vicious cycle of poverty, as has been shown in several locations. Hence it
is relevant to show the imbalances between the needs for transport and its provision in a
public transport system, mainly when it has been improved with rapid transit systems, as has
been shown in a previous work, where these gaps are empirically identified in the cartography
(Jaramillo et al. [1]). These differences have been proved subsequently in other places, not
only in Latin-American cities but also all over the world [2]–[5].
The objective of this paper is to explore the spatial distribution, in an urban context, of the
mobility opportunities linked to the access of the population to the public transport system
and its transport disadvantages constraints in relation to socio-economic variables of the
districts and estimated local public transport needs, and expanding into the spatial and
statistical analysis. It also focuses on the third most populated urban area in Colombia, after
Bogota and Medellin, the metropolitan area of Santiago de Cali [6].
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WIT Transactions on The Built Environment, Vol 176, © 2017 WIT Press
Urban Transport XXIII 119
doi:10.2495/UT170111
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120 Urban Transport XXIII
A new public transport system was implemented there in 2009 to solve the serious
problems of chaos and insecurity. This new BRT system, called Masivo Integrado de
Occidente (MIO) transformed the traditional and generally informal system to a new one,
characterized by main line corridors fed by branch lines, with segregated and preferential
lanes designated for the exclusive use of buses of high and medium capacity. The public
transport system totally transformed the existing one (from 30 operators companies to 5; from
234 routes to 81; from 10,235 km route length to 909 km; from 44 km average route length
to 14 km; from 1,000,000 km a day to 182,000 km; from 4289 vehicles to 937), and led to a
great improvement in the quality of service [1]. Later studies of this system have shown that,
despite the progress in the public transport services, there is still room for improvements,
i.e. “thus while MIO has reached very good levels of spatial coverage, the frequency of buses
in low-income areas, especially in Stratum 1, is considerably lower” [7].
In view of this need for improvements, it is necessary to go deeper into the analysis of this
system, which is why the methodology, results and conclusions of this study are now
presented.
2 METHODOLOGY
In order to evaluate the spatial distribution of the mobility opportunities linked to the access
of the population to the public transport system and its transport disadvantages constraints in
relation to socio-economic variables of the districts and estimated local public transport
needs, in the previous study two spatialized indexes were defined and calculated, and now
are correlated: the index of transport social needs and the index of public transport provision,
both in absolute and relative terms with regard the population of each district. In the Index
of Transport Social Needs (ITSN), associated with transport disadvantage for each of
Santiago de Cali’s districts, several factors of transport disadvantage and indicators were
considered. There are 22 districts which are classified by six socio-economic strata fixed and
adopted by the Colombian National Department of Planning. The least privileged at the
bottom of the socio-economic stratification are situated in the peripheral zones which, besides
having the handicap of being the greatest distance from the central area, also have a transport
infrastructure with the worst conditions, not only for the deficiencies in the state of the road
surfaces and drainage, but also for the inadequate road width and very steep slopes
(more than 20%) (Fig. 1). The Index of Public Transport Provision (IPTP) was aimed to
develop a comparable measure representative of the level of public transport supply available
in each district. Their formulation and calculus are detailed at [1].
In order to evaluate their results in depth, a statistical analysis and a spatial analysis of
their distribution in term of standard deviation have been made. Starting from these previous
results, an Exploratory Spatial Data Analysis (ESDA) has been carried out, a tool that allows
an initial study to be performed prior to more complex statistical procedures [8]. The purpose
has been to have structural information on the univariate and bivariate behaviour of the
indicators founded. For this purpose, the matrix of data of the normalized indicators, between
minimum and maximum corresponding to the studied districts, will be considered. At the
univariate level, the measures of central tendency will be determined, as arithmetic mean and
median and the dispersion measures as Standard deviation, asymmetry and kurtosis [9].
On the other hand, the possible normal distribution of the variables has been evaluated
through the Shapiro-Wilk test, used for a group smaller than fifty (50) units [10].
Figure 1: Spatial distribution of the socio-economic strata by district in Santiago de Cali.
(Source: Jaramillo et al., 2012.)
With the aim of representing the already normalized indicators, between minimum and
maximum, the score is transformed to z-score represented, these new values being the
deviation of the index value from the mean. This form of cartographic representation is now
perfectly comparable for the different calculated indicators [9]. The expression used is the
following: 
, (1)
where:
z-score: Standard indicator
xi: Value of the variable in a district i
µ: Average of the variable
σ: Standard deviation of the variable
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Urban Transport XXIII 121
With the support of the box charts, extreme values are highlighted as a useful
representation of the exploratory analysis of spatial data, so a value is considered anomalous
when it exceeds at 1.5 the interquartile range formed by the difference between the values
that occupy the position of 25% to 75% respectively.
At the bivariate level it has been based on comparative processes of the behaviour of the
variables, a technique that is based on the scatter diagrams from which the clouds of points
formed by the values of the indicators for each district show an approximation to the meaning
and intensity of the existing relationship. In addition to these techniques of interactive use,
cross-linking graphs generated by the numerical alpha database with digital cartography,
these relationships are spatially illustrated. In the scatter diagrams constructed with z-score
values, each of the axes takes the central sector of the graph and four (4) basic quadrants are
defined in the space of relationships (Fig. 2) The positive (+) and negative (-) values
correspond to positions above and below the respective variable [9], [11], [12]. When
calculating the regression line based on the cloud of points, and observing the quadrants in
which its trajectory is traced, between the quadrants I and III the relation is positive and if its
trajectory is between the quadrants II and IV it is negative. The Pearson and Spearman Rho
correlation coefficients are used to validate the relationship between the variables being their
normal distributions or not. With regard to the assessment of significance in both cases the
null-Ho hypothesis is that the spatial configuration occurs randomly.
3 RESULTS
The basic data of this analysis are the results of the previously proposed and calculated
indexes of transport social needs and public transport provision for each district, both in
absolute and relative terms, as it has been mentioned in Table 1. The results of the later
statistical analysis are shown in Table 2.
Figure 2: Quadrants of bivariate relationships between variables with z–score.
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122 Urban Transport XXIII
Table 1: Values of ITSN and IPTP indexes in absolute and relative terms for each district.
(Source: Jaramillo et al., 2012.)
District
number
Indexes
ITSN_A ITSN_R IPTP_A IPTP_R
1 35.8 100.00 0.00 0.00
2 38.2 26.5 51.14 25.71
3 18.03 59.81 89.18 100.00
4 24.53 54.44 58.51 51.75
5 41.18 38.72 61.47 30.27
6 92.5 82.37 56.73 16.43
7 36.6 65.91 69.31 46.14
8 39.09 40.66 56.24 28.21
9 19.99 55.79 83.52 85.5
10 38.87 32.86 100.00 47.51
11 45.81 56.57 93.79 46.92
12 30.67 62.98 32.72 24.23
13 100.00 90.12 36.36 10.31
14 93.81 95.42 55.32 17.55
15 72.57 90.36 41.72 16.26
16 43.07 59.67 53.85 28.02
17 41.23 24.18 45.69 21.43
18 48.72 69.6 25.53 13.02
19 41.88 29.14 57.25 28.12
20 35.68 86.96 16.45 12.59
21 51.93 93.16 55.55 31.63
22 0.00 0.00 13.02 82.58
Table 2: Descriptive statistics of the ITSN and IPTP indexes (*Ho is accepted, normal
distribution).
Statistical Indexes
ITSN_A ITSN_R IPTP_A IPTP_R
Average
(Typical error)
45.0073
(5.28242)
59.7827
(5.83447)
52.4250
(5.48501)
34.7355
(5.52907)
Median 40.1350 59.7400 55.4350 28.0700
Typical deviation 24.77673 27.36609 25.72697 25.93362
Asymmetry
(Typical error)
0.930
(0.491)
-0.316
(0.491)
-0.063
(0.491)
1.286
(0.491)
Kurtosis
(Typical error)
0.852
(0.953)
-0.615
(0.953)
-0.110
(0.953)
1.119
(0.953)
Shapiro-Wilk test 0.878 0.955* 0.967* 0.864
(Significance) (0.011) (0.398) (0.632) (0.006)
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When reviewing in Table 2 the measures of central tendency, such as the average, it can
be seen that of the four indicators the IPTP_R presents the lowest value based on the transport
provision and the highest value of transport need is the ITSN_R, in both cases the most
relevant indicators were those related to the area and population. Regarding the behaviour of
the median it is analogous to the mean but with higher values. When comparing these two
statistics, the proximity between them is more noticeable in the case of ITSN_R and IPTP_A,
which reflects a distribution closer to the symmetry. As far as the standard deviation is
concerned, the values for the calculated indicators are similar indicating a behaviour of the
distributions, in contrast to the average, similar. The asymmetry of the ITSN_R and IPTP_A
is located to the right of the centre of the histogram but close to it. On the other hand the
ITSN_A and IPTP_R are oriented to the left. As for the kurtosis distribution ITSN_R and
IPTP_A is flatter and for ITSN_A IPTP_R is more protuberant. The Shapiro-Wilk test
proposes, as null-Ho hypothesis, that the distribution of the data follows a normal
distribution, as it seemed in the value of the statistic, for ITSN_R and IPTP_A the
ρ-value> 0.05, therefore these two indicators do not reject the Ho, i.e. they have normal
distribution, contrary to what is appreciated with the indicators ITSN_A and IPTP_R.
Consequently, the results revealed that distribution of the indexes, the relative transport
social needs and the absolute public transport provision, presents a normal distribution, in
contrast to the other two indicators.
These indicators have also been mapped with respect to their standard deviation (Fig. 3)
and it is shown that the distribution of the values below the average is the majority in the case
of the relative index of public transport provision on the periphery of the study area where
the low-income districts are.
Fig. 3 shows low ITSN_A values in two (2) districts in the centre of the city and
one (1) district in the south zone, high values in two (2) districts in the central-east zone
and one (1) district in the north-east, in the central area the IPTP_A is above the average in
four (4) districts and there are deficient values in four (4) districts in the western part of the
city, the rest of the city is about average in both cases. The ITSN_R representation identifies
a (1) district in the centre of the west and four (4) districts in the centre-east with high values,
a north-south belt is identified with four (4) districts with values per below average. When
analyzing the distribution of the IPTP_R, two (2) districts can be seen in the centre and one
(1) district in the south with high values and in the central west zone one (1) district with low
values and the rest of the city has values close to the average. Generally the spatial
distribution of the absolute and relative index of transport social needs in the central areas is
below or at the average of the study area
The results have also revealed the extreme values shown by the atypical districts according
to indicators IPTP_A, IPTP_R and ITSN_A (Fig. 4). In the IPTP_A an extreme value was
found in the centre of the city, in the IPTP_R the high anomalous point is in the centre also
coinciding with the Central Business District or CBD. The ITSN_A has an atypical value
with low value in the southern part, which is the highest income in the city; the high atypical
values are located in the east towards the centre and the north districts where the rent are the
lowest in the city.
In addition, a correlation analysis has been made to validate the results. Table 3 shows the
values of the correlation coefficients given for the relationship between provision and social
transportation needs indicators. It is shown that the correlations of ITSN_A and ITSN_R with
IPTP_R all have a ρ-value <0.05 which allows the Ho to be rejected and to accept that the
spatial configuration does not occur in a random way, in all the mentioned cases the
correlation coefficients are negative, i.e. the regression line is in quadrants II and IV. Then
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124 Urban Transport XXIII
the alphanumeric data are linked to the associated mapping representation, which allows
different representations to be made from the partial selections in the scatter plot.
Figure 3: Standard deviation maps of the IPTP and ITSN indicators.
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(a) ITSN A
(b) ITSN R
(c) IPTP A
(d) IPTP R
(a) Atypical district for IPTP A
(b) Atypical district for IPTP R
(c) Atypical district for ITSN A
(low)
(d) Atypical districts for ITSN A
(high)
Figure 4: Location of atypical districts for IPTP and ITSN indicators.
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126 Urban Transport XXIII
Figure 5: Correlation results depicted cartographically.
According to these correlation results the atypical districts have been depicted
cartographically, which is shown in the next figures (Fig. 5; Fig. 6).
Indicating the districts with high values of ITSN_A and low IPTP_R located in quadrant
II, as Fig. 4(a) shows, there are five (5) districts located in the east area of the city and one
(1) district in the south-western zone. In contrast, the districts with low values of ITSN_A
and high values of IPTP_R of quadrant IV, in Fig. 4(b), are evident in one (1) district in the
south and one strip of six (6) centre districts to the north-east zone. On the other hand, Fig.
4(c) shows behaviours in quadrant II with high values for ITSN_R and low values for
IPTP_R located in three (3) districts in the west and one (1) district in the north-east zone
and six (6) districts in the central east zone. Lastly Fig. 4(d) in quadrant IV shows low
values of ITSN_R and high values of IPTP_R which are located in one (1) district in the
south area and five (5) districts in a strip located from the centre towards the north east.
4 DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION
This work has deepened the analytical potential of the proposed indicators [1]. Despite the
significant qualitative leap that led to the implementation of the BRT system known as MIO
in the city of Santiago de Cali, some general improvements in the public transport system
still need to be made, as can be seen in another study [7], and in this new analysis the most
problematic districts that need particular attention are clearly shown.
In addition, the results of the statistical analysis have revealed that distribution of the
indexes, the relative transport social needs and the absolute public transport provision,
presents a normal distribution, in contrast to the other two indicators.
The relationship between indicators, whose results are validated with the significant
correlation coefficients obtained, show the utility of the spatial analysis carried out which
allows the problems of the system to be shown more clearly and related improvements to be
proposed.
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(a) Association IPTP R vs. ITSN A-II
quadrant
(b) Association IPTP R vs. ITSN A-IV
quadrant
(c) Association IPTP R vs. ITSN R-II
quadrant
(d) Association IPTP R vs. ITSN R-IV
quadrant
Figure 6: Location of atypical districts for IPTP and ITSN indicators.
This constitutes a useful representation of an exploratory analysis of spatial data,
indicating the anomalous districts considered.
Particularly the less privileged districts are clearly indicated by the relationship of the
absolute index of transport social need (ITSN_A) and relative index of public transport
provision (IPTP_R) with high values of the first and low values of the second index
respectively. This fact is even more evident from the relationship of the relative index of
transport social need (ITSN_R) and relative index of public transport provision (IPTP_R)
highlighting those districts with high values of the first and low values of the second index
respectively. On the other hand, through the relationship of the absolute index of transport
social need (ITSN_A) and relative index of public transport provision (IPTP_R), the
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128 Urban Transport XXIII
wealthiest districts are indicated, with low values of the first and high values of the second
index. These are conspicuous when considering the relationship of the relative index of
transport social need (ITSN_R) and relative index of public transport provision (IPTP_R).
Finally, it can be concluded, as is usually the case, that the opportunities for access to the
public transport system are relatively less concentrated in disadvantaged districts with low
socio-economic levels of peripheral areas.
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The role of the public transport system as promoter of social inclusion is gaining increasing attention in the fields of transport policy and planning. This is especially relevant in areas traditionally characterized by high levels of poverty and structural inequalities where it can be a decisive element in the reduction of social exclusion. This paper evaluates the topic through an innovative methodology based on index comparison. Firstly, a traditional accessibility index is used which considers the access time to public transport stops, and secondly an Index of Transport Social Disadvantage is proposed. It includes the transport disadvantage factors of the populations, such as disability, old age, low income, unemployment and pre-school children. These transport disadvantage characteristics have been divided into two groups: the first includes the disadvantage characteristics distributed equally. In the second group, the disadvantaged groups in transport with an unequal territorial distribution are taken into account. The Gini index is used to ascertain the differences in these groups. This method facilitates the identification of the unequal distribution of transport disadvantage and therefore, social exclusion. The consideration of the two indexes, access time and transport social disadvantages, will find the areas not only with low accessibility levels, but also with high levels of population with transport disadvantages, thereby assessing social exclusion linked with public transport. This methodology is applied to the public operated transport system of the Guadalajara Metropolitan Area, Mexico. Its development reveals which areas are affected by the under provision of public transport as well as the population characterized by transport social disadvantage, which together give a clear indicator of the situation of social exclusion linked to the public transport system
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Different forms of urban mobility have very different impacts on the urban environment and on the quality of the public spaces around them, from the “soft” pedestrian walkways and cycle paths, through the several modes of public transport to the extremely impactful mass use of private vehicles. This paper first analyses the different urban impacts of these forms of mobility, according to their characteristics, with regard to an extensive transport literature review, and they are put into relationship with the factors promoting urban quality and liveability in line with literature on urban design in terms of activity, image and form, among others. The results of this study are contrasted with the experience demonstrated in the case of Granada’s metropolitan area, with its fairly adequate bus-based public transport system and the common mobility problems resulting from a high level of private vehicular use, i.e. congestion coupled with severe environmental pollution. However, a new light rail system (LRT) has been developed, with a major urban renewal along its track, and has proved to be very successful, in terms of the number of passengers, after its two years of operation. The LRT has the particularity of having an underground section, with three underground stations, and longer surface stretches with different cross sections, whereby the improvement in quality of public spaces along them can be evaluated. The high quality public spaces are those with no vehicular access whatsoever, providing a completely pedestrianized area, such as in the traditional urban road crossing axes in the towns, which have been completely freed from vehicles and now seem filled with people, for example Royal Street in Armilla, “Jacobo Camarero” Street in Albolote and “Blas de Otero” Avenue in Maracena, and the section along the university central campus which has no catenary.
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Poster presentado en el Primer Congreso de Investigación Científica de la Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Honduras centrado en el que se presentan médodos de análisis espacial basados en sistema raster extraídos del libro Análisis Socioespacial con Sistemas de Información Geográfica..
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The purpose of this paper is to model the travel behaviour of socially disadvantaged population segments in the United Kingdom (UK) using the data from the UK National Travel Survey 2002–2010. This was achieved by introducing additional socioeconomic variables into a standard national-level trip end model (TEM) and using purpose-based analysis of the travel behaviours of certain key socially disadvantaged groups. Specifically the paper aims to explore how far the economic and social disadvantages of these individuals can be used to explain the inequalities in their travel behaviours. The models demonstrated important differences in travel behaviours according to household income, presence of children in the household, possession of a driver’s licence and belonging to a vulnerable population group, such as being disabled, non-white or having single parent household status. In the case of household income, there was a non-linear relationship with trip frequency and a linear one with distance travelled. The recent economic austerity measures that have been introduced in the UK and many other European countries have led to major cutbacks in public subsidies for socially necessary transport services, making results such as these increasingly important for transport policy decision-making. The results indicate that the inclusion of additional socioeconomic variables is useful for identifying significant differences in the trip patterns and distances travelled by low-income.
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El sistema urbano colombiano pasó de una estructura policéntrica, en el siglo XIX, a una red organizada alrededor de cuatro ciudades, dinamizada por el desarrollo industrial, en la primera mitad del siglo XX. A partir de la década del cincuenta, el aceleramiento de la industrialización bajo un modelo keynesiano y la reestructuración de las economías regionales con la diversificación de exportaciones y la minería, condujeron a una creciente primacía de Bogotá. La entronización del país en un proceso de globalización en la década del noventa y la consecuente crisis industrial y agraria remodelaron las economías regionales, provocando el marasmo de algunas regiones como el Eje Cafetero y el valle alto del Magdalena y la revitalización de ciudades como Bucaramanga y Cartagena. Este escrito examina este último período, con la pretensión de ofrecer una panorámica de la estructura actual de la red de ciudades, modelada ahora por procesos de globalización económica y liberalización política.
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The development of Computer Science has greatly influenced the Cartography, allowing the introduction of new paradigms of cartographic communication, in which computing tools have been added to the communication process of geographical information. The Geographical Visualization (GVIS) is one of these new paradigms. The GVIS includes the possibility of using multimedia and multisensorial tools, leading to expand the role of maps as tools for the understanding of spatial phenomena. This paper shows a discussion of these topics and an example of the possibilities of GVIS in relation with the analysis of urban waste generation in Alcala de Henares. El desarrollo de la informática (que incluye nuevos soportes, nuevos medios, etc.) ha influido de manera importante en la Cartografía, ayudando a la aparición de nuevos paradigmas de la comunicación cartográfica, en los cuales las mencionadas herramientas informáticas se incorporan al proceso de presentación de la información geográfica. La Visualización Geográfica (GVIS) es uno de estos nuevos paradigmas. En ella, el uso de las nuevas capacidades multimedia y multisensorial conduce a ampliar el papel de los mapas como herramientas para la comprensión de los fenómenos espaciales. En este artículo se realiza un balance de las publicaciones que discuten estas cuestiones y se presenta un pequeño ejemplo de algunas de las posibilidades de la Visualización Geográfica, con relación al análisis de la producción de residuos sólidos urbanos en la ciudad de Alcalá de Henares.
Technical Report
This evaluation expands a previous evaluation of the Office of Evaluation and Oversight of the BRT project results with respect to their objectives of improving mobility and access for the poor. It assesses the effects of Cali's and Lima's BRT systems on mobility and accessibility of the poor, with a specific focus on the integration of feeder lines in the poor areas of the cities, taking into account pre-existing public transit operations. In addition, OVE identifies determinants of and barriers to BRT use among the poor in Lima and Cali. In particular, the analysis assesses the systems' coverage, affordability, and accessibility and the relative roles of access times, in-vehicle time, and monetary costs in explaining mobility preferences, in order to improve the design and operation of future BRT systems with pro-poor objectives. -http://dx.doi.org/10.18235/0000328