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11th Five-Year Plan’s energy conservation
and carbon emissions reduction targets (2),
some local governments enacted a policy of
power rationing in 2010, which could lead
to distortion effects in the economy (3). In
addition, ecological conservation must be
grounded in science. Improper afforesta-
tion in drylands, for instance, promoted by
some local governments for political rather
than scientific reasons, has led to environ-
mental degradation (4, 5). These missteps
indicate that policy-makers lack patience
and scientific knowledge.
Long-term environmental protec-
tion involves coordination between the
central and local governments, supervi-
sion of environmental protection bureaus,
engagement of the science community,
and support from the society. Otherwise,
environmental protection may turn into
a radical movement seeking short-term
successes and quick profits. This can dam-
age the economy and undermine China’s
admirable goals.
Liangang Xiao and Rongqin Zhao*
School of Resources and Environment, North
China University of Water Resources and Electric
Power, Zhengzhou, 450045, China.
*Corresponding author. Email: zhaorq234@163.com
REFERENCES
1. “Xi Jinping’s report to the 19th National Congress
of the Communist Party of China,Xinhua (2017);
http://news.xinhuanet.com/politics/19cpcnc/2017-
10/27/c_1121867529.htm [in Chinese].
2. “Outline of the 11th Five-Year Plan for national economic
and social development in People’s Republic of
China,Xinhua (2006); http://politics.people.com.cn/
GB/1026/4208451.html [in Chinese].
3. A. Li, B. Lin, Energ. Pol. 60, 667 (2013).
4. S. Cao, G. Wang, L. Chen, Nature 465, 31 (2010).
5. X. Jia, et al., J. Hydrol. 546, 113 (2017).
10.1126/science.aar3760
24 NOVEMBER 2017 • VOL 358 ISSUE 6366 1009SCIENCE sciencemag.org
Ecuador’s sharks face
threats from within
In their Letters, J. J. Alava and F. Paladines
(“Illegal fishing on the Galápagos high
seas,” 29 September, p. 1362) and L. R.
Gerber and D. Quiroga (“Incentives for
Galápagos protection,” 20 October, p. 313)
referred to the threat posed by foreign
vessels to highly migratory endangered
species, such as sharks, in Ecuadorian
waters. The Letters were prompted by
Galápagos National Park and Navy opera-
tives’ recent seizure of a Chinese vessel
carrying more than 6000 sharks inside the
protected waters of the Galápagos Marine
Reserve (1). It is true that foreign fleets
operating in and adjacent to Ecuador’s
exclusive economic zone (including
Galápagos Marine Reserve waters) are a
threat to sharks. However, the effect of
Ecuador’s own artisanal longline fleet on
these species should not be overlooked.
Ecuador’s artisanal fleet is made up
of more than 45,000 vessels, which are
allowed to land sharks as “by-catch.” At
least 250,000 sharks are landed annually,
with a substantial portion of the effort
concentrated along the Galápagos Marine
Reserve border (2). Many of these sharks
are both threatened and migratory, and
they belong to populations that use the
Galápagos Marine Reserve. Ecuador’s
artisanal vessels are not obliged to carry
automatic tracking systems (3), so they
could potentially slip into Galápagos
Marine Reserve waters undetected.
Furthermore, in 2016, an experimental
longline fishery was approved within
the Galápagos Marine Reserve, involving
local fishing boats (4). This is the fifth
experiment of its kind since 1997, and all
previous experiments resulted in unaccept-
able levels of by-catch (5).
The hard work of the Galápagos
National Park rangers to protect sharks
is thus also under threat from within.
Fortunately, a new Fisheries Law is under
discussion in Ecuador. The current draft
of this law is promising (6). If approved,
it will require artisanal vessels to have
satellite tracking mechanisms to moni-
tor their fishing activities and preserve
their safety. This is an encouraging step
forward. However, it is still necessary to
strengthen national regulations to protect
sharks through providing an unambiguous
definition of by-catch and putting an end
to the string of longlining experiments in
the Galápagos Marine Reserve.
Alex R. Hearn1* and Santiago J. Bucaram2
1Galápagos Science Center, Universidad San
Francisco de Quito, Diego de Robles s/n y Pampite,
Cumbayá, Quito, Ecuador. 2Facultad de Ciencias
Sociales y Humanísticas, Escuela Superior
Politécnica del Litoral (ESPOL), Guayaquil, Ecuador.
*Corresponding author. Email: ahearn@usfq.edu.ec
REFEREN C E S
1. “Ecuador jails Chinese fishermen found with 6,000
sharks,Reuters (2017); www.reuters.com/article/
us-ecuador-environment-galapagos/ecuador-jails-
chinese-fishermen-found-with-6000-sharks-
idUSKCN1B81TS.
2. J. Martínez-Ortiz, A. M. Aires-da-Silva, C. E. Lennert-Cody,
M. N. Maunder, PLOS ONE 10, e0135136 (2015).
3. Reglamento a la Ley de Pesca Y Desarrollo Pesquero,
Decreto Ejecutivo 3198, Registro Oficial 690 (2016);
www.acuaculturaypesca.gob.ec/wp-content/uploads/
downloads/2016/12/Reglamento-a-la-Ley-de-
Pesca-2016.pdf [in Spanish].
4. Ministerio de Agricultura, Ganadería, Acuicultura y Pesca,
Instituto Nacional de Pesca, “Evaluación de las artes de
pesca experimentales para la captura sostenible de peces
pelágicos grandes en la Reserva Marina de Galápagos”
(2016); http://institutopesca.gob.ec/wp-content/
uploads/2017/07/Propuesta-del-Proyecto.pdf
[In Spanish].
5. J. C. Murillo, H. Reyes, P. Zarate, S. Banks, E. Danulat,
“Evaluación de la captura incidental durante el Plan Piloto
de Pesca de Altura con Palangre en la Reserva Marina
de Galápagos” (Dirección Parque Nacional Galápagos/
Fundación Charles Darwin, Galapagos, Ecuador, 2004)
[in Spanish].
6. Draft of the Ecuadorian Fishery Law (www.acuaculturay
pesca.gob.ec/borrador-ley-de-pesca-2017) [in Spanish].
10.1126/science.aar4109
TECHNICAL COMMENT ABSTRACTS
Comment on “Water harvesting from air
with metal-organic frameworks powered by
natural sunlight
Francis Meunier
Kim et al. (Reports, 28 April 2017, p. 430)
describe a method for harvesting water
from air, using a metal-organic framework
(MOF) as the adsorbent. The process as
described in the paper is, however, inad-
equate, and the system cannot deliver the
claimed amount of liquid water in an arid
climate. A modification of the process
design and the use of more suitable MOFs
may be more likely to achieve the goals
targeted by Kim et al.
Full text: dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.aao0361
Response to Comment on “Water harvest-
ing from air with metal-organic frameworks
powered by natural sunlight”
Hyunho Kim, Sameer R. Rao, Eugene A.
Kapustin, Shankar Narayanan, Sungwoo
Yang, Hiroyasu Furukawa, Ari S. Umans,
Omar M. Yaghi, Evelyn N. Wang
The comment by Meunier states that the
process we described in our Report cannot
deliver the claimed amount of liquid water
in an arid climate. This statement is not valid
because the parameters presented in our
study were inappropriately combined to
draw misguided conclusions.
Full text: dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.aao0433
Monarch butterflies
congregate in the
Oyamel fir forests of
Michoacán, Mexico.
DA_1124Letters.indd 1009 11/20/17 11:45 AM
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Ecuador's sharks face threats from within
Alex R. Hearn and Santiago J. Bucaram
DOI: 10.1126/science.aar4109
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... The scalloped hammerhead shark (Sphyrna lewini ) is a medium sized coastal-pelagic shark that can attain a size of over 4 m (but usually not more than 2-3 m) [29], which is under considerable threat from fishing activity, and is the main source of hammerhead shark fins in Hong Kong markets [5]. Hammerhead sharks, along with all other shark species, are not officially targeted in countries such as Costa Rica and Ecuador, yet a legal loophole allowing for the sale of sharks caught as "by-catch" has resulted in at least 200,000 sharks landed each year in Ecuador alone [9,14]. ...
Chapter
In this paper, we propose a new automated method based on deep convolutional neural networks to detect and track critically endangered hammerhead sharks in video sequences. The proposed method improved the standard YOLOv3 deep architecture by adding 18 more layers (16 convolutional and 2 Yolo layers), which increased the model performance in detecting the species under analysis at different scales. According to the frame analysis based validation, the proposed method outperformed the standard YOLOv3 model and was similar to the mask R-CNN model in terms of accuracy scores for the majority of inspected frames. Also, the mean of precision and recall on an experimental frames dataset formed using the 10-fold cross-validation method highlighted that the proposed method outperformed the remaining architectures, reaching scores of 0.99 and 0.93, respectively. Furthermore, the methods were able to avoid introducing false positive detection. However, they were unable to handle the problem of species occlusion. Our results indicate that the proposed method is a feasible alternative tool that could help to monitor relative abundance of hammerhead sharks in the wild.
... The scalloped hammerhead shark (Sphyrna lewini) is a medium sized coastal-pelagic shark that can attain a size of over 4 m (but usually not more than 2-3 m) [12], which is under considerable threat from fishing activity, and is the main source of hammerhead shark fins in Hong Kong markets [13]. Hammerhead sharks, along with all other shark species, are not officially targeted in countries such as Costa Rica and Ecuador, yet a legal loophole allowing for the sale of sharks caught as "by-catch" has resulted in at least 200,000 sharks landed each year in Ecuador alone [14]. Both Ecuador and Costa Rica have made efforts to protect their marine biodiversity, notably the creation of marine protected areas (MPAs) around their oceanic islands of Galapagos and Cocos respectively. ...
Article
Full-text available
The artisanal fisheries of Ecuador operate within one of the most dynamic and productive marine ecosystems of the world. This study investigates the catch composition of the Ecuadorian artisanal fishery for large pelagic fishes, including aspects of its spatio-temporal dynamics. The analyses of this study are based on the most extensive dataset available to date for this fishery: a total of 106,963 trip-landing inspection records collected at its five principal ports during 2008 ‒ 2012. Ecuadorian artisanal fisheries remove a substantial amount of biomass from the upper trophic-level predatory fish community of the eastern tropical Pacific Ocean. It is estimated that at least 135 thousand metric tons (mt) (about 15.5 million fish) were landed in the five principal ports during the study period. The great novelty of Ecuadorian artisanal fisheries is the "oceanic-artisanal" fleet component, which consists of mother-ship (nodriza) boats with their towed fiber-glass skiffs (fibras) operating with pelagic longlines. This fleet has fully expanded into oceanic waters as far offshore as 100°W, west of the Galapagos Archipelago. It is estimated that nodriza operations produce as much as 80% of the total catches of the artisanal fishery. The remainder is produced by independent fibras operating in inshore waters with pelagic longlines and/or surface gillnets. A multivariate regression tree analysis was used to investigate spatio-environmental effects on the nodriza fleet (n = 6,821 trips). The catch species composition of the nodriza fleet is strongly influenced by the northwesterly circulation of the Humboldt Current along the coast of Peru and its associated cold waters masses. The target species and longline gear-type used by nodrizas change seasonally with the incursion of cool waters (< 25°C) from the south and offshore. During this season, dolphinfish (Coryphaena hippurus) dominates the catches. However, in warmer waters, the fishery changes to tuna-billfish-shark longline gear and the catch composition becomes much more diverse.
Instituto Nacional de PescaEvaluación de las artes de pesca experimentales para la captura sostenible de peces pelágicos grandes en la Reserva Marina de Galápagos” (2016)
  • Ministerio De Agricultura
  • Acuacultura Ganadería
  • Pesca
); www.acuaculturaypesca.gob.ec/wp-content
  • La Reglamento A
  • Y Desarrollo Ley De Pesca
  • Pesquero
Xi Jinping's report to the 19th National Congress of the Communist Party of China
"Xi Jinping's report to the 19th National Congress of the Communist Party of China," Xinhua (2017);
Outline of the 11th Five-Year Plan for national economic and social development in People's Republic of China
"Outline of the 11th Five-Year Plan for national economic and social development in People's Republic of China," Xinhua (2006);
  • A Li
  • B Lin
A. Li, B. Lin, Energ. Pol. 60, 667 (2013).
  • S Cao
  • G Wang
  • L Chen
S. Cao, G. Wang, L. Chen, Nature 465, 31 (2010).
Evaluación de las artes de pesca experimentales para la captura sostenible de peces pelágicos grandes en la Reserva Marina de Galápagos
  • Ministerio De Agricultura
  • Ganadería
  • Acuacultura Y Pesca
Ministerio de Agricultura, Ganadería, Acuicultura y Pesca, Instituto Nacional de Pesca, "Evaluación de las artes de pesca experimentales para la captura sostenible de peces pelágicos grandes en la Reserva Marina de Galápagos" (2016); http://institutopesca.gob.ec/wp-content/ uploads/2017/07/Propuesta-del-Proyecto.pdf [In Spanish].
  • X Jia
X. Jia, et al., J. Hydrol. 546, 113 (2017). 10.1126/science.aar3760 24 NOVEMBER 2017 • VOL 358 ISSUE 6366