Article

A Review of chemical constituents and traditional usage of Neem plant (Azadirachta Indica)

Authors:
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the authors.

... They reported the activity of neem methanolic extract only on S. aureus but not on E. coli. This variation could be due to differences in neem plants' active constituents and due to differences in environment, genetic factors, and climates [50,51]. The lowest concentration of neem extract reported with bacterial activity was 3.125%, which showed zones of inhibition of more than 10 mm on P. aeruginosa, K. pneumoniae, Citrobacter spp., and E. coli, and 8 mm on Proteus spp. ...
... Our finding is in concordance with a previous study conducted in Sudan, in which the 6.25 mg/dl concentration was more active on P. aeruginosa, and K. pneumoniae [45]. This could be due to the presence of the same phytoconstituents in neem plants grown in our environment [18,50,51]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background Antimicrobial resistance became the leading cause of death globally, resulting in an urgent need for the discovery of new, safe, and efficient antibacterial agents. Compounds derived from plants can provide an essential source of new types of antibiotics. A. indica (neem) plant is rich in antimicrobial phytoconstituents. Here, we used the sensitive and reliable gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC–MS) approach, for the quantitative and quantitative determination of bioactive constituents in methanolic extract of neem leaves grown in Sudan. Subsequently, antibacterial activity, pharmacokinetic and toxicological properties were utilized using in silico tools. Results The methanolic extract of neem leaves was found to have antibacterial activity against all pathogenic and reference strains. The lowest concentration reported with bacterial activity was 3.125%, which showed zones of inhibition of more than 10 mm on P. aeruginosa, K. pneumoniae, Citrobacter spp., and E. coli, and 8 mm on Proteus spp., E. faecalis, S. epidermidis , and the pathogenic S. aureus. GC–MS analysis revealed the presence of 30 chemical compounds, including fatty acids (11), hydrocarbons (9), pyridine derivatives (2), aldehydes (2), phenol group (1), aromatic substances (1), coumarins (1), and monoterpenes (1). In silico and in vitro tools revealed that.beta.d-Mannofuranoside, O-geranyl was the most active compound on different bacterial proteins. It showed the best docking energy (-8 kcal/mol) and best stability with different bacterial essential proteins during molecular dynamic (MD) simulation. It also had a good minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) (32 μg/ml and 64 μg/ml) against S. aureus (ATCC 25,923) and E. coli (ATCC 25,922) respectively. Conclusion The methanolic extract of A. indica leaves possessed strong antibacterial activity against different types of bacteria. Beta.d-Mannofuranoside, O-geranyl was the most active compound and it passed 5 rules of drug-likeness properties. It could therefore be further processed for animal testing and clinical trials for its possible use as an antibacterial agent with commercial values.
... 8,9 Over 140 compounds have been identified in different parts of this plant including terpenes, limonoids, meliacin, margocin, margocilin, isoazadirolide, azadirachtin, salanin, gedunin, valssin, nimbin, nibonolone, gallic acid and others. 4,10,11 In agriculture, neem-based products are highly effective, easily biodegradable, cheap, easy in preparation with less or no hazardous effects. The registered neem formulations such as Neemark, Nimbicidine, Bioneem, Achook, Neemix, Margosan, Nim-76, Nim-20 and Azatin are in practice for the management of plant diseases. ...
... 12,13 On the other hand, all parts of this plant are potentially beneficial for human health and are used traditionally for the treatment of jaundice, indolent ulcer, intestinal wounds, syphilitic sores, blood morbidity, itching, skin ulcer, rheumatism, leprosy, indigestion, pthysis, constipation, burning sensations, intestinal helminthiasis, pleuropneumonia, asthma, ringworm, urticaria, throat and respiratory disorders. 10,14,15 In West African counties, neem leaves and bark aqueous extracts are enriched with gedunin, an active anti-malarial component used particularly resistant to chloroquine strains. 16 Furthermore, neem bark possesses strong antiseptic properties that is used in the preparation of herbal tooth paste and dental gel to reduce the bacterial count and oral plaque index. ...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: Neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss.) is an important tree species that is known to posses anthelmintic, contraceptive, antimicrobial, antidiabetic and sedative properties. Therefore, the present study aimed to identify various compounds present in the leaf extract of neem and to enlist various biological activities of these compounds through literature survey. Methodology: Extract of neem was obtained by soaking 100 g dry powdered leaves in 1000 mL methanol followed by filtration. This was successively fractioned using n-hexane and chloroform. Results: GC-MS analysis of the chloroform fraction was performed and 7 compounds namely 2-pentanol, acetate (9.72%); decane (8.96%); 11-oxa-dispiro[4.0.4.1]undecan-1-ol (6.56%); nonanoic acid, 9-(3-hexenylidenecyclopropylidene)-, 2-hydroxy-1-(hydroxymethyl)ethyl ester, (Z,Z,Z)- (7.13%); quinoline-4-carboxamide, 2-phenyl-N-n-octyl- (9.79%); nonacosane (44.27%) and tetratriacontane (13.43%) were identified. Conclusion: Literature survey showed that the identified compounds possessed antibacterial, antifungal, anticancer, cytotoxic, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and antiviral properties.
... Phytochemistry screening of neem leaf extracts revealed the presence of tannins, saponins, flavonoids, alkaloids, glycosides, reducing sugars, and polyphenols. 63 The betel leaf named P. betel belongs to the Piperaceae family. Betel leaves contain reasonable amounts of vitamins, particularly nicotinic acid, ascorbic acid, and carotin. ...
Article
Full-text available
Prevention of hydrate plugs during transportation of oil and natural gas in the pipeline network is challenging. Certain additives are often introduced into the process to eliminate/delay plug formation. Dominantly synthetic inhibitors are deployed in large volumes (∼20 to 30% by volume) to counter the problem and are highly expensive and, in some circumstances, toxic. The search for novel additives that are eco-friendly and act as inhibitors is in demand. The present study reports the thermodynamic inhibition (THI) capacity of some vastly available natural biopowders, such as Azadirachta indica (neem), Piper betel (betel), and Nelumbo nucifera (Indian lotus) in low dosage (0.5 wt %), on methane hydrate (MH) formation. Since the gas flow is dynamic, experiments are conducted in stirred geometry by varying the speed range from 0 to 1000 rotations per minute (rpm). All of the studies are performed in the isochoric method procedure. The biopowders act as efficient thermodynamic hydrate inhibitors. Once the nucleation triggers, they act as kinetic hydrate promoters. Since sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) is an excellent kinetic hydrate promoter in both stirred and nonstirred geometries, the obtained results are compared with the SDS system. Hydrate nucleation is triggered at higher subcooling (∼8 to 10 K) in the presence of water-soluble bioextracts. The neem leaf extracts showed a ∼30% lower hydrate conversion than SDS in identical experimental conditions. Two-stage hydrate nucleation occurred at higher stirring speeds, and the hydrate conversion is inferior (∼6%) between the primary and secondary stages. The addition of biopowder extracts is useful in controlling hydrate formation. A small quantity of biopowders provides higher inhibition and reduces synthetic chemicals used in real-time applications.
... Classification of plants according to their families, scientific, vernacular or common names. All parts of neem trees including leaves, seeds, roots, bark and flowers are used to cure stomach ulcers, jaundice and to overcome a variety of infectious and parasitic diseases, ranging from leprosy, chicken pox, and malaria[62].G : Frozen ; D : Decoction ; I : Infusion ; M : Maceration ; P : Powder ; Pt : Paw ; Pr : Pressing ; O : Oral : T : Topical : A : Anal : In : Inhalation : C : Collector identification ; H :Registration number to the Herbarium ; sn : Without number ; HNC : Cameroun National Herbarium ; SRFC : Society of Forest Reserves of Cameroun ...
... The plant is also known to have diverse medicinal values. Constituents of extracts from the leaves and other parts of the plant have been reported to exhibit antidiabetic, immunomodulatory, diuretic, antiseptic, anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, antihyperglycaemic, antiulcer, antiarthritic, antimalarial, spermicidal, antifungal, antibacterial, hypoglycemic, antioxidant, antimutagenic and anticarcinogenic properties [5][6][7][8] . A. indica leave extracts and some other leaves are active against certain dermatophytes, microorganisms and parasitic insects such as bacteria, fungi and mosquitoes [9][10][11] . ...
Article
Full-text available
This work identifies the chemical components of Azadirachta indica (neem plant) leave extracts. A. indica is a vascular plant which belongs to the Meliaceae family and its use as herb in folk medicine is widely acclaimed. Essential oils were extracted from leaves of A. indica. Steam and solvent extraction methods were used with two solvents: Ethanol and Hexane. The crude oil extracted using both extraction methods were analyzed using GC–MS. The result of the analyses show that the major constituents were Eicosane (9.7662%), Diacenaphtho[1,2-j:1′,2′-l]fluoranthene (11.301%), Phenol, 4-[[(4-methoxyphenyl)methylene]amino]- (11.84%) and (3Ar,6S,9ar)-1,2,3,4,5,6,7,9a-octahydro-8-methyl-3a,6-methano-3ah-cyclopentacycloocten-10-one (36.883%) in steam extracted oil; Eicosane (10.259%), Diacenaphtho[1,2-j:1′,2′-l]fluoranthene (13.51%) and Butanamide, N-(2-methoxyphenyl)-3-oxo- (16.615%) in the ethanol extracted oil, and (3Ar,6S,9ar)-1,2,3,4,5,6,7,9a-octahydro-8-methyl-3a,6-methano-3ah-cyclopentacycloocten-10-one (10.72%), n-Hexadecanoic acid (14.688%) and 9,12,15-Octadecatrienoic acid, (Z,Z,Z)- (34.719%) in the hexane extracted A. indica essential oil.
... At 2500 mg/Kg, Dorababu et al didn't observe any mortality either [36]. This suggests the safe nature of A. indica, as it correlates with the traditional use for centuries [2,37]. However, our results were different from the overall results obtained by Ashafa et al, who found out that at all doses used, the ethanolic extract of A. indica demonstrated toxicity [38][39][40]. ...
... Interestingly, these mixtures nowadays represent the basis for many commercial products used in cosmetics, soaps, toothpaste, and pest repellents. In addition, by tradition they also continue as treatments for chickenpox, fever, headache, leprosy, jaundice, constipation, respiratory problems, rheumatism, and gastrointestinal disorders (Eid, Jaradat, & Elmarzugi, 2017;Heyman et al., 2017;Joshi, Bhat, Kothiwale, Tirmale, & Bhargava, 2010;Saleem, Muhammad, Hussain, & Bukhari, 2018). Over time, these proposed complexes of herbs and plants have been in more detail studied. ...
Article
Full-text available
Global health and medical practice seek to merge alternative medicine with evidence-based medicine for a better understanding of the metabolic process and its effects in the human body. An example is the use of complementary medicine like phytotherapy. Azadirachta indica (Neem), a tree originally from India and Myanmar, called by many "The village pharmacy" or "Divine tree" because of its many health properties. In recent times, Neem-derived extracts have been shown to work from anywhere from insect repellent, to supplements to lower inflammation, diabetic control, and even to combat cancer. Herein, we state the health benefits found in diverse compounds and extracts derived from Neem, highlighting the mechanisms and pathways in which Neem compounds produce their effects, while warning that the improper and unstandardized conditions to produce extracts can lead to health issues, particularly certain compounds might have damaging effects on the liver and kidneys.
... Interestingly, these mixtures nowadays represent the basis for many commercial products used in cosmetics, soaps, toothpaste, and pest repellents. In addition, by tradition they also continue as treatments for chickenpox, fever, headache, leprosy, jaundice, constipation, respiratory problems, rheumatism, and gastrointestinal disorders (Eid, Jaradat, & Elmarzugi, 2017;Heyman et al., 2017;Joshi, Bhat, Kothiwale, Tirmale, & Bhargava, 2010;Saleem, Muhammad, Hussain, & Bukhari, 2018). Over time, these proposed complexes of herbs and plants have been in more detail studied. ...
Article
Full-text available
Global health and medical practice seek to merge alternative medicine with evidence-based medicine for a better understanding of the metabolic process and its effects in the human body. An example is the use of complementary medicine like phytotherapy. Azadirachta indica (Neem), a tree originally from India and Myanmar, called by many "The village pharmacy" or "Divine tree" because of its many health properties. In recent times, Neem-derived extracts have been shown to work from anywhere from insect repellent, to supplements to lower inflammation, diabetic control, and even to combat cancer. Herein, we state the health benefits found in diverse compounds and extracts derived from Neem, highlighting the mechanisms and pathways in which Neem compounds produce their effects, while warning that the improper and unstandardized conditions to produce extracts can lead to health issues, particularly certain compounds might have damaging effects on the liver and kidneys.
... They also comprise all essential amino acids except glycine, histidine, and arginine. Large concentrations of asparagines are present while glycine and proline occur in a reasonable amount [42]. The lotus leaf possesses pharmacologic and physiologic compounds, which including hepatoprotective, antioxidant, antidiarrheal, antiviral, immunomodulatory, and antiobesity effects. ...
... Uma das espécies vegetais mais estudadas quanto à sua microbiota é Azadirachta indica (Meliaceae), o nim, em virtude da sua importância como planta medicinal, já que é utilizada por cerca de 80,0% das nações em desenvolvimento (EID et al., 2017;CHUTULO & CHALANNAVAR, 2018), além da sua importância como planta inseticida (VERMA et al., 2011). Todas as partes dessa planta já foram avaliadas para uso no controle de insetos e todas elas se mostraram nocivas às pragas. ...
Article
Full-text available
Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a patogenicidade de bactérias isoladas da planta nim, Azadirachta indica (Meliaceae), sobre os adultos de Spodopterafrugiperda (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae). Todas as suspensões bacterianas avaliadas foram calibradas para a concentração de 5,0 x 108 células/mL. Os adultos avaliados foram os sobreviventes de lagartas que ingeriram folhas de milho tratadas com as suspensões bacterianas. Com esses adultos sobreviventes se constituíram casais, que foram mantidos em gaiolas. Verificaram-se a longevidade de machos e fêmeas, o período de pré-oviposição e fértil, o número total de posturas, a fecundidade e a fertilidade das fêmeas. Do total de isolados avaliados, 64,0% deles causaram algum efeito adverso aos adultos, a ponto de afetarem uma ou mais das variáveis observadas. A ingestão das bactérias pelas lagartas reduziu a longevidade de adultos (macho e fêmea). As fêmeas tiveram redução no período fértil, no número de posturas, na fecundidade e na fertilidade. Somente o período de pré-oviposição não foi afetado. Os isolados Bacillus sp. Epi 9, Bacillus subtilis e Nim 10 são destaque, pois afetam o maior número de variáveis avaliadas. Os resultados obtidos neste trabalho são promissores e importantes, pois este é o primeiro relato de bactérias isoladas de nim com ação patogênica a S. frugiperda.
... It stays green throughout the year and captures significant amounts of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) in daylight through photosynthesis. Neem is abundantly found in Asian countries like Pakistan, India, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Indonesia, Bangladesh, Malaysia, and Burma [6]. Further, 1 kg of neem seed contains about 400 g of neem hull, 200 g of neem oil, and 380 g of neem cake [7]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Agricultural biomasses are the under-utilized sources that have extraordinary potential to synthesize green and cost effective chemicals. This research focuses on utilization of novel agricultural residue i.e. waste neem cake to produce highly efficient, cost effective and environment friendly fuel i.e. neem char (NC) through thermo-gravimetric pyrolysis. To study the effects of process variable on char yield and higher heating value (HHV), statistical modeling was applied by central composite design of response surface methodology. Furthermore, chemical and structural characterization of neem cake and char were carried out by using fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscope (SEM) and thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA). The reaction temperature was the most prominent variable found from the ANOVA (analysis of variances) to affect char yield and it’s HHV. The optimal result achieved with 21.46% char yield and HHV value of 6371Kcal/kg at 600o 30 C, 60 min and 3 mm. The heating value of char was highly improved indicating the potential application of char as high energy renewable fuel. Further, the carbon content and fixed carbon values increased whereas hydrogen, oxygen, volatile matters and moisture content decreased in char after pyrolysis process
... Numerous auxiliary metabolites of plant are industrially signifi cant and discover use in various drug compounds [2]. Individuals have been reliant on plants for their medical services needs since the start of development [3]. The 2,50000 higher plant species on earth, more than 80,000 are restorative in Nature [4]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Article ID: JBRES1244 Nowadays, nanotechnology is used as a way to increase bioavailability and decrease the side effects of drugs and nutrients. Micronutrients and nutraceuticals such as vitamins, carotenoids, polyunsaturated fatty acids and polyphenols are classes of food ingredients that are essential for human health and well-being. These compounds are rarely added purely to the targeted food application but rather in encapsulated, solid, dry product forms with added functionalities such as improved stability, bioavailability or handling. Development of new strategies, like nanocarriers, that help to promote the access of neuroprotective molecules to the brain, is needed for providing more effective therapies for the disorders of the Central Nervous System (CNS). Polymer-lipid hybrid nanoparticles, encapsulating vitamin D3 and vitamin K2, with improved features in terms of stability, loading and mucoadhesiveness were produced for potential nutraceutical and pharmaceutical applications. Recently, nanoformulations that include nanovesicles, solid-lipid nanoparticles, nanostructured lipid carriers, nanoemulsions, and polymeric nanoparticles have shown promising outcomes in improving the effi cacy and bioavailability of vitamin E. Active targeting of nanoparticles loaded with vitamin D to cancer cells. ABSTRACT RESEARCH ARTICLE
... Most of the parts of a neem tree such as leaves and wood can be used as pesticides, in medicine, and as organic fertilizers. 69 The neem and mahua oil annual productions in Pakistan and India are 100,000 and 180,000 tons, respectively. 70 Mahua kernels have 50% oil, 53 which comprises around 20% of FFAs making the production of biodiesel process from such oils to be very important and feasible. ...
Article
Full-text available
The energy demand of the world is skyrocketing due to the exponential economic growth and population expansion. To meet the energy requirement, the use of fossil fuels is not a good decision, causing environmental pollution such as CO2 emissions. Therefore, the use of renewable energy sources like biofuels can meet the energy crisis especially for countries facing oil shortages such as Pakistan. This review describes the comparative study of biodiesel synthesis for various edible oils, non-edible oils, and wastes such as waste plastic oil, biomass pyrolysis oil, and tyre pyrolysis oil in terms of their oil content and extraction, cetane number, and energy content. The present study also described the importance of biodiesel synthesis via catalytic transesterification and its implementation in Pakistan. Pakistan is importing an extensive quantity of cooking oil that is used in the food processing industries, and as a result, a huge quantity of waste cooking oil (WCO) is generated. The potential waste oils for biodiesel synthesis are chicken fat, dairy scum, WCO, and tallow oil that can be used as potential substrates of biodiesel. The implementation of a biodiesel program as a replacement of conventional diesel will help to minimize the oil imports and uplift the country’s economy. Biodiesel production via homogeneous and heterogeneous catalyzed transesterification is more feasible among all transesterification processes due to a lesser energy requirement and low cost. Therefore, biodiesel synthesis and implementation could minimize the imports of diesel by significantly contributing to the overall Gross Domestic Product (GDP). Although, waste oil can meet the energy needs, more available cultivation land should be used for substrate cultivation. In addition, research is still needed to explore innovative solvents and catalysts so that overall biodiesel production cost can be minimized. This would result in successful biodiesel implementation in Pakistan.
... A. indica shows therapeutics potential in healthcare and management as herbal remedies 10 activities and medicinal properties 3 and the others are nimbolinin, nimbin, nimbidin, nimbidol, sodium nimbinate, gedunin, salannin, and quercetin. Leaves contain Limonoids 13-15 such as nimbin, nimbanene, 6desacetylnimbinene, nimbandiol, nimbolide, ascorbic acid, nhexacosanol and amino acid, 7-desacetyl-7benzoylazadiradione, 7-desacetyl-7-benzoylgedunin, 17hydroxyazadiradione, nimbiol [16][17][18][19][20][21][22] and Tetranortriterpenoids from the seeds 15,23 . Awolu et al. 24 Optimized solvent extraction protocol for oil from neem Azadirachta indica and characterised the compounds. ...
Article
Full-text available
Neem (Azadirachta indica) a member of Meliaceae plays an immense role in human health and disease which is attributed to its composition of Bioactive Secondary Metabolites (BASM). It has been widely used in Indian Traditional Systems of Medicine that includes Ayurveda, Siddha, Unani, Homeopathy and other Folklore Systems of Medicine practiced in the Indian Subcontinent for the treatment and prevention of various diseases. Current global health perspectives and medical practice in the post COVID era has no other way but to seek to merge alternative systems of medicine with evidence-based therapeutic aspects for a better understanding of the metabolic process and its effects in the human body. The studies based on animal model established that neem and its chief constituents play pivotal role in anticancer management through the modulation of various molecular pathways including p53, pTEN, NF-κB, PI3K/Akt, Bcl-2, and VEGF. Besides, NEEM plays a vital role in the management of diabetics and its associated long term complication through ROS scavenging and ameliorative potentials to restore oxidative injury/ inhibit enzymes linked to. Overall NEEM is considered as GRAS medicinal plant that modulates metabolic inflammations without side effects. Though it has been confirmed that neem and its constituents play role in the scavenging of free radical and prevention of disease pathogenesis, a clear scientific basis of its pharmacoinformatics is still lacking. Gas Chromatography–Mass Spectroscopy (GC–MS) analysis of the fractions revealed the presence of 62 metabolites. Keywords: Azadirachta indica; NEEM; GCMS; Bioactive Secondary Metabolites; GRAS; Medicinal Plants
... They also comprise all essential amino acids except glycine, histidine, and arginine. Large concentrations of asparagines are present while glycine and proline occur in a reasonable amount [42]. The lotus leaf possesses pharmacologic and physiologic compounds, which including hepatoprotective, antioxidant, antidiarrheal, antiviral, immunomodulatory, and antiobesity effects. ...
Article
Gas clathrates or the gas hydrates are the solid ice particles encapsulating gas molecules (commonly methane - CH 4 and carbon dioxide - CO 2 ) within the water cavities, at moderately high-pressure and low-temperature conditions. The petroleum extraction process from the deep-sea environment favours the occurrence of hydrates, and CO 2 hydrates require milder p, T conditions than CH 4 hydrates. Thus, chocking the pipeline network and obstructing the petroleum flow; leading to a substantial economic loss and hazardous. Conventional hydrate inhibitors (methanol, ethanol, glycols, Amino acids, and ionic liquids, etc.) are used, which are chemically toxic, costly, and required in large volumes (30-50 wt %). Therefore a suitable additive preventing plug formation is on high demand. The present study disclosures the use of three green leaf extracts Azadirachta indica (Neem - NL), Piper betel (betel - BL), and Nelumbo nucifera (Indian lotus - LL) in low dosage (0.5 wt %) on the CO 2 hydrate formation. Experiments are conducted in the isochoric method, with 0.5 wt % green-additives. The hydrates nucleate at higher subcooling (̴ 7-9 K), and the conversion is about ̴ 33-40 %. The induction time is nearly the same both pure- H 2 O and H2O with LL, whereas, it is ̴3 and 4 times higher for NL and BL. The hydrate growth kinetics also indicate significant retardation (2 – 4 times). Thus, these bio-additives, in low-dosage, could be an effective THI and also KHI for preventing the CO 2 hydrates plugs.
... (A. indica), commonly known as "Neem" or "Sadao" in Thailand, is a member of the Meliaceae family. It is a widely used traditional medicinal plant in Ayurvedic, Chinese, Homeopathic and Unani medicines, particularly in Asia and Africa (Alzohairy, 2016;Eid et al., 2017). In Thailand, young leaves and flowers of A. indica are extensively consumed as vegetable and used as a traditional medicine in household remedies for a variety of ailments, including headaches, insomnia, and stress relief. ...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of this study was to evaluate whether an aqueous extract of Azadirachta indica A. Juss. (A. indica) flower had anxiolytic and antidepressant-like effects in the stressed rats. Male Wistar rats were randomly allocated to one of two experimental groups: control or stress. The stress groups were received restraint stress for 3 h. The stressed rats were administered a vehicle, diazepam, fluoxetine, and A. indica at doses of 250, 500, and 1000 mg/kg BW for 30 days. The elevated plus-maze test (EPMT), the forced swimming test (FST), and the open field test (OFT) were used to assess anxiolytic and antidepressant-like behaviors. In the EPMT, the percentage of the number of open arm entries and the duration spent in open arms were measured. These measurements were considerably enhanced in the stressed rats treated with diazepam and A. indica flower extract at a dose of 500 mg/kg BW. Furthermore, the stressed rats given fluoxetine and A. indica flower extract at all doses employed in this study showed a significant reduction in the amount of time the rats were immobilized in the FST. However, there was no significant difference in spontaneous locomotor activity between any of the groups. Additionally, the stressed rats treated with either positive control medications or A. indica flower extract exhibited significantly higher brain dopamine (DA) and serotonin (5-HT) levels, but lower blood cortisol levels as compared to the stressed rats treated with vehicle. Moreover, A. indica flower extract had no harmful effect on the stressed rats’ liver tissue.
... This plant can grow up to 18 m high and 30m wide, and its leaves contain an array of biologically active compounds. These include triterpenoids, alkaloids, phenolic compounds, flavonoids, carotenoids, ketones, and steroids (Eid et al., 2017). ...
Article
Full-text available
Smallholder farmers in underdeveloped countries, such as Nepal, frequently experience substantial grain storage losses, which contribute significantly to food insecurity. Wheat is one of the necessary needs of humans, these crops are particularly grown in the winter season. Humans preserve grains throughout the year. Approximately 10-20% of grain is lost to pests (insects, rats), and diseases (rotten) cobs in Nepal. As a preventative measure, farmers often used botanical insecticides in the past, which are now being replaced by modern chemical fumigants. These fumigants residue is highly toxic and causes health hazards to humans when used continuously and indiscriminately. Thus, the objective of this review is to assess the traditional plant-based grain storage practices for smallholder farmers in developing countries and highlight their most promising features and drawbacks. Research studies on neem and other botanical plants, their constituents as fumigants i.e., compounds acting on target insects against stored-grain crops insects have been reviewed. Azadirachta indica, commonly known as neem, has attracted worldwide prominence in recent years, owing to its wide range of botanical insecticides. This plant's fruit, seeds, oil, leaves, roots, and bark are used for pest management, insecticidal properties, insect repellents, pesticides properties, have antiretroviral, antifungal, antibacterial, and medicinal properties for grain crops. Neem extracts can be used against over 250 pests including whiteflies, aphids, mealybugs, mites, and termites. This review summaries the wide range of botanical activities of the neem along with other botanical plants as a grain protectant.
Article
Full-text available
Neem (Azadirachta indica) is an important member of the Meliaceae family and its role as health-promoting effect is attributed to it is rich source of phytoconstituents. It has been widely used in Ayurvedic, Chinese and Unani medicines worldwide particularly in Indian Subcontinent in the prevention and treatment of various diseases. Earlier finding confirmed that neem and its phtoconstituents play a key role to scavenge free radical generation and prevention of disease pathogenesis. It is considered as safe medicinal plants and regulates the various biological processes without any adverse effect. In this current review, the role of Azadirachta indica is summarized in the prevention and treatment of diseases via the regulation of various physiological and biological pathways.
Presentation
Full-text available
Recent in-silico models for wear calculation in total hip replacements
Article
Full-text available
Azadirachta indica phytochemicals growth and hostile to bacterial properties. In the specific research, the mixture ability of five mixes that are available in the Azadirachta indica with all the eleven proteins through in the silico techniques was done. Plant extricates ensure against harmful compound instigated injury by expanding the body's degrees of cancer prevention agent atoms, for example, glutathione, and improving the action of cell reinforcement chemicals. A. indica leaves methanolic extricate GC-MS analysis 47 bioactive compounds present mixes distinguishing proof uncovered the presence of R.T.(3.36) dl-Homoserine, (3.73) 2-Furanmethanol, (4.65) (+-)-4-Amino-4,5-dihydro-2(3H)-Furanone, (6.34) Aziridine, 2-isopropyl-1,3-dimethyl-, trans-(19.39) 5-Bromopentanoic acid, 2-isopropoxyphenyl ester. In-vitro anti-oxidant activity of maximum and minimum value. DPPH IC150 Values. The after effects of this examination offer a foundation of utilizing A. indica leaves as home grown option for different sicknesses. As there are re-established interests in home grown based meds to hinder the symptoms of manufactured medications, the mission to discover new and one of a kind sub-atomic constructions of plant root as significant constituents of some regular items, and those of current medications as methods for battling obstinate sicknesses is likewise on the expansion.
Article
Full-text available
Quercetin (3,3′,4′,5,7-Pentahydroxyflavone) is the one among the bioactive secondary metabolite (BASM) in neem seed of Azadirachta indica A. Juss. Quercetin (Que) and its derivatives hold promising pharmacological effects. Antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antimicrobial, anti-Alzheimer’s, antiarthritic, cardiovascular, and wound-healing effects of Que have been extensively investigated, recently lot of work has been carried out on its anticancer activity against different cancer cell lines. Recently, in silico/ in vitro studies have demonstrated that Que interferes with different stages of coronavirus entry and replication cycle (PLpro, 3CLpro, and NTPase/helicase). Due to its pleiotropic effects in human health and disease and lack of systemic toxicity, Que and its derivatives could be tested for their efficacy on human target system in future clinical trials. In the present study, an attempt has been made to evaluate the physicochemical, druggable properties of Que from A. indica to prospect its ADMET properties. Keywords: NEEM; Azadirachta indica; Quercetin; Pharmacoinformatics; ADMET; Drug-Likeness; Toxicology
Article
Background: The incidence of dermatophytosis has increased in recent years in spite of the availability of antifungal drugs. Faced with all the above, medicinal plants could be an alternative. So, this work aimed at evaluating antidermatophytic activities of some medicinal plants used in Cameroon against dermatophytoses. Methods: An ethnopharmacological survey was carried out by interview of traditional healers in six villages of Bafou locality. Nine plants were selected and methanol extracts were prepared therefrom. The in vitro antidermatophytic activities of these extracts were tested using microdilution method. The degree of dermal irritation of the extract from leaves of Ageratum conyzoides was determined in Cavia porcellus using the occluded dermal irritation test method. This extract was subjected to an acute dermal toxicity test using C. porcellus as animal model. For that, animals were randomly divided into four groups: Groups 1, 2 and 3 respectively received single doses of extract at 8000 mg/kg, 4250 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg body weight while control group received distilled water. Results: Among the tested extract, that of leaves of A. conyzoides showed the best antidermatophytic activity (32≤MIC≤512 μg/mL). Dermal administration of the single dose of this extract led to skin irritation, weakness and less motor activities at the dose of 8000 mg/kg. The lethal dose fifty (LD50) was defined as greater than 8000 mg/kg. In general, biochemical as well as hematological parameters of animals were normal. Conclusions : These results show that A. conyzoides is the most effective against dermatophytes without adverse side effects at reasonable doses. Keywords: Dermatophytes; Ageratum conyzoides; irritation; acute toxicity
Article
Full-text available
Article ID: JBRES1225 Azadirachta indica phytochemicals are found to have against malignant growth and hostile to bacterial properties. In the specifi c examination, the coupling profi ciency of fi ve mixes that are available in the Azadirachta indica with all the eleven proteins through in silico techniques was completed. Plant removes ensure against harmful compound instigated injury by expanding the body's degrees of cell reinforcement particles, for example, glutathione, and improving the action of cancer prevention agent chemicals. A549 cells treated with Azadirachta indica ethanolic separate in various hours (6, 12, 24 and 36 hours) after the 36 hours the cells development are controlled. As there are re-established interests in home grown based meds to hinder the results of manufactured medications, Azadirachta Indica L. a leaf contains phytochemical intensifi es having all the more free revolutionary rummaging just as anticancer exercises. ABSTRACT ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE
Article
Full-text available
The plant, Azadirachta indica A Juss, family Meliaceae is a native of Asia but has now naturalized in West Africa and is widely cultivated in Nigeria as an ornamental as well as medicinal plant. The plant is used extensively in Nigeria for the traditional treatment of malaria and other associated conditions in form of decoction, in which unspecified quantities are usually consumed without due regards to toxicological and other adverse effects. In the present study, an attempt was made to investigate the effects of methanol extract of the leaves of A. indica on the liver and kidney of Wister rats for the period of 28 days. 20 animals were used and grouped into 4 groups of 5 rats each, in which 1, 000 mg/kg, 1, 500 mg/kg and 2, 000 mg/kg were administered to the first 3 groups and referred to as the test groups, the fourth group was administered with an equal volume of distilled water and referred to as the control group. At the end of the experiment, the animals were scarified and their livers and the kidneys excised. These organs were processed for the normal hematoxylin and eosin staining. Histological examination of the livers of the test groups revealed an apoptosis of hepatocytes, ground glass appearance of hepatocytes, presence of inflammatory cells around the portal area and congested blood vessels. Examination of the kidneys also revealed a congestion of vessels in glomerulus, presence of inflammatory cells in the interstitum and congested blood vessels and hyaline globule in collecting tubules. However, the control group revealed normal histological features of both the liver and the kidney. It could therefore be suggested that large dose consumption of the leaves of A. indica for long term should be avoided as may cause malfunction of such vital organs.
Article
Full-text available
Neem (Azadirachta indica) commonly called ‘Indian Lilac’ or ‘Margosa’, belongs to the family Meliaceae, subfamily Meloideae and tribe Melieae. Neem is the most versatile, multifarious trees of tropics, with immense potential. It possesses maximum useful non-wood products (leaves, bark, flowers, fruits, seed, gum, oil and neem cake) than any other tree species. These non-wood products are known to have antiallergenic, antidermatic, antifeedent, antifungal, anti-inflammatory, antipyorrhoeic, antiscabic, cardiac, diuretic, insecticidal, larvicidal, nematicidal, spermicidal and other biological activities. Because of these activities neem has found enormous applications making it a green treasure. Keywords: Azadirachta indica; Neem products; Uses.
Article
Full-text available
Azadirachta indica (Neem) is very useful traditional medicinal plant in the subcontinent. Each part of the tree has some medicinal properties. In this present studies the bioactivity and antimicrobial activity of Azadirachta indica leaf extract was evaluated. For bioactivity, Brine shrimp lethality test was done for A. indica ethanolic leaf extract and determined LC50 was 37.15 mg/ml indicating that the prepared extract was rich in bioactive compounds. Ethanolic leaf extract was also used to evaluate antibacterial activity and the extract exhibited significant activity against the tested bacterial strain. However, inhibitory activity was concentration and test organism dependent. Gram-positive bacteria were more sensitive to the extract compare to Gram-negative bacteria. All of the tested bacteria showed sensitivity at higher concentration (7 mg/ml) but multi drug resistant bacteria Klebsiella pneumoniae was very sensitive even at very low concentration (2 mg/ml). Further, the results depict that leaf extracts of Azadirachta indica could be used as a potential source of antimicrobial agents against the bacterial strains tested.
Article
Ethnopharmacological relevance: Neem (Azadirachta indica; Meliaceae) is widely known for its cold pressed seed oil, mainly used as insecticide, but also for cosmetic, medicinal and agricultural uses. The seed oil is widely employed in the Indian subcontinent, and the leaves seem to have a lower relevance, but the ethnobotanical information of Bali (Indonesia) considers the utilisation of leaves for medicinal properties. Aim of the study: We report ethnopharmacological information about current uses of neem, in particular of the leaves, besides the insecticidal one, we discuss on the historical background of their uses. Materials and methods: Ethnobotanical data were collected using both literature and scientific references and semi-structured interviews with 50 informants (ages ranged between 14 and 76 years old) through the snowball method in thirteen aga (indigenous Balinese) villages, following Ethic code procedures. The informants were asked to specify: which part of the plant was used, and how that plant part was used. Plant specimens were collected, identified and made into herbarium voucher. In consideration of the high variability and complex chemical constituent of neem, a HPTLC analysis of neem leaves coming from both the Indonesian island of Bali and the Indian subcontinent was carried out. Results: The data on the medical use of traditional preparations from leaves of neem display a wide spectrum of applications. In the Indian subcontinent, neem leaves are used to treat dental and gastrointestinal disorders, malaria fevers, skin diseases, and as insects repellent, while the Balinese used neem leaves as a diuretic and for diabetes, headache, heartburn, and stimulating the appetite. Differences in utilisation cannot be related to chemical differences and other constituents besides limonoids must be investigated and related to the multipurpose activity of neem. Conclusion: This study revealed that neem leaves are believed to treat diabetes in both Balinese and Indian communities. Limonoids can not be considered the only responsible of digestive properties. Further research would be the validation of this report by enzymatic tests and the identification of active constituents.
Article
A simple method for the green synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using autoclave assisted gum extract of neem (Azadirachta indica) has been investigated for the first time. Silver nanoparticles were formed due to reduction of silver nitrate solution when mixed with the gum extract after autoclaving at 121 ◦C and 15 psi. The UV–vis absorption spectrum of the biologically reduced reaction mixture showed the surface plasmon peak at 418 nm which is characteristic peak of silver nanoparticles. The functional biomolecules present in the gum extract and the interaction between the nanoparticles were identified by the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis. Average diameter of the synthesized nanoparticles was found to be <30 nm, as revealed from transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) analysis. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis confirmed the face-centered cubic crystalline structure of metallic silver. The synthesized silver nanoparticles exhibited antibacterial activity against clinical isolates of Salmonella enteritidis and Bacillus cereus. Moreover, the antibacterial activity ofthe silver nanoparticles was further confirmed by degradation oftest bacterial DNA. The results suggestthatthe gum mediated synthesized silver nanoparticles could be used as a promising antibacterial agent against clinical pathogens.
Article
Eight Pakistani medicinal plants were investigated for antipyretic activity in rabbits receiving subcutaneous yeast injections. Hexane- and chloroform-soluble extracts of Aconitum napellus stems, Corchorus depressus whole plant and Gmelina asiatica roots exhibited prominent oral antipyretic activity while insignificant antipyretic effects were found in the hexane- and chloroform-soluble portions of Melia azadirachta seeds, Tinospora cordifolia stems and Vitex trifolia seeds. No antipyretic actions whatsoever were produced by extracts of A. heterophyllum roots and Hedysarum alhagi aerial parts. Toxicity studies revealed no noteworthy toxic or adverse effects for any of the above plant extracts up to the highest oral doses of 1.6 g/kg except in the case of A. napellus.
Article
Neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss.) has universally been accepted as a wonder tree because of its diverse utility. Multidirectional therapeutic uses of neem have been known in India since the Vedic times. Besides its therapeutic efficacies, neem has already established its potential as a source of naturally occurring insecticide, pesticide and agrochemicals. Safe and economically cheaper uses of different parts of neem in the treatment of various diseases and in agriculture are discussed in this article. It further deals with the active chemical constituents of various neem formulations. Commercially available neem products are also mentioned along with their respective applications. Furthermore, evaluation of safety aspects of different parts of neem and neem compounds along with commercial formulations are also taken into consideration. Systematic scientific knowledge on neem reported so far is thus very useful for the wider interests of the world community.
Article
Chewing twigs of the mango or neem tree is a common way of cleaning the teeth in the rural and semi-urban population. These twigs are also believed to possess medicinal properties. The present study was conducted to evaluate the antimicrobial effects of these chewing sticks on the microorganisms Streptococcus mutans , Streptococcus salivarius , Streptococcus mitis , and Streptococcus sanguis which are involved in the development of dental caries. An additional objective was to identify an inexpensive, simple, and effective method of preventing and controlling dental caries. The sticks were sun dried, ground into a coarse powder, and weighed into 5 gm, 10 gm, and 50 gm amounts. These were added to 100 ml of deionized distilled water. After soaking for 48 h at 4 degrees C, the water was filtered. The filtrate was inoculated onto blood agar plates containing individual species of microorganisms and incubated at 37 degrees C for 48 h. Mango extract, at 50% concentration, showed maximum zone of inhibition on Streptococcus mitis . Neem extract produced the maximum zone of inhibition on Streptococcus mutans at 50% concentration. Even at 5% concentration neem extract showed some inhibition of growth for all the four species of organisms. A combination of neem and mango chewing sticks may provide the maximum benefit. We recommend the use of both the chewing sticks.
Effects of Methanol Extract Of Azadirachta Indica Leaves On The Histology Of Liver And Kidney Of Wistar Rats 42) Talpur AD, Ikhwanuddin M. <Azadirachta indica (neem) leaf dietary effects on the immunity response and disease resistance of Asian seabass, Lates calcarifer challenged with Vibrio harveyi
  • U Katsayal
  • Y Nadabo
  • V Isiorho
Katsayal U, Nadabo Y, Isiorho V. Effects of Methanol Extract Of Azadirachta Indica Leaves On The Histology Of Liver And Kidney Of Wistar Rats. Nig J Pharma Sci. 2008;7(1):9-14. 42) Talpur AD, Ikhwanuddin M. <Azadirachta indica (neem) leaf dietary effects on the immunity response and disease resistance of Asian seabass, Lates calcarifer challenged with Vibrio harveyi. Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2013;34(1):254-64.
Treatment of common ailments by plant-based remedies among the people of district Attock (Punjab) of Northern Pakistan
  • M Ahmed
  • M A Khan
  • M Zafar
  • S Sultana
Ahmed M, Khan MA, Zafar M, Sultana S. Treatment of common ailments by plant-based remedies among the people of district Attock (Punjab) of Northern Pakistan. Afr J Tradit Complement Altern Med. 2007;4(1):112-20.
Herbal remedies of Azadirachta indica and its medicinal application
  • D Bhowmik
  • J Yadav
  • K Tripathi
  • K S Kumar
Bhowmik D, Yadav J, Tripathi K, Kumar KS. Herbal remedies of Azadirachta indica and its medicinal application. J Chem Pharm Res. 2010;2(1):62-72.
Report of an ad hoc panel of the Board on Science and Technology for International Development1992
  • N D Vietmeyer
Vietmeyer ND. Neem: a tree for solving global problems. Report of an ad hoc panel of the Board on Science and Technology for International Development1992.