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Anti Cancer Activity of Active Substances from Mangosteen pericarp (Garcinia mangostana Linn) against T47 D Cell Lines

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Anti Cancer Activity of Active Substances from
Mangosteen pericarp
(Garcinia mangostana Linn) against T47 D Cell
Lines
Siti Rofida1*, Sukardiman2, Aty Widyawaruyanti2, and Lusiana Arifianti2
1Departement of Pharmacy, Faculty of Health Sciences, Muhammadiyah Malang University,
Indonesia
Jalan Bendungan Sutami 188 A, Kota Malang, Jawa Timur 65145
2Departement of Pharmacognocy and Phytochemical, Faculty of Pharmacy, Airlangga University,
Indonesia
Jalan Dharmawangsa No.4-6, Airlangga, Gubeng, Kota Surabaya, Jawa Timur 60286
*Corresponding author: rofida.28879@gmail.com
ABSTRACT
Background: Garcinia mangostana Linn (Guttiferae) or commonly know as mangosteen has been
reported scientifically as anticancer. In developing a pericarp of G.mangostana as the anticancer
phytopharmaceutical product, bioassay-guided fractionation approach was chosen to get active
substances to be used as raw material breast-cancer drugs. Objectives:The aim of this study is to get
the anticancer substances from the pericarp of G.mangostana that are active against breast cancer
cells T47D. Method: Separation of active substances was carried out by column chromatography
techniques. Based on the principle of bioassay-guided fractionation, a cytotoxicity assay of ethanolic
extract and fractions was performed against T47D human breast cancer cell lines.
Results:Cytotoxicity assay of the extract, fraction 2, subfraction 2.2, subfraction 2.2.4, and
subfraction 2.2.4.4 provided IC50 values 8.96 ug/mL; 1.80 ug/mL; 1.76 ug/mL; 1.12 ug/mL; and 6.93
ug/mL respectively
Keywords: Garcinia mangostana Linn, bioassay-guided fractionation, active substance against
breast cancer
INTRODUCTION
Cancer is a disease which characterized by a change of control mechanism that
regulates the proliferation and differentiation of cells. Mortality caused by cancer is
approximately about 13% from all (WHO, 2012). Breast cancer is the type of cancer that is
characterized by high level of mortality. Cancer treatments are aimed to treatment, prolong
and improve patient quality of life.
Garcinia mangostana Linn or commonly known as mangosteen is a plant from
Guttiferae family and have been used traditionally for the treatment of skin infections and
wound, amoebic dysentery and inflammation (Chaverri et al. 2008; Chin & Kinghorn
2008). These plants contain xanthone-type compounds, flavonoids, triterpenoids,
benzophenones, biphenyl compounds, pyrrole, benzofuran, tannins, and saponins (Chaverri et
al. 2008; Hutapea 1994). Anticancer research of G.mangostana pericarp ethanol extract using
cultured human breast cancer cells (SKBR3) have been given the IC50 value of 15.45 ± 0.5
ug/ml (Moongkarndi 2004). The Breast-cancer activity of γ-mangosteen and α-mangosteen
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Health Science International Conference (HSIC 2017)
Advances in Health Sciences Research (AHSR), volume 2
This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/).
Copyright © 2017, the Authors. Published by Atlantis Press.
compounds using cultured human breast cancer cells (MCF-7) showed IC50 values of 0.85
and 10.5 µg/ml, respectively (Ahmat et al. 2010, Chitra et al. 2010).
Based on the previous studies, the pericarp of G.mangostana has active compounds as
anticancer and is prospective as a phytopharmaceutical product. In developed of
G.mangostana pericarp into phytopharmaceutical product, then the study to get the active
substances as raw material for breast cancer. The processes include extraction and
fractionation. Based on the principle of bioassay-guided fractionation, a cytotoxicity assay of
ethanolic extract and fractions against T47D human breast cancer cell lines were performed.
METHOD
Materials and cell
Ethanol, n-hexane, ethyl acetate, chloroform, methanol, dichloromethane, aqua bidest, silica
gel 60 Merck 0,063-0,200 mm, silica gel 60 G Merck. Breast cancer cell lines T47D collected
from Parasitology Laboratory, Medicine Faculty UGM, medium RPMI, fetal bovine serum
10%, penicillin-streptomycin, 1%, fungison 0,5 %, Phosphate Buffer Saline 20 %; Dimethyl
sulfoxide; 3-(4,5-Dimetiltiazol-2-il)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide; Sodium Dodecyl
Sulphate 10 %.
Plant material
Garcinia mangostana pericarp was obtained from Blitar.
Fractionation
5.5 Kg mangosteen’s pericarp powder macerated using 14.5 L ethanol 96% for 48 hours.
Then filtered and the filtrate was separated. The filtrate was collected and evaporated with a
vacuum rotary evaporator to obtain a viscous extract which was dried in an oven at 40°
C. Separation used vacuum chromatography column method with stationary phase silica gel
and the mobile phase gradient solvent hexane: ethyl acetate, chloroform: methanol, methanol,
and ethanol in order to obtain 12 fractions. The results of cytotoxicity assay used T47D cells,
proved that the fraction 2 was active. The next separation was performed on fraction 2 using
open column chromatography with stationary phase silica, mobile phase gradient solvent
hexane: ethyl acetate, ethyl acetate: chloroform, chloroform: methanol, and methanol to
obtain 7 subfractions. The results of cytotoxicity assay used T47D cells, proved that the
fraction 2 was active. Then, subfraction 2.2, separated by vacuum column chromatography
used stationary phase silica, mobile phase gradient solvent hexane: dichloromethane,
dichloromethane: ethyl acetate and methanol to obtain 8 subfractions. The results of
cytotoxicity assay used T47D cells, proved that the fraction 2 was active. Further separation
was performed on the SF2.2.4 with open column chromatography used stationary phase
silica, mobile phase hexane: dichloromethane, dichloromethane: methanol and methanol to
obtain 7 subfractions. The results of cytotoxicity assay used T47D cells, indicated that
subfraktion 2.2.4.4 and 2.2.4.5 are active.
Sample preparation
The sample for cytotoxicity assay was dissolved in DMSO.
Cell Viability
Cells were distributed into 96 well of the plate and then were incubated in 5% CO2 conditions
at 37°C for overnight. Test solution with a certain concentration incorporated into cancer cell
cultures 5x10 3 cells/ml each well and were incubated under conditions of 5% CO2 at 37 ° C
for 24 hours. The fluid was pipetted and was discarded for each well and then were rinsed
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with PBS solution then shacked and thrown away. 100 ml of culture media were added to
each well. Added 10 µl solution of MTT into PBS at concentration 5 mg/ µl. Incubated under
conditions of 5% CO2 at 37°C for 4-6 hours, then added stopper reagent (10% SDS).
Incubated overnight at room temperature and stored in the dark place. The spare was read by
ELISA reader at 550600 nm wavelengths.
Statistical Analysis
The percentage of live cells was calculated to obtain the IC 50 value. The data were analyzed
with probit analysis.
RESULT AND DISCUSSION
This study is one part of the process to develop mangosteen pericarp
(Garcinia mangostana Linn.) into phytopharmaceutical products to treat breast cancer.
Introduction and development of several new and highly specific in
vitro bioassay techniques, chromatographic methods, and spectroscopic techniques have
made it much easier to screen, isolate and identify the lead compound quickly and
precisely.The drug discovery from natural materials could use bioassay-guided
solation approach (Sarker et al. 2006). This research aims to obtain anticancer ingredients
that originally are from Garcinia mangostana Linn pericarp which is active against human
breast cancer cells T47D.
The first stage was extraction process. G. mangostana pericarp was chopped and dried
in the oven at 50 °C, then grounded into powder. 5.5 Kg dried powder were macerated by
ethanol. The macerate then vaporized using a rotary evaporator at 60° C to obtain a yellowish
brown viscous extract.
TLC profiles at 254 nm UV light observations showed a dark brown color, the
observation of 366 nm UV light showed brown, yellow, blue and purple stain. The plate then
sprayed with 10% sulfuric acid and gave a yellow to brown colored stain. Flavonoids
observed with UV will give a-characteristic colors such as yellow, orange, brown, blue and
purple fluorescent (Harborne 1987). Meanwhile, phenolic compounds of carboxylic acid
group observed with UV will also give a-characteristic colors such as yellow, brown, blue or
turquoise fluorescent (Debenedetti 2009). The TLC densitometry analysis of the plate was
conducted at 254 nm wavelength and showed 2-3 peaks in 250-500 nm area. This result
indicated that the compound contained the conjugated aromatic group (Harborne 1987). The
result of in vitro assay of G. mangostana ethanolic extract against T47D breast cancer cells
showed the IC50:8.96 µg/mL (Figure 1). According to the National Cancer Institute (NCI),
the extracts that had IC50 values less than 20 µg/mL against cancer cell cultures could be
considered effective as anticancer (Ampasavate et al. 2010). So based on the provision of the
NCI, the ethanolic extract of G mangostana pericarp is effective as against breast cancer.
Bioassay guided isolation principle, as much as 7.5 grams of ethanol extracts were
fractionated by vacuum column chromatography using silica gel G60 stationary phase with a
mobile phase gradient of the solvent mixture of hexane and ethyl acetate, chloroform:
methanol, methanol and finally 96% ethanol. The solvents had been used each gradient was
100 ml and the fractions that collected and was combined based on similar TLC profiles, so
were obtained 12 fractions with respective weights of 357.2 mg; 2639.7 mg, 1093.4 mg,
477.2 mg; 298.5 mg, 214.1 mg, 181.6 mg; 1005.5 mg, 393.8 mg, 25.9 mg, 10 mg and 43 mg.
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Figure 1 Cell viability T47D cell lines
Anticancer activity results of fractions 1-12 as in vitro assay against T47D breast
cancer cells, showed IC50: 6.02; 1.80; 3.43; 6.09; 7.44; 10.44; 21.19 ; 411.52; 542.55;
5746.05; 1005.62; 360.81 µg/mL (Figure 2). Based on provisions of the NCI, the fractions 1-
6 were declared effective against breast cancer. Based on those data, further separation of the
most active fraction of the fraction 2 with IC50 values of 1.80 µg/mL will be done.
Figure 2 Cell viability T47D cell lines
Separation of the fraction 2 as much as 2 grams used an open column chromatography
with the stationary phase silica gel 60 and the mobile phase gradient solvent mixture hexane:
ethyl acetate, ethyl acetate: chloroform, chloroform: methanol and the last used
methanol. Eluates were collected every 10 ml, fractions that collected were combined based
on TLC profiles, thus obtained 7 subfractions with respective weights of 237.6 mg, 736.5 mg,
278.6 mg, 567.3 mg, 45.3 mg; 9.4 mg, 148.1 mg. Anticancer activity in vitro assay result of
subfraction 1-7 against T47D breast cancer cells, showed IC50 : 7.59; 1.76; 3.58; 4.46; 8.07;
23.64; 31.75 µg/mL (Figure 3). Based on provisions of the NCI, the subfraction 2.1-2.5 were
defineted as effective against breast cancer. Based on those data further separation of the
most active subfraction the subfraction 2.2 with IC50 values of 1.76 µg/mL will be done.
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Figure 3 Cell viability T47D cell lines
Separation process of 1 gram subfraction 2.2 by vacuum column chromatography with
the stationary phase silica gel G 60 and the mobile phase is a mixture of hexane solvent
gradient and dichloromethane, then mixed dichloromethane and ethyl acetate and the last
used methanol. The solvent was used in each gradient was 10 ml and fractions were collected
and were combined based on similar TLC profiles, so obtained 8 subfractions with respective
weights of 10.7 mg, 29.5 mg, 8.0 mg, 283.0 mg, 454.4 mg, 30.0 mg, 21.0 mg, 4.6
mg. Anticancer activity in vitro assay results of subfraction 2.2.1-2.2.8 against T47D breast
cancer cells showed IC50 values of 5.33; 3.14; 5.79; 1.12; 2.54; 4.72 ; 3.13; 10.86 µg/mL
respectively (Figure 4). Based on provisions of the NCI, the fractions 2.2.1-2.2.8 were
declared as effective against breast cancer. Based on those data further separation of the most
active subfraction the subfraction 2.2.4 with IC 50 values of 1.12 µg/mL was done.
Figure 4 Cell viability T47D cell lines
Against subfraction 2.2.4 as much as 100 mg, had been separated by using an open
column chromatography with stationary phase silica gel 60 and the mobile phase gradient
solvent hexane: dichloromethane, dichloromethane: methanol and 100% methanol. Eluates
were collected every 1 ml, fractions that collected were combined based on TLC profiles, so
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obtained 7 subfractions with respective weights of 15.4 mg, 3.5 mg, 13.2 mg, 9.4 mg, 24 mg;
16.2 mg, 11.3 mg. Anticancer activity in vitro assay results of subfraction 2.2.4.1-2.2.4.7
against T47D breast cancer cells showed IC50 values amounted to 694.95; 324.62; 190.30;
6.93; 7.97; 98.87; 198.97 µg/mL (Figure 5). Based on provisions of the NCI, the subfractions
2.2.4.4 and 2.2.4.5 were declared as effective against breast cancer. Subfraction 2.2.4.4 and
2.2.4.5 had anticancer activity not too different, as shown by the IC50 values at 6.93 and 7.97
µg/mL. The results of TLC subfractions 2.2.4.4 and 2.2.4.5 indicated that the profiles have no
significant differences showed by dominant stains on Rf value 0.31 and 0.34 of each.
Figure 5 Cell viability T47D cell lines
The results of anti-breast-cancer activity assay showed that the ethanolic extract of G.
mangostana pericarp and some fractions were effective against T47D breast cancer cell lines.
The IC50 values are 8.96 µg/mL for ethanolic extract; 1.80 µg/mL for F2; 1.76 µg/mL for
SF2.2; 1.12 µg/mL for SF2.2.4 and 6.93 µg/mL for SF2.2.4.4. Bioactivity-guided
fractionation result of the ethanol extract until had been obtained SF.2.2.4 showed the
decrease in IC50 values. Its showed that from this separation process was obtained the
fraction which had compounds that were responsible for the breast-cancer activity. However,
there was an odd phenomenon when the further separation was done to SF 2.2.4 producing
SF2.2.4.4 as subfraction product. The IC50 value of SF 2.2.4.4 was higher than its mother
fraction SF 2.2.4. This phenomenon also occurred in the research that had been done by
Widyawaruyanti (2007) and Tumewu (2009) about the antimalarial activity of Cempedak
bark (Artocarpus champeden SPRENG). From those studies was known that Cempedak bark
ethanol extract and fraction 4 which from the separation of the ethanol extract, could inhibit
in vitro of Plasmodium falciparum growth at IC 50 values at 1.90 µg/mL and 6.69 µg/mL,
respectively.
In general, the activity of the active component would provide good results because it
has inert compound (Yadav & Dixit 2008). This inert compound does not affect the
mechanism of pathology directly, but these compounds may affect the bioavailability and the
excretion of the active compounds, which leads to the increasing of the active compounds
stability and decreasing of the side effects.
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Advances in Health Sciences Research (AHSR), volume 2
CONCLUSION
Anticancer substances derived from Garcinia mangostana Linn pericarp which are
active against human breast cancer cells T47D are ethanol extract, fraction 2, subfraction 2.2,
subfraction 2.2.4 and subfraction 2.2.4.4.
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