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The making of Sophia is described and commented, a new humanoid robot that stands out for having been built with the latest advances in Artificial Intelligence (AI) that allow it, for example, to learn and gain experience from its interaction with human beings. Also, its appearance and wide repertoire of facial gestures that it has, significantly brings it closer to the human pattern. Its presence has gained notoriety for her presentations in at least a couple of United Nations events and also for having received Saudi citizenship, being the first robot in the world to hold that status. Sophia's particular technological qualities have begun to generate repercussions of various kinds, not only in the academic-scientific world, but also ethically, artistically, religiously, morally, politically and economically. From the above, it can be affirmed that Sophia has marked the beginning of a new era, not only robotic but also technological in general, which now allows to see with greater certainty the real emergence of a successor of the human species.
Jesús Retto
Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos
Lima, November 2017
The making of Sophia is described and commented, a new humanoid
robot that stands out for having been built with the latest advances in
Artificial Intelligence (AI) that allow it, for example, to learn and gain
experience from its interaction with human beings. Also, its appearance
and wide repertoire of facial gestures that it has, significantly brings it
closer to the human pattern. Its presence has gained notoriety for her
presentations in at least a couple of United Nations events and also for
having received Saudi citizenship, being the first robot in the world to hold
that status. Sophia's particular technological qualities have begun to
generate repercussions of various kinds, not only in the academic-
scientific world, but also ethically, artistically, religiously, morally,
politically and economically. From the above, it can be affirmed that
Sophia has marked the beginning of a new era, not only robotic but also
technological in general, which now allows to see with greater certainty
the real emergence of a successor of the human species.
Keywords: Humanoid robots, Artificial Intelligence, Technology, Society.
The great advances that are currently being achieved in the field of Artificial
Intelligence (AI), are really surprising. The fact that a machine manages to learn from
experience, accumulates knowledge, and finally makes intelligent decisions according
to the circumstances, already speaks of a rudimentary consciousness, or at least of
an incipient ability to make judgments and act accordingly. This, which may sound
scandalous to some academics, is already analysed by researchers who propose a
new Epistemology, equipped with a broader Theory of Knowledge, by which the
conscience is not conceived as privative of the human being, but -and with greater
reason still- as an essential part of our successors: the humanoid robots.
Sophia is a humanoid robot. And although it does not exhibit at the moment the
most spectacular qualities that are expected of the AI; with her linguistic performance,
her communicative skills, and her emotive externalizations, she has already achieved
in her short time of life, being accredited as the First World Citizen Robot (by Saudi
Arabia). It is a robot that is in continuous improvement, which learns by the
socialization to which it is subjected in each interview it has, and that has just marked
the end of a technological era and the beginning of another, leaving behind the classic
robots that we have all known: metallic machines with noisy gears, clumsy
movements, and border intelligence. Today we are witnessing a new robotic
generation, with fine anthropomorphic features, fluid linguistic communication, and
even the ability to joke with the interviewer, thanks to an intelligence never before
perceived in anyone other than a human being.
Sophia is a robot with the image of a middle-aged woman, who is actually only two
and a half years old. It is a humanoid machine developed in Hong Kong by the
American company Hanson Robotics, and activated from April 19, 2015. Sophia's
main technological quality is her ability to learn human behaviours through her
interaction with people. For this, it has been endowed with the most recent advances
in the field of AI, such as the mastery of a complex series of predictive algorithms
based on computational statistics; a fluid synthetic vocalization, a rapid processing of
the information that she receives, and a broad ability to recognize faces and voices.
The British actress Audrey Hepburn has served as a model to design the face of
Sophia, who still lacks lower extremities, which are in the process of being built. It is
also remarkable her ability to talk about specific issues and to show at the same time
many facial expressions and human gestures. Because of her amazing human
qualities, the Saudi government has granted Sophia the citizenship of her country
during the Summit on Investment in the Future held in Riyadh on October 25 of this
year (2017). It is undoubtedly an unprecedented event in the history of humanity.
At the head of the team of creators of Sophia, is David Hanson, an American
mechatronic engineer, PhD in Aesthetic Studies, Interactive Art and Engineering, by
the University of Texas (2007). Hanson became known worldwide for a first humanoid
robot (2005) whose face resembled that of the famous scientist Albert Einstein. In that
same year, Hanson and his team received an award from the American Association
for the Advancement of Science in merit to the construction of an intelligent
conversational portrait of Philip Dick", a renowned post-modernist science fiction
writer. (Wikipedia, 2017).
Nils Nilsson in his work The Quest for Artificial Intelligence, mentions that since
the times of Homer it was spoken -for example in The Iliad- about "self-powered chairs
called tripods, and golden assistants built by Hephaistos, the god lame blacksmith,
who helped him to walk" (Nilsson, 2010, p.3). Similarly, following the ancient tales of
the Roman poet Publius Ovidius summarized in his Metamorphoses; the famous
sculptor Pygmalion elaborated the image of a beautiful maiden whom he called
Galatea, who finally came to life by the goddess Venus. The poet relates that she "was
able to feel the kisses that her sculptor gave her, and she blushed, raising her shy
eyes towards the light, looking at her lover and the sky" (Nilsson, Op. Cit.).
Advancing rapidly in time, only 61 years ago, a historic meeting of scientists -
mainly mathematicians and logicians took place in New Hampshire (United States) in
order to see to what extent it was really possible to make all those huge and slow
computers of that time, be able to perform intelligent actions, imitating human
behaviour. For this, more than concentrating on the machine and its electronic
components, they pinned their hopes on the programs (ordered information or
software) that made them work. It had already been tried before by researchers such
as Allan Turing, Norbert Wiener, John von Neumann, and Warren Mc Culloch. But
they did not have a computer. The new entrepreneurs already had this device, and
hence their well-founded optimism. Celebrities present at that meeting were among
others, John Mac Carthy, Marvin Minsky, Herbert Simon, and Allen Newell. (Gardner,
1985. The New Science of the Mind).
Gardner mentions that during that time there was also another meeting of
researchers at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, who in their own way also
contributed to the birth of Artificial Intelligence. There they were, for example, Noam
Chomsky (specialist in Linguistics), and George Miller (specialist in Psychology). All
together gave rise to a new cognitive science, which reinforced with publications such
as those made by Jean Piaget, Bruner, Lévy-Strauss, Minsky, and Chomsky, end up
contributing to the birth of Artificial Intelligence, understood as "that branch of
computing that is dedicated to programming computers so that they perform tasks
that, if they were done by a human being, would be classified as intelligent tasks"
(Minsky, Semantic Information Processing). Subsequently, Newell, Shaw, and Simon
demonstrate that AI is perfectly feasible to be achieved and perfected for three
1) Computers are already capable of performing small actions that are widely
recognized as intelligent by human beings themselves.
2) The programs (software) made for computers follow exactly the same steps that a
human being does when he reasons.
3) A computer has short and long term memory (ROM and RAM), has an operating
system, a control centre, and various elements of both reception and emission
(peripheral in - out) as well as a human brain.
Howard Gardner (1985) in chapter IV of his book The New Science of the Mind (Op.
Cit.) concludes that everything achieved and demonstrated by the AI up to that date,
had ended by unleashing deep and unexpected philosophical questions that should
not be overlooked. However, to do so, he proposed to stick "only to what in the moment
exists and works efficiently in the field of AI, and not so much to its possibilities". He
also mentions that researchers like Marshall and Longuet-Higgings had identified very
close links between Experimental Psychology and AI. And that both fields of
knowledge could be united to form a new cognitive science, but always accompanied
by Philosophy as a source of permanent questioning; and Linguistics, as a vital factor
of human cognition.
From Gardner's prudent comments - made in the last century - to the present, even
unexpected achievements have been made by the scientists themselves in the field
of AI. The emergence of the Internet was a huge advance. Likewise, the discoveries
made by Quantum Physics, the miniaturization of multiple functions housed in a single
device (smartphone), and the enormous steps taken by Nanotechnology, have ended
up producing an AI that for many more resembles acts of magic. Nowadays, the
prototype of all these achievements, is without a doubt, Sophia.
Sophia is a robot with an attractive female face, built so far only to its waist. Her
eyes are cameras with the ability to recognize faces she has seen before (which allows
her say hello to anyone by name). Her skin is made of a special variety of silicone
(Frubbet), which is flexible enough to perform 62 facial expressions (anger, joy,
sadness, amazement, annoyance, fear, etc.). She has an electronic synthetic voice
system that allows her to speak and gesticulate as she makes her speech. However,
the most "human" aspect of this robot is its ability to learn from the experience it gains
whenever it has the chance to interact with people. Thus, Sophia becomes
increasingly familiar with the culture, customs, feelings, emotions, and linguistic styles
of her interlocutors. And all this experience is accumulating in her memory. When
asked to give a precise answer on a topic, she googles (looks for it in Wikipedia, etc.)
just like today's kids do in their homes or in their classrooms. However, Sophia is still
slow to respond, and she makes many mistakes, because despite her appearance as
an adult woman, she still has a short learning time.
One of the goals of its creators, with David Hanson at the head, is that Sophia
manages not only to maintain an intelligent conversation with human beings on any
topic, and on her own initiative, but that her dialogues are always accompanied by the
emotional charge that characterizes the normal conversation between two people. (El
Comercio, digital version, October 27, 2017). At the moment, Sophia's main activity is
to hold "live" interviews with various journalists from well-known global news networks.
At the end of the interviews, almost all these experienced journalists have declared to
have lived a unique emotional experience in what concerns the exercise of their
- In the media, especially written, it comes back to touch the issue of robotic ethics.
That is, the moral aspect that involves designing and building robots endowed with
human intelligence and its negative or positive consequences in society.
- It also enters into discussion the theme of the rights of robots. For example, the
obligations and responsibilities that society should have for these superintelligent
machines, such as allowing their right to exist and perform their functions with relative
- It is debated in social networks whether or not it is convenient to give robots
citizenship, as it has just done with Sophia Saudi Arabia, in an unprecedented event.
- Many people now wonder if robots could occupy any position occupied by a human
being. Joseph Weizembaum, a famous computer scientist, warned in 1975 that robots
should never occupy the position of a judge, a policeman or a soldier.
- The old sentence that a robot could never have feelings, now begins to be
questioned. Many people who have seen or interacted with Sophia, declare to have
perceived "the feeling of loneliness" that she transmits.
- The world of art is also beginning to be touched by this humanoid: Films and novels
are planned. Many illustrations with Sophia as a motive appear on the net.
- Investigations such as those carried out by Robinson and others (2013) are now
more valid, when they conclude that the company of an intelligent robot significantly
dissipates the feeling of loneliness of the elderly, even more than the company of a
pet. (Robinson, H.; Mac Donald, B.; Kerse, N.; and Broadbent, E., 2013).
- In the field of Economics the first repercussions also arise. In the World Economic
Forum, it is commented that highly complex robots are a great help for the productive
sector, but at the same time a threat for low-skilled or poorly prepared employees. It
is also asserted that the impact of current robotics can already be compared with the
impact that the first steam engines had in their time. (World Economic Forum, 2016).
- Sophia has definitely dispelled the mind of humanity the usual idea of imagining a
robot always as a metal machine, wearing gears, pulleys, engines, and emitting
strange noises. That stereotype now belongs to the past.
- In the world of women's fashion, Sophia begins to mint her image with her recent
appearance on the cover of the famous magazine ELLE, who has launched the
"futuristic fashion". (Elle, Magazine, Brazil 2017).
- Recent presentations of Sophia at the headquarters of the United Nations, first at the
UN General Assembly Second Committee and the Economic (Social Council joint
meeting), and afterwards, in the United Nation’s Sustainable Development Goals in
Asia and the Pacific focused on Innovation (Singapur, November 2017) are also facts
that are generating more than simple curiosity in the world.
1) The citizenship granted to the humanoid robot Sophia by the government of Saudi
Arabia in October of this year (2017), is an unprecedented event in the history of
2) Sophia's debut is gaining worldwide repercussion because it is a robot with some
remarkable human psychological features such as learning by socialization, and
expressing emotions according to the topic of her conversation.
3) These new advances in Artificial Intelligence are causing commotion in almost all
the branches of knowledge. But also in ethics, religion, morals, and politics.
4) Sophia is good evidence that the human brain is not only feasible to be mapped
and imitated by machines, but even to be overcome. It's just a matter of time.
5) Sophia marks the beginning of a new era in humanity.
6) Just as unicellular beings ended up giving rise to homo sapiens, homo sapiens
with his wonderful brain is creating his successor: the superintelligent and
immortal robot.
7) It is necessary to start talking about robotic rights as a real and close issue, and
no longer as an esoteric or fictional issue.
8) Conceiving a robot as a rough and noisy metal machine with clumsy movements,
and border intelligence, already belongs to the past. Today is the time of Sophia
and the new improved versions that will come.
Bandholz, H. (2016) These could be the economic and social impacts of robots.
World Economic Forum. Retrieved of
Equipo de Redacción EC. (October 27, 2017). Sophia: así funciona la primera robot
ciudadana del mundo. Diario El Comercio, digital version. Retrieved of
Gardner, H. (1985) The new science of the mind. History of the cognitive revolution.
Paidós: Barcelona.
Hanson Robotics (2017) Sophia, Official Website. Retrieved of
Minsky, M. (1968) Semantic Information Processing. Retrieved of
Nilsson, N. (2010) The Quest for Artificial Intelligence: A History of Ideas and
Achievements. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Peterson B. (2017) I met Sophia, the world's first robot citizen, and the way she said
goodbye nearly broke my heart. Enterprise. Digital version. Retrieved of
Robinson, H.; Mac Donald, B.; Kerse, N.; y Broadbent, E. (2013) The Psychosocial
Effects of a Companion Robot: A Randomized Controlled Trial. ELSEVIER
JAMDA p. 1 7. Retrieved of
Sharma, K. (2017) We’re All Getting Played by Sophia the Robot. Fortune. Digital
version. Retrieved of
Wikipedia (2017) Sophia (robot) Retrieved of
Wootson, C. (2017) Saudi Arabia, which denies women equal rights, makes a robot
a citizen. The Washington Post. Digital version. Retrieved of
The image of Sophia belongs to Hanson Robotics Ltd.
... Depression detection [6]- [7], medical science [13], call centres, dialogue systems such as Alexa , Cortana, Siri, Google Voice [10]- [11], and human-robot social interaction [3]- [4]. Sophia [27]- [28], a humanoid robot that can perform speech recognition, speech synthesis, face tracking, emotion recognition, and can mimics facial expressions is a great example of machine's emotional intelligence. This paper is arranged in the following sequence. ...
Emotion recognition is a rapidly growing research field. Emotions can be effectively expressed through speech and can provide insight about speaker’s intentions. Although, humans can easily interpret emotions through speech, physical gestures, and eye movement but to train a machine to do the same with similar preciseness is quite a challenging task. SER systems can improve human-machine interaction when used with automatic speech recognition, as emotions have the tendency to change the semantics of a sentence. Many researchers have contributed their extremely impressive work in this research area, leading to development of numerous classification, feature selection, feature extraction and emotional speech databases. This paper reviews recent accomplishments in the area of speech emotion recognition. It also present a detailed review of various types of emotional speech databases, and different classification techniques which can be used individually or in combination and a brief description of various speech features for emotion recognition.
... Automating advice, education, or therapy is not a new goal. There is a long history of attempts to create autonomous systems, starting with "Eliza" (Weizenbaum, 1966), and more recent attempts such as "A.L.I.C.E" (Wallace, 2009) and Sophia who were created by Hanson Robotics in 2016 (Retto, 2017). Automation is defined as "applications of robotics, artificial intelligence, machine learning, machine vision, and similar emerging and mature digital technologies that will allow human work to be substituted by computer capital" (Willis et al., 2019, p. 2). ...
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Introduction: Avatars are becoming more common in virtual reality, used as a guide, teacher, companion, or mentor through immersive experiences. Special attention needs to be paid to their design to ensure credibility and working alliance, to allow for the optimal delivery of behavior change content. Methods: We present a new embodied Semi-Autonomous Mentoring Intelligence (SAMI) avatar used in an immersive virtual reality intervention for the self-management of chronic pain. We discuss the research findings that were taken into consideration and guided the design and development of SAMI, such methods to promote working alliance with non-human agents, optimal characteristics of non-human agents, and features of effective “automation”. Conclusion: We provide a table of considerations and recommendations for researchers involved in designing future virtual reality characters. We provide suggestions on how future research could advance SAMI further for use in pain management and related interventions.
... Retto [84] studied Land Use/Land Cover Classification Accuracy Assessment. The Non-Parametric Rule were utilized to perform supervised grouping in this study. ...
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Emerging technologies include remote sensing, global positioning systems (GPS), geographic information systems (GIS), and the Internet of Things. The Internet of Things (IoT), Big Data analysis, and artificial intelligence (AI) are all the promising tools that are being used to solve complications, improve agricultural operations, and reduce expenses. Satellite remote sensing has been indispensable in understanding Earth and atmospheric dynamics over the last five decades. When compared to ground or aerial sensor acquisitions, satellite sensors have the ability to provide data at global sizes at a lower cost. With the support of satellite remote sensing, the scientific community has attained significant progress in recent years. In consideration of these efforts, the current study is intended to provide a comprehensive review of the function of remote sensing in assessing different water security challenges and other purposes. Crop production forecasting, drought assessment, cropping system analysis, horticultural assessment and development, crop development, thorough site analysis, satellite agro-meteorology, precision farming, crop insurance, and other operational big agricultural applications are examples. This research examines various uses as well as potential gaps in the market. Review Article Katkani et al.; IJECC, 12(4): 1-18, 2022; Article no.IJECC.81195 2
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The development of robotics is undeniable in recent years. Many developing contries face the growth of the elderly population, it is the premise and impetus for the development of research on humanoid robots to serve humans. Many studies on various aspects of robotics are carried out in different parts of the world. Many novel methods were introduced for the design of the robot’s external appearance, internal mechanisms, and gestures. Recent research on humanoid robots is designed to appear to be copies of the anthropometric indicators of real people, which may affect the security of other people’s identities. Besides, these robots cause a feeling of horror in the user if their appearance is in the position of the uncanny valley. Therefore, these designs need to be carefully considered before fabrication. Artificial skin is studied for various purposes such as ensuring collision safety for industrial users and helping robots to perceive basic tactile sensations. This review consists of the recent literature on the interaction of appearance and behavior of robot interaction, artificial skin, and especially humanoid robots, including appearance, such as android and Geminoid robots. This work can provide a reference for humanoid robot research, including uncanny valley hypotheses, artificial skin, and humanoid robots.
This chapter evaluates liposomes used as delivery carriers for herbal products, which, due to poor permeability and solubility of extract components, has become a major issue in phytotherapy for treating illnesses and human health problems. Liposomes are vesicular formations with phospholipid bilayers that possess the capability to entrap both water-soluble and hydrophobic substances. However, there are several factors that should be considered with regard to herbal drugs, especially that the preparation technique should be appropriate to the solvent solubility of the plant extracts. In this regard, the ratio of phospholipids to extracts, pH stability, other liposomal components, and the ligand required to render liposome stability, circulation in the bloodstream for protracted periods, and targeted at specific organs should be investigated. The enhancement of phytochemical constituent stability within a context of environmental, physical, and chemical degradation, together with sustained or controlled drug release, can be achieved by incorporating extracts into liposomes. Moreover, the improved oral absorption of plant extracts by encapsulating them into liposomes indicates increased permeability and bioavailability via gastrointestinal tracts, thus enhancing pharmacological effects at low dose concentration as well as decreasing toxicity. However, thousands of constituents contained in plant extracts demonstrate various physicochemical characteristics that constitute significant challenges for liposomal delivery. Consequently, a comprehensive analysis of formulating and manufacturing aspects is required.
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Artificial intelligence has gained momentum in the recent past due to technological advancements. As a result, it has elicited an endless debate particularly in light of intellectual property laws. Artificial Intelligence is currently considered as an emerging issue. This make it as a challenging issue for the existing legal frameworks which are unable to govern and regulate it in a proper and effective way. KSA has put more effort and resources in streamlining the legal aspects to govern AI and related innovations. The current research aims to explore some of the potential difficulties encountered in patentability of AI inventions. It also aims to determine the legal challenges the researcher expect to emerge with the development of AI technology. The findings of this study indicate that KSA still finds a huge gap in terms of laws that governs AI generated innovations. This study is significant in the sense that it has pointed out some of the challenges experienced in enacting effective intellectual property laws to govern AI innovations.
The development of bioactive components as a delivery system with the use of advanced nanoscience is opening new therapeutic avenues for the management of various diseases. Among recent novel applications, plant phytopharmaceuticals and nutraceuticals are the fastest growing areas of nanotechnology-based research for effective public healthcare. Bioactive compounds, either encapsulated or in entrapped form within novel drug delivery systems are reported as a booster treatment for the various chronic infections and life-threatening diseases, including cancer, cardiovascular disorders, hypertension, diabetes, asthma, malaria, microbial infections, immune disorders, and gastrointestinal disorders. Recently, considerable progress surged in understanding the factors associated with these diseases. A variety of nanoscience-based formulations such as polymeric matrix nanoparticles, aerosol inhalers/nebulizers nanoemulsion, and vesicular carrier systems including liposome, phytosome, transfersome, herbosome, ethosome, niosome, have proven valuable in the delivery of bioactive materials. Moreover, the scientific community had reported that the herbs and herbal bioactive compounds have notable recompense compared to the conventional method of delivering phytopharmaceuticals and plant extracts, with enhanced solubility, bioavailability, stability, tissue distribution, abridged toxicity, improved pharmacological efficacy, and protection from physicochemical degradation. The current chapter focuses on the carrier-based delivery of bioactive as a booster with advanced using nanoscience, such as nanoemulsion and vesicular drug delivery systems. In addition, the chapter also elaborates patented technologies along with potential bioactive products available in the market.
Human–robot interaction (HRI) is the study focused on the relationship between humans and robots. HRI as a study combines elements from different fields such as computer science, artificial intelligence (AI), robotics, psychology and sociology. With the advancement in the field of AI, HRI showed greater improvements and now, we have the first robot recognized as a citizen of a country: Sophia the robot. Sophia is a robot that has a humanoid form, first made her appearance in 2016 and, according to her creators, is a mix of technology, arts and robotics. Since then, Sophia has made a lot of appearances in different TV shows, given interviews and participated in commercials. Sophia also has her own social media accounts. Our study focuses on Sophia’s presence on social media and the ways she communicates with people and the rhetorics she makes use of. Hence, it studies the advances on HRI and the issues encountered in the field of communication. For our research, we used purposive sampling and content analysis in cases needed in order to study Sophia’s communication patterns and behaviour. At this point, we will delve into the communication with the AI aspect of HRI.
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On the 25th of October 2017, Sophia, the humanoid robot created by Hanson Robotics, was declared an official Saudi citizen during the Summit on Future Investment Initiative in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Since Saudi Arabia is known for still holding onto strong religious as well as conservative values and for still classifying Saudi women as second-class citizens, it seems quite peculiar that the Kingdom would grant the official citizenship status to a female-looking non-human being. In other words, this specific decision has come to highlight the deeply rooted gender disparities in the Kingdom even more, especially as Saudi women face a constant battle for their recognition as official Saudi citizens and for the concession of their basic human rights. Although, on the one hand, Saudi Arabia has been trying to picture themselves as trying to make steps forward in what the Western world would consider the right direction regarding the evolution of Saudi women’s rights through, for instance, the publication of more progressive reform programs such as Vision 2030, the Kingdom is, on the other hand, simultaneously repressing Saudi women’s active resistance against the patriarchal Saudi traditions. So, while Sophia the robot was granted the official citizenship status effortlessly and very rapidly, Saudi women are actively protesting for their rights. This article is based on an explorative approach of the existent literature as it intends to study the Saudi government’s unique decision of granting Sophia the Saudi citizenship; and to prospect Saudi women activists’ current struggles against the government and the muttawas, the Islamic religious police, in their fight for equal rights compared to Sophia’s situation. Thus, the present article will briefly mention the reasons why Sophia was granted this status and demonstrate how the treatment of Saudi women activists does not comply with the progressive image Saudi Arabia is trying to portray.
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Objectives: To investigate the psychosocial effects of the companion robot, Paro, in a rest home/hospital setting in comparison to a control group. Design: Randomized controlled trial. Residents were randomized to the robot intervention group or a control group that attended normal activities instead of Paro sessions. Sessions took place twice a week for an hour over 12 weeks. Over the trial period, observations were conducted of residents' social behavior when interacting as a group with the robot. As a comparison, observations were also conducted of all the residents during general activities when the resident dog was or was not present. Setting: A residential care facility in Auckland, New Zealand. Participants: Forty residents in hospital and rest home care. Measurements: Residents completed a baseline measure assessing cognitive status, loneliness, depression, and quality of life. At follow-up, residents completed a questionnaire assessing loneliness, depression, and quality of life. During observations, behavior was noted and collated for instances of talking and stroking the dog/robot. Results: In comparison with the control group, residents who interacted with the robot had significant decreases in loneliness over the period of the trial. Both the resident dog and the seal robot made an impact on the social environment in comparison to when neither was present. Residents talked to and touched the robot significantly more than the resident dog. A greater number of residents were involved in discussion about the robot in comparison with the resident dog and conversation about the robot occurred more. Conclusion: Paro is a positive addition to this environment and has benefits for older people in nursing home care. Paro may be able to address some of the unmet needs of older people that a resident animal may not, particularly relating to loneliness.
Artificial intelligence (AI) is a field within computer science that is attempting to build enhanced intelligence into computer systems. This book traces the history of the subject, from the early dreams of eighteenth-century (and earlier) pioneers to the more successful work of today’s AI engineers. AI is becoming more and more a part of everyone’s life. The technology is already embedded in face-recognizing cameras, speech-recognition software, Internet search engines, and health-care robots, among other applications. The book’s many diagrams and easy-to-understand descriptions of AI programs will help the casual reader gain an understanding of how these and other AI systems actually work. Its thorough (but unobtrusive) end-of-chapter notes containing citations to important source materials will be of great use to AI scholars and researchers. This book promises to be the definitive history of a field that has captivated the imaginations of scientists, philosophers, and writers for centuries.
A group of experiments directed toward making intelligent machines is described. The various chapters present computer programs that demonstrate some aspect of intelligent behavior. Each program solves different kinds of problems. These include resolving ambiguities in word meanings, finding analogies between things, making logical and nonlogical inferences, resolving inconsistencies in information, engaging in coherent discourse with a person, and building internal models for representing newly acquired information.
An interdisciplinary effort of cognitive science through conceptual tools to solve the problem of the nature of knowledge and how it is represented in the mind
Sophia: así funciona la primera robot ciudadana del mundo. Diario El Comercio, digital version
  • E C Equipo De Redacción
Equipo de Redacción EC. (October 27, 2017). Sophia: así funciona la primera robot ciudadana del mundo. Diario El Comercio, digital version. Retrieved of
2017) I met Sophia, the world's first robot citizen, and the way she said goodbye nearly broke my heart. Enterprise. Digital version
  • B Peterson
Peterson B. (2017) I met Sophia, the world's first robot citizen, and the way she said goodbye nearly broke my heart. Enterprise. Digital version. Retrieved of
We're All Getting Played by Sophia the Robot. Fortune. Digital version
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Sharma, K. (2017) We're All Getting Played by Sophia the Robot. Fortune. Digital version. Retrieved of
Sophia (robot) Retrieved of https
Wikipedia (2017) Sophia (robot) Retrieved of
Saudi Arabia, which denies women equal rights, makes a robot a citizen. The Washington Post. Digital version
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Wootson, C. (2017) Saudi Arabia, which denies women equal rights, makes a robot a citizen. The Washington Post. Digital version. Retrieved of