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Extracurricular activities of Dutch University students and their effect on employment opportunities as perceived by both students and organizations

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Abstract

Research on biographical data suggests that recruiters draw inferences about candidates' abilities and attributes based on résumé information. However, few studies have explored students' attributions with regard to the experiences that are relevant in enhancing employment opportunities. The aim of the present study is to fill this gap by analyzing the effect of university students' extracurricular activities (ECAs) on their perceived employment opportunities. Specifically, we combine a large sample of students with recruiters from a wide range of sectors in the Netherlands. Students completed a questionnaire, while recruiters participated in an experiment and semi-structured interviews. Students' expectations about the value of ECAs for their employment opportunities were found to be misaligned with recruiters' viewpoints. Students expected academic performance to be more relevant for employment opportunities than ECAs, whereas recruiters stated the opposite. Students expected an internship to be the most valued ECA, whereas most recruiters prioritized a board year and emphasized students' motivation and ability to demonstrate the learning gained from ECAs in general. Implications for further biodata research are discussed.

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... Nevertheless, although we have indications about which cultural signals are valued by employers (Brown and Hesketh, 2004;Hora, 2020;Koppman, 2016;Nuijten, et al., 2017;Rivera, 2016), we have relatively little knowledge about how employee gatekeepers themselves do their recognition work. This is especially critical, seeing that in the case of non-cultural production function explicit standards on the value of cultural signals are often absent. ...
... Although it is clear that hard skills, such as technical knowledge, years of experience and credentials, remain crucial criteria of employability, they do not constitute the sole avenue leading to professional success. A consistent flow of studies confirms that evaluating 'personality currencies', such as lifestyle, demeanour, taste preferences or character traits, are also important assets within the labour market (Brown and Hesketh, 2004;Hora, 2020;Koppman, 2016;Nuijten, et al., 2017;Rivera, 2016;Sharone, 2013). With the risk of oversimplifying, there are largely two ways of reading employee gatekeepers' interest in self-presentation that are not necessarily mutually exclusive but do highlight different rationales behind hiring evaluations. ...
... Lauren Rivera's (2016) benchmark ethnographic study of hiring managers in top-tier firms revealed that in several stages of the screening process, managers pay close attention to leisure activities that candidates share in both written and spoken form (see also Rivera and Tilcsik, 2016). Other studies revealed that even in comparison to academic qualification, for example, recruiters deem extracurricular activities as important as high grades or prestigious schooling (or sometimes even more important) (Nuijten et al., 2017;Pinto and Ramalheira, 2017). ...
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This study investigates how employee gatekeepers decode cultural signals applicants send out during job selection procedures. By focusing on declarative and non-declarative cultural signals such as leisure activities and presentation style, this article examines how recruiters and hiring managers do their gatekeeping recognition work. This is done by in-depth interviewing of 40 HR managers and recruiters, from the cultural and corporate sector in the Netherlands, using a video-elicitation method. The interviews revealed (1) the importance of a fun-factor, (2) that leisure activities not only serve as status markers or indicators for competence but enter as important interactional tools, (3) that gatekeepers look for authentic self-presentation but that this varies between fields and the perceived gender of the candidate. In addition, the comparative design uncovered significant sector variations. Corporate gatekeepers are characterized by the way they decoded sport activities as a signal for a work mentality, valued self-presentation in terms of representativeness and repeatedly relied on competence as an evaluative principle. Cultural gatekeepers, on the other hand, used leisure activities more often as way of cultural matching and were more drawn to a fun-factor while displaying a clear disdain for formal presentation styles.
... -Aumentar la información sobre los beneficios y la utilidad de participar en ECA (Akinrinmade & Ayeni, 2017;Bakoban & Aljarallah, 2015;Kiersma, et al., 2011;Nuijten, et al., 2017;Thompson, et al., 2013;Tran, 2017), con el fin de resaltar los logros obtenidos por parte de las personas que participan en estas (Chan, 2016;Ivanova & Logvinova, 2017). ...
... (Almeida, Guisande, & Paisana, 2012;Monteiro & Almeida, 2015;Pinto & Ramalheira, 2017); 2 en Holanda,(Nuijten, Poell, & Alfes, 2017;Urlings- Strop, Themmen, & Stegers-Jager, 2017); y 1 en Suiza(Roulin & Bangerter, 2013). En Asia 16 estudios: 2 estudios en Rusia (Belikova, 2002; Ivanova & Logvinova, 2017); 4 en China (Chan, 2016; Shiah, Huang, Chang, Chang, & Yeh, 2013; Sum, 2018; Zhang, 2001); 1 de Singapur (Seow & Pan, 2014); UNA REVISIÓN SISTEMÁTICA DEL CONCEPTO DE ACTIVIDAD EXTRACURRICULAR EN EDUCACIÓN... Facultad de Educación. ...
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Recientemente se está desarrollando una línea de investigación en educación superior que muestra evidencia de que las actividades fuera de programa o extracurriculares estructuradas tienen un impacto positivo en la formación integral del alumnado (Ivanova & Logvinova, 2017). Los trabajos existentes son mayoritariamente empíricos e identifican algunas contribuciones relevantes, sin existir una revisión sistemática del conjunto de funciones y beneficios derivados de estas. Además, el término y tipología de actividad extracurricular (ECA) siguen siendo ambiguos y todavía no existe una definición ni una clasificación generalmente aceptada para este concepto (Greenbank, 2015).En este contexto, el trabajo que se presenta en este artículo tiene como objetivos: (a) describir el concepto y tipología de las actividades extracurriculares en educación superior; y (b) identificar las funciones y beneficios de estas en el desarrollo humano integral del alumnado universitario. La metodología llevada a cabo siguió la declaración PRISMA para las revisiones sistemáticas (Moher, Liberati, Tetzlaff & Altman, 2009). Los estudios se seleccionaron de las bases de datos WoS, Scopus y ERIC y se analizaron de acuerdo a los objetivos planteados.El análisis de los 50 trabajos de investigación seleccionados aporta luz a la literatura académica no solo en torno al concepto y tipología de actividad extracurricular sino también respecto a los efectos de esta en la empleabilidad, rendimiento académico, bienestar, adaptación a la vida universitaria y participación y transformación social. Asimismo, se exponen los beneficios que aportan dichas actividades en cuanto al desarrollo de habilidades personales, sociales y profesionales. Finalmente, se pone de relieve la necesidad de abordar investigaciones sobre lo que supone la formación extracurricular en el ámbito universitario, así como la importancia de potenciar dicha formación para promover el desarrollo humano integral del alumnado en educación superior.
... Global attention to student participation in ERAs reveals different motivations for involvement, including intrinsic interest and strengthening resumes (Brown et al., 2004;Roulin et al., 2011). One Dutch study reported more than 90% of HE students claimed interest and/or experience in ERAs, with internships considered the most career-relevant and club/society membership the least (Nuijten et al., 2017). In China, three-quarters of almost 2000 HE students regularly engaged in volunteering (Geng et al., 2022), while onehalf of UK and Australian students only occasionally took part in ERAs (Jackson & Tomlinson, 2021). ...
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Higher education is increasingly concerned with providing students with experiences that enhance employability. Sitting outside the curriculum, extra- or co-curricular activities that focus on career development, leadership, service or recognition can lead to positive employability and employment outcomes. The extent to which different student groups have access to and participate in these employability-related activities (ERAs) is underexplored, along with their relative gains in the labour market. This research surveyed 84,000 graduates in Australia on their participation in various activity types and the impact on their sense of preparedness for work and labour force outcomes. Findings demonstrate that over one-half of respondents participated in an ERA with groups tending to favour different activity types. Overall, the greatest differences in participation were observed by age, gender, disability, citizenship and socio-economic background. Activities impacted differently on employment outcomes with graduates from regional areas, of low socio-economic status and with disability garnering strong benefits. Club/society roles, leadership/award and mentoring programmes offered valuable development opportunities for most graduates, with less favourable outcomes reported for volunteering and micro-credentials. The study provides important information for designing ERAs that can be more easily accessed by increasingly diverse cohorts and that better support lifelong learning and transition to work for all students.
... We drew the 56 names used in our vignette experiment from Baert et al.'s (2022) As can be seen in Table 1, we also varied the applicants' details in four additional factors: their (i) commuting distance (i.e., the distance the applicants would have to commute between the job and their home; 0-5 miles, 5-10 miles, 10-50 miles, or More than 50 miles), (ii) experience in the occupation (None, About two years, About five years, or About ten years), (iii) recent period of unemployment (Yes or No), and (iv) extracurricular activities (None, Volunteering, Sports activities, or Cultural activities). 12,13 We selected these extra factors and corresponding levels based on (i) a screening of American résumés for elements typically included in these résumés and (ii) findings in the literature (Olian, Schwab, & Haberfeld, 1988;Lahey, 2008;Nuijten, Poell, & Alfes, 2017;Carlsson, Reshid, & Rooth, 2018;Van Belle et al., 2018;Van Belle et al., 2019;Van Borm et al., 2020). To check whether these extra factors were perceived to be (i) relevant, (ii) realistic, and (iii) informative for employers, we conducted a pilot test of our survey with 40 American Prolific users who were experienced in hiring. ...
Preprint
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Over the last decades, researchers have found compelling evidence of hiring discrimination toward ethnic minorities based on field experiments using fictitious job applications. Despite increasing efforts to discover why ethnic minorities experience hiring penalties, the academic world has not yet found a satisfying answer. With this study, we aim to close this gap in the literature by conducting a state-of-the-art scenario experiment with genuine American recruiters. In the experiment, we ask recruiters to assess fictitious job applicants of various race-ethnicities but consistent social class. The applicants are rated on 22 statements related to the dominant explanations for ethnic discrimination in hiring that the models of taste-based and statistical discrimination have offered. We find that different race-ethnicity groups are evaluated rather similarly, except for Asian Americans, who are perceived to have better intellectual abilities and organizational skills and to be more ambitious, motivated, efficient, and open. These results suggest that the hiring discrimination found in previous experimental research might be overestimated because part of the reported hiring penalty may be attributed to aspects other than race-ethnicity.
... 13 The choice to vary the candidate characteristics over five vignette factors was made based on the recommendation of Auspurg and Hinz (2014) to work with vignettes of midlevel complexity, i.e., vignettes in which approximately seven (plus or minus two) vignette dimensions are varied. By using a midlevel number of vignette dimensions, we avoid participants to become overburdened by a too complex vignette design and, at the same time, assure participants to be levels are all elements that are typically revealed on résumés and were drawn from the previous literature ( Olian, Schwab, & Haberfeld, 1988 ;Lahey, 2008 ;Nuijten, Poell, & Alfes, 2017 ;Carlsson, Reshid, & Rooth, 2018 ). To investigate whether these additional factors and their levels were perceived to be relevant for employers, we conducted a pilot test of our survey with 193 Belgian recruiters (see Section 2.3 .). ...
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Research has shown that hiring discrimination is a barrier for older job candidates in many OECD countries. However, little research has delved into why older job candidates are discriminated against. Therefore, we have conducted an online scenario experiment involving recruiters to empirically investigate 15 potential stigma related to older age drawn from a systematic review of the literature. We found that older age particularly signals to recruiters that the applicant has lower technological skill, flexibility, and trainability levels. Together, these perceptions explain about 41% of the effect of age on the probability of being invited to a job interview. In addition, we found that the negative association between age and invitation probability is smaller when recruiters work for firms with a higher percentage of older employees. A DISCUSSION PAPER VERSION OF THIS STUDY IS FREELY DOWNLOADABLE HERE: https://ideas.repec.org/p/zbw/glodps/434.html
... One interesting finding was that participants did not find student organizations helpful in their future employment life. It is known that extracurricular activities such as student organizations can enhance the employment opportunities of students (Nuijten, Poell, & Alfes, 2017). ...
... Issues related to the role of extracurricular activities in personality formation of students were also considered by foreign researchers (Ahmad et al., 2015;Arranz et al., 2017;Bakoban & Aljarallah, 2015;Egawa et al., 2019;Kim & Bastedo, 2016;Nuijten et al., 2017;Retallick & Foreman, 2012) and others. ...
... Hence, the student who participates in ECA positively is considered to be a better option for the job as he/she is capable to putting extra effort in order to complete a particular task. The participation in ECA imparts decision making, teamwork in a student, hence improving the professional ethics and practices of how to deal with staff members, coaches, head and adjustment in a new environment in oneself (Nuijten, Poell, & Alfes, 2017). The researchers of latter study stated that recruiters appreciate students to participate in ECA as it fosters different value-added qualities in them. ...
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Extracurricular activities (ECA) are, nowadays, considered as an essential part of any school system of any level. The present study reveals the relation of ECA with student’s performance, academic achievements, career selection and, last but not the least, professional development (PD) of students in Pakistan. The re-search was carried out by developing a questionnaire. It consists of five comprehensive questions relating the ECA with PD. The validity and reliability of questions were checked. The research population consisted of students, with some managerial and leadership experience, from different institutes of Pakistan. The sam-ple consist of majorly all the members of the respective population. After purposively selection, the ques-tionnaire was distributed among 110 selected members of populations for research. Response rate was 90.9% as 100 members filled the form and all the responses was considered valid for the statistical study. Different statistical methods were used to carry out the research consisting of standard deviation, arithmetic means etc. It was clearly observed the respondent’s consideration of ECA as tool for PD of students is high. It was also observed that consideration of ECA for cultivation of interpersonal skills is high and same rate was high for ECA’s impact on career selection. In addition to this, the consideration rate of ECA for im-proving of managerial skills and self-efficacy is high. So, it is concluded that educational institutes should motivate their students to participate in ECA for better a career.
... Our results do not counter signaling theory but provide a compliment and a broader understanding of the mechanisms at play during a job search. For example, while some evidence suggests that applicants might initially participate in ECAs to influence employers' perceptions (Hustinx et al., 2010), recent empirical evidence suggests that applicants underestimate the importance that employers place on ECAs (Nuijten et al., 2017). Future empirical research examining ECAs simultaneously from impression management (signaling) and career development perspectives may advance our understanding of the roles of ECAs for influencing a job search. ...
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Purpose The present study aimed to understand how participation in university extracurricular activities has a beneficial or detrimental impact on students’ employment self-efficacy through the intervening mechanism of information search strategy. Design/methodology/approach The authors collected data from active job-searching university students across two time-points and hypothesized that the breadth of extracurricular activity participation would positively impact employment self-efficacy perceptions and information search strategies (focused, exploratory and haphazard) would mediate this relationship. Findings Results indicate that the breadth of students' participation in extracurricular activities was positively associated with employment self-efficacy perceptions, and this relationship was mediated by focused and exploratory information-search strategies. Extracurricular activities exhibited a negative relationship with a haphazard search strategy. Research limitations/implications This research extends the understanding of the role of participation in extracurricular activities for influencing a job search. Future research may replicate these findings with different samples of job seekers. Practical implications Extracurricular activities are typically offered at universities as a way for students to develop skills and to improve employers' perceptions of students. The present results suggest that participating in extracurricular activities may also help university students to effectively conduct a self-directed job search. Originality/value We examined the role of extracurricular activities from the applicant's perspective, extending prior research examining extracurricular activities from the employer's perspective. The present results suggest that extracurricular activities play an important role in shaping the job search process of university students by influencing students' confidence for finding employment. Information search strategies mediated the effects of extracurricular activities on employment self-efficacy perceptions, suggesting that participating in extracurricular activities changed the way that applicants searched for jobs.
... The analysis of foreign scientific works of recent years showed that students' extracurricular activities were a cultural phenomenon. It is the object of research' observation around the world and is considered in the following aspects: 1) the social significance of extracurricular activities; 2) the impact of extracurricular activities on students' personal development and academic performance; 3) the role of extracurricular activities in formation of students' professional competence; 4) the impact of extracurricular activities on competitiveness of future graduates (Ahmad et al., 2015;Arranz et al., 2017;Bakoban & Aljarallah, 2015;Egawa et al., 2019;Kim & Bastedo, 2017;Nuijten et al., 2017;). ...
... We drew the 56 names used in our vignette experiment from Baert et al.'s (2022) As can be seen in Table 1, we also varied the applicants' details in four additional factors: their (i) commuting distance (i.e., the distance the applicants would have to commute between the job and their home; 0-5 miles, 5-10 miles, 10-50 miles, or More than 50 miles), (ii) experience in the occupation (None, About two years, About five years, or About ten years), (iii) recent period of unemployment (Yes or No), and (iv) extracurricular activities (None, Volunteering, Sports activities, or Cultural activities). 12,13 We selected these extra factors and corresponding levels based on (i) a screening of American résumés for elements typically included in these résumés and (ii) findings in the literature (Olian, Schwab, & Haberfeld, 1988;Lahey, 2008;Nuijten, Poell, & Alfes, 2017;Carlsson, Reshid, & Rooth, 2018;Van Belle et al., 2018;Van Belle et al., 2019;Van Borm et al., 2020). To check whether these extra factors were perceived to be (i) relevant, (ii) realistic, and (iii) informative for employers, we conducted a pilot test of our survey with 40 American Prolific users who were experienced in hiring. ...
Preprint
Full-text available
Over the last decades, researchers have found compelling evidence of hiring discrimination toward ethnic minorities based on field experiments using fictitious job applications. Despite increasing efforts to discover why ethnic minorities experience hiring penalties, the academic world has not yet found a satisfying answer. With this study, we aim to close this gap in the literature by conducting a state-of-the-art scenario experiment with genuine American recruiters. In the experiment, we ask recruiters to assess fictitious job applicants of various race-ethnicities but consistent social class. The applicants are rated on 22 statements related to the dominant explanations for ethnic discrimination in hiring that the models of taste-based and statistical discrimination have offered. We find that different race-ethnicity groups are evaluated rather similarly, except for Asian Americans, who are perceived to have better intellectual abilities and organizational skills and to be more ambitious, motivated, efficient, and open. These results suggest that the hiring discrimination found in previous experimental research might be overestimated because part of the reported hiring penalty may be attributed to aspects other than race-ethnicity.
... The gender stereotype research that has been conducted thus far has usually focused on one dimension of a stereotype (e.g., the gender stereotype in the context of vegetarianism or in the context of the job position, treated independently). However, studies show that the information about the person (e.g., hobbies a person has), not only his or her professional experience, is a crucial component of CV that can indirectly affect the perception of a person on the dimensions inferred from this information (Nuijten et al., 2017). ...
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The objective of the study was to examine the influence of vegan stereotypes on person perception in the context of a job application. The study was conducted online on a representative sample of Polish adults (N = 838). Participants evaluated a fictitious CV of a candidate applying for a job. The CV varied in three dimensions: (a) diet of the candidate (vegan or not); (b) gender of the candidate; and (c) job position (stereotypically male or female). The candidate was evaluated on the dimensions of warmth and competence (based on the stereotype content model). A three-way analysis of variance (2x2x2) showed that in the case of a male candidate applying for a stereotypically male job (financial analyst), information about veganism lowered his perception on the competence dimension (stereotype inconsistency). These results indicate that vegans are targets of ambivalent stereotypes and that bias toward this group depends on the gender of the person following a vegan diet.
... However, there is increasing interest in the potential for ECA to promote reflection. ECA are defined as voluntary activities that take place outside the class schedule [37], which complement curricular training [38] and contribute to the students' personal [39], professional [40], and social [41] development. These activities are classified into sporting, cultural, solidarity, spiritual and artistic activities, and student clubs [41][42][43]. ...
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The objective of higher education institutions is to integrate reflective learning that contributes to the development of a greater awareness among individuals of the importance of facing the 21st century’s sustainability challenges. This paper analyzes the impact of an extracurricular volunteer activity in Tangier, Morocco in the development of student reflection at a Spanish university. To this end, two objectives were proposed: (1) to explore the students’ primary reflections of the experience, and (2) analyze the students’ perceptions of the importance of participating in the experience in order to develop reflective learning. In the study, in-depth interviews were conducted with 23 students who participated in the volunteer activity. Data analysis was carried out using Iramuteq software to conduct a descending hierarchical classification (DHC), and MAXQDA software to conduct a constant comparison analysis. This research highlights the value of voluntary extracurricular activities in the development of reflections that guide change in the beliefs, attitudes, and daily behaviors of students that ultimately result in sustainability. Due to this, not only is it considered essential that students participate in social projects, but also that they undertake these projects with peers and instructors who can create environments of support and trust.
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This study examines the effects that extracurricular activities have on the attributions a resume reader makes about an applicant. Three characteristics of extracurricular activities (number of activities, holding positions of leadership, and relevance of the activities) were manipulated across 24 resumes of fictitious college graduates. Some 219 raters read the resumes and made judgments about the level of the applicant's quality. The results showed a main effect for the number of activities, a main effect for holding leadership positions, and a main effect for relevance of the activity. Furthermore, a three-way interaction revealed the differential effects that the relevance of the activities had on the attributions at different levels of leadership and number of activities. A mix of career-related and social activities garnered higher ratings for those who held leadership positions in five activities. However, for those who were leaders in only two activities or were not leaders in five, having only career-related activities earned them higher ratings. For applicants who were not leaders in two activities, relevance of the activities played no role.
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170 applicants being interviewed by representatives of 17 different industrial and academic agencies participated. Interviewers evaluated applicants on three dimensions: over-all general impression, personal liking, and chances of further consideration. Information about the applicants was obtained from their application forms and used to predict the interviewers' evaluations. Stepwise multiple regression indicated that the best combination of predictors across all three evaluations were undergraduate grade point average, membership in a fraternity or sorority, and membership in professional societies. Slight differences were found between industrial and academic interviewers in that the former were more influenced by honors received and membership in a fraternity or sorority, while the latter were more influenced by membership in professional societies and undergraduate grade point average. Relevance of findings to previous research on interviewing is discussed.
Article
This paper provides a review and critique of the background data literature. As a life history measure, the effective application of background data items is based on a developmental strategy in which a pattern of prior behavior and experiences is related to certain forms of criterion performance. This principle pro vides a framework for discussing the various issues in volved in generating an adequate pool of background data items. The four principal methods for scaling background data items are examined: rational scaling, factorial scaling, empirical keying, and subgrouping. The relative strengths and weaknesses of these four techniques are considered along with current research needs in each area. This review indicates that substan tial progress has been made in the development and application of background data measures, but that al ternatives to the traditional empirical keying strategy should receive more attention.
Article
Although biodata has been shown to be one of the best predictors of employee performance and turnover, a number of important issues remain unresolved (e.g., how broadly or narrowly should biodata be defined?). This paper has three main objectives. The first objective is to provide a selective but representative review of the research that has been conducted on the use of biodata for employee selection. The second objective is to constructively critique this research. This critique is intended to highlight deficiencies of this research that may limit the conclusions that should be drawn. The paper's third objective is to stimulate important future research on biodata that avoids the limitations of past research.
Article
methodological research: scoring innovations and criterion comparisons [study 1: least squares regression weighting, study 2: configural scoring, and study 3: research ratings versus administrative rating as criteria] (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Recruiters' phenomenological perceptions of biodata in resumes were examined along with their use of biodata for making applicant screening decisions. The thesis was that biodata were interpreted as indicating abilities and other attributes. Three complementary studies were conducted with 344 recruiters from 28 companies. Study 1 survey results indicated recruiters judged biodata to reflect both ability (language, math, physical) and other (interpersonal, leadership, motivation) attributes. Both types of attributes were judged with high interrecruiter reliability, and attributes judged to be reflected depended partly on the job considered. Study 2 experimental results indicated recruiters rated resumes more attractive to the degree that biodata in the resumes reflected attributes required by the jobs. Study 3 protocol analysis results confirmed that recruiters considered these attributes with substantial frequency. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
This study examines the effects that extracurricular activities have on the attributions a résumé reader makes about an applicant. Three characteristics of extracurricular activities (number of activities, holding positions of leadership, and relevance of the activities) were manipulated across 24 résumés of fictitious college graduates. Some 219 raters read the résumés and made judgments about the level of the applicant’s quality. The results showed a main effect for the number of activities, a main effect for holding leadership positions, and a main effect for relevance of the activity. Furthermore, a three–way interaction revealed the differential effects that the relevance of the activities had on the attributions at different levels of leadership and number of activities. A mix of career–related and social activities garnered higher ratings for those who held leadership positions in five activities. However, for those who were leaders in only two activities or were not leaders in five, having only career–related activities earned them higher ratings. For applicants who were not leaders in two activities, relevance of the activities played no role.
Article
Across two employee samples (N=262 and 265) the authors examined the criterion-related validity of the General Ability Measure for Adults (GAMA), a brief nonverbal measure of cognitive ability. Results suggested that GAMA predicted job performance in both samples (uncorrected rs ranged from .27 to .50). No evidence was found for differential prediction across gender and age. These results highlight the usefulness of nonverbal cognitive ability tests in selection contexts.
Article
There is considerable disagreement among researchers regarding the defining attributes of biodata items, especially in contrast to other self-report measures. This paper provides a conceptual rationale for the use of biodata in order to evaluate various proposed attributes of biodata, and to clarify similarities and differences between biodata and temperament items. It is suggested that the core attribute of biodata items is that the items pertain to historical events that may have shaped the person's behavior and identity. Other attributes advanced as antidotes to socially desirable responding and faking are that biodata items reflect external events, that they be limited to objective and first-hand recollections, that they be potentially verifiable, and that they measure discrete, unique events when appropriate. Some researchers also require that the life events being sampled be controllable and equally accessible to all respondents. Items may also need to be visibly job relevant and nonintrusive to avoid legal censure. Disagreements among researchers regarding the importance of these attributes are discussed, and implications for practice and research are proposed.
Article
In this article, we summarize: (a) the arguments linking participation in structured leisure activities to positive youth development, (b) our findings on the association of extracurricular activity involvement with both educational and risky behavior outcomes during adolescence and young adulthood, and (c) our findings regarding possible mediating mechanisms of these associations. Participants in most extracurricular activities achieved better educational outcomes than non-participants even after controlling for social class, gender, and intellectual aptitude. Participation in service and religious activities predicted lower rates of drinking and drug use. Participation on school sports teams predicted both better educational outcomes and higher rates of drinking. The mediating mechanisms we discuss relate to identity formation, peer group membership, and attachment to non-familial adults.
Article
There is widespread agreement that success in organizations requires more than high intellect. Thus, college recruiters commonly examine job candidates' extracurricular activities in search of “well-rounded,” emotionally intelligent, and interpersonally skilled students. Intuitively, extracurricular activities seem like valuable student experiences; however, research evidence is sparse, suggesting far more questions than answers. Is participation in extracurricular activity truly linked to interpersonal skill performance? Does leadership experience make a difference? Do extracurricular experiences yield higher skill development? Six hundred eighteen business students and the relationship of their extracurricular involvement to four interpersonal skills were examined. Significant relationships were found and recruitment implications are discussed. © 2002 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Article
In this article, we review the competence concept and apply it to the measurement of competences in graduate surveys. The relevant literature reveals that three important perspectives on the meaning and operationalisation of competences may be distinguished: The educational perspective, the labour market perspective and the human resources perspective. The second part of the article is concerned with the measurement of competences in the context of labour market research using graduate surveys. Using the insights obtained from the literature, competences are defined and a measurement method is chosen. Empirical evidence suggests that this measurement method performs better than previously used measurement methodologies.
Article
Extracurricular activities provide adolescents with a number of positive personal and interpersonal developmental experiences. This study investigated whether developmental experiences that occurred during extracurricular activities were linked to a more positive self-concept for Australian adolescents, and whether this link was particularly salient for youth from disadvantaged schools. Adolescents (N = 1,504, 56% Female) from 26 diverse high schools across Western Australia were surveyed. The findings revealed that adolescents from low socio-economic status schools who participated in extracurricular activities had a more positive general self-worth and social self-concept than adolescents from similar socio-economic schools who did not participate in any extracurricular activities. Furthermore, the positive developmental experiences that occurred during extracurricular activities predicted a more positive general self-worth and social and academic self-concept, and this link was stronger for youth from low SES schools. These findings suggest that the developmental experiences afforded by extracurricular activities may foster positive adolescent development.
Article
In this paper we explore whether recruiters prefer applicants who are relatively strong in the skills in which the recruiters themselves excel. We analyze evidence from all entry exams to the Spanish Judiciary held between 2003 and 2007, where applicants are randomly assigned across evaluation committees. We find that applicants who excel in the same dimensions as recruiters are significantly more likely to be hired. Our findings have important strategic implications for both public and private sector recruitment practices.
Why good people can't get jobs: the skills gap and what companies can do about it
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Capelli, P. (2010). Why good people can't get jobs: the skills gap and what companies can do about it. Philadelphia, PA: Wharton Digital Press.
Extra-curriculair, maar niet voor niets: Een onderzoek naar de vergoeding en motivatie van extra-curriculair actieve studenten [Extracurricular, but not without reason: a study into the compensation and motivation of students
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Competencies: Requirements and acquisition
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Biodata handbook: Theory, research, and use of biographical information in selection and performance prediction
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Brug tussen student en bedrijfsleven [Bridge between student and business
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Wat is de daadwerkelijke meerwaarde van het doen van extracurriculaire activiteiten? [What is the actual added value of participation in extracurricular activities?
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LKvV. (2012). Wat is de daadwerkelijke meerwaarde van het doen van extracurriculaire activiteiten? [What is the actual added value of participation in extracurricular activities?]. Utrecht: Landelijke Kamer van Verenigingen.