Article

Crosstalk Between Co-Cultured 3T3-L1 and C2C12 Cells After the Exposure of Nano-Titanium Dioxide

Authors:
  • Hallym University Dongtan Sacred Heart Hospital
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Abstract

Nanotechnology is a promptly growing field in this century, and it have been extensively used in several solicitations. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation is one of the important mechanism of action of nanoparticles. The excess ROS generation can induce oxidative stress, so the cells are unable to sustain the normal biological redox-regulated tasks. The high oxidative stress and ROS formation condition, damage the biological macromolecules, cell signaling pathways and finally leads to cell death or cancer initiation. The objective of the present study is to reveal the effects of TiO2 nanoparticle on co-culture system. The cell viability, oxidative stress and apoptosis were evaluated in monolayer and co-culture 3T3-L1 cells after the exposure of TiO2. Our results indicated that TiO2 significantly induces the reactive oxygen species (ROS), lipid peroxidation and decrease in the level of glutathione. Additionally, real-time PCR data analysis shown an increased in the expression of p53, Bax, caspase-9, caspase-3 and decreased the level of Bcl-2, by this means specifying that apoptosis induced by TiO2 NPs occurs via the caspase-dependent pathway. This study analytically shows that oxidative stress is the fundamental mechanism by which TiO2 causes apoptosis in a co-culture system even at very low concentrations. In the future, the use of such nanoparticles should be cautiously scrutinized.

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... Likewise, TiO 2 NP cytotoxicity was described as dose and time-dependent by (Jin et al. 2008) that observed a decrease (37%) in L929 fibroblast's cell viability after exposure to TiO 2 NP (3 À 600 mg/ml) for 48 h. Also, it was indicated that 50 and 100 mg/ml TiO 2 NP in 3T3 fibroblasts reduced cell viability in a dose and time-dependent manner (Tripathi et al. 2018). Our results related to TiO 2 NP cytotoxicity (MTT assay) do not corroborate with those previous findings as we aimed to evaluate nanoparticle effects at short-term exposure (24 h) being TiO 2 NP not cytotoxic to fibroblasts in any dose at this period. ...
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... Likewise, TiO 2 NP cytotoxicity was described as dose and time-dependent by (Jin et al. 2008) that observed a decrease (37%) in L929 fibroblast's cell viability after exposure to TiO 2 NP (3 À 600 mg/ml) for 48 h. Also, it was indicated that 50 and 100 mg/ml TiO 2 NP in 3T3 fibroblasts reduced cell viability in a dose and time-dependent manner (Tripathi et al. 2018). Our results related to TiO 2 NP cytotoxicity (MTT assay) do not corroborate with those previous findings as we aimed to evaluate nanoparticle effects at short-term exposure (24 h) being TiO 2 NP not cytotoxic to fibroblasts in any dose at this period. ...
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The extensive use of titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs) in cosmetics, food, personal care products, and industries brought concerns about their possible harmful effects. Nowadays it has become important to assess TiO2 NPs toxic effects as a way to understand their primary risks. In the cellular environment, after cell uptake, TiO2 NPs were described to induce reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, unbalance oxidative state, and activate apoptosis in several cell lines. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of a new TiO2 NP surface-functionalized with sodium carboxylic ligands in a murine fibroblast cell line (LA-9). TEM and DLS analysis were performed to define nanoparticle physicochemical characteristics. We evaluated the metabolic activity and LDH released after 24 h exposition to determine cytotoxic effects. Also, we evaluated DNA damage, intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, and apoptosis induction after 24 h exposure. The TiO2 NP impaired the cell membrane integrity at 1000 μg/mL, induced intracellular ROS production and late apoptosis at 24 h. The genotoxic effects were observed at all conditions tested at 24 h. Indeed, in fibroblasts exposed at 100 μg/mL was observed early apoptosis cells. The intracellular ROS content was increased in a dose-dependent manner. Thus, short-term exposure to TiO2 NP promoted cytotoxicity, genotoxicity and activated apoptosis pathways based on potential role of oxygen species in fibroblasts cell line.
... Nano-TiO 2 can induce the production of ROS, oxidative stress and oxidative damage ( Barmo et al., 2013 ;Della Torre et al., 2015 ). Nano-TiO 2 can penetrate the cell membrane and cause damage to mitochondria, and in order to resist the damage, cells may produce excessive ROS, thus damaging the permeability of the cell membrane ( Barmo et al., 2013 ;Girardello et al., 2016a ;Tripathi et al., 2018 ;Zhao et al., 2010 ). Oxidative stress is generally considered to be the main way nanoparticles produce cytotoxicity, so ROS levels can accurately reflect the cytotoxicity of nano-TiO 2 . ...
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