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The effects of yoga on stress and psychological health among employees: an 8- and 16-week intervention study

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Background: The stresses of modern work life necessitate effective coping strategies that are accessible and affordable to the general public. Yoga has been found to reduce stress in clinical samples, but studies are needed to examine standard gym yoga classes among functional individuals. Objectives: This study investigated the effects of 8- and 16-week gym yoga on stress and psychological health. Design and Method: Ninety individuals reporting moderate-to-high stress were randomly assigned to 16 consecutive weeks of yoga, or to a waitlist crossover group who did not practice yoga for 8 weeks then practiced yoga for 8 weeks. Stress and psychological health variables were assessed at baseline, 8 weeks, and 16 weeks. Results: Significant reductions in stress and all psychological health measures were found within the Yoga group over 16 weeks. When compared to the control group, yoga practitioners showed significant decreases in stress, anxiety, and general psychological health, and significant increases in well-being. The group who did not practice yoga showed significant decreases in stress, anxiety, depression, and insomnia after they crossed over and practiced yoga for 8 weeks. Conclusions: Gym yoga appears to be effective for stress amelioration and promotion of psychological health among workers experiencing stress.
... Incorporating stress management ideals and other aspects that promote overall flourishing (1) within wellness initiatives can also result in higher job satisfaction, (2,15) lower levels of job stress, (15) and lower intention to leave (14). One well-studied intervention that can help promote lower levels of stress is yoga and its mindfulness principles (16)(17)(18)(19)(20). ...
... Yoga is thought to reduce stress through utilizing breathing and movement patterns (19,20). Yoga can be defined as an ancient mind-body practice in which the flow of movement is matched to the breath, though there are a wide range of yoga styles and some yoga practices may only incorporate breath work (21,22). ...
... The Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans (PAG) (23) recommendations include yoga as a multicomponent physical activity (those that include muscle strengthening, aerobic, and balance activities) and as relative moderate-intensity activity for some groups of individuals (23). Yoga has been studied within multiple settings, including a university workplace (19), healthcare workers (3,24), and graduate students (5) as a method of stress reduction, and was found to reduce stress and anxiety. Example of "yoga" interventions include yoga sessions focused on mindful awareness of posture and breath (3), yoga sessions focused more on the physical practice of yoga (16), or yoga sessions with a combination of didactic learning and experiential breath and movement (5). ...
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Background Mindfulness and self-care, practiced through a variety of methods like meditation and exercise, can improve overall sense of holistic well-being (i.e., flourishing). Increasing mindfulness and self-care may lead to increased flourishing and job satisfaction among the nation-wide Cooperative Extension system delivery personnel (agents) through a theory-based online program and an extended experiential program. Methods Cooperative Extension agents from two states were invited to participate in MUSCLE via statewide listservs. Participants were invited to attend sessions and complete competency checks and between-session assignments each week. The study was conducted using Zoom. Pre- and post- program surveys included validated scales for flourishing and physical activity status. Due to high demand for mindfulness programing during the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic, experiential “Mindful Meet-up” 30-minute sessions were held on Zoom. Dissemination and implementation of the two differing interventions (i.e., MUSCLE and Mindful Meet-ups) were examined. Results MUSCLE (more intensive program with assignments and competency checks) had lower reach, and did not show statistically increased flourishing or physical activity. Mindful Meet-ups had higher attendance and proportional reach during the beginning of the pandemic, but no practical measure of flourishing or physical activity behaviors. Unsolicited qualitative feedback was encouraging because the interventions were well-received and participants felt as though they were more mindful. Conclusions While agents anecdotally reported personal improvements, capturing data on outcomes was challenging. Complementing outcome data with implementation and dissemination outcomes allowed for a richer picture to inform intervention decision-making (i.e., offering the same or new programming depending on participant needs).
... Sahni PS et al. in their cross-sectional study established yoga as an effective self-management tactic that helped cope with psychological challenges of stress, anxiety, and depression, as well as maintain wellbeing during the lockdown of the Covid-19 pandemic [5]. Another study by Rachel et al. also recorded noteworthy reductions in stress and other psychological health parameters in the participants who practiced Yoga over 16 weeks; while the participants who did not receive the yoga intervention for the first 8 weeks also showed a remarkable decrease in stress, anxiety, depression, and insomnia levels after they were crossed over from the waiting list and introduced to yoga practice for next 8 weeks [13]. ...
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Motherhood, though emotionally fulfilling, is physically and mentally challenging, that changes the women’s overall life. Hence, the perinatal period, in general as a whole, can be considered an extremely vulnerable period. Which includes layers of stressors like the skin of an onion. The present study was designed to assess the effect of the Suryanamaskar on stress in delayed-postpartum in Indian women. Method: 39 participants, enrolled using convenient sampling, were divided into 3 groups of 13 participants each. Group 1 was given a fast-paced Suryanamaskar module; Group 2 was given a slow-paced Suryanamaskar module; and Group 3 was given no intervention. Maternal Perceived Stress Scale (MPSS) questionnaire was used for data collection and paired t-test was used for analysis. Results: A very significant decrease was seen in the levels of stress in delayed-postpartum women of Group 1 (p<0.05), and Group 2 (p<0.01), and Groups 1 and 2 combined (p<0.01) after practicing the Suryanamaskar-based intervention; while no significant change was recorded in women of Group 3 (control group). Conclusion: Regular practice of the Suryanamaskar, even if has been practiced for a short duration, helps to reduce stress levels in delayed-postpartum women.
... Another point of importance is the provision of a physical activity place,( not rigorous exercise), evidence-based research has shown that patients with accessibility to places for walking (Morris & Hardman, 1997;Ouf et al., 2021;Visvizi et al., 2021), meditation (Goyal et al., 2014;Innes et al., 2012;Scott, 2022), yoga (Maddux et al., 2018;Shohani et al., 2018;Woodyard, 2011), and mindfulness (Bartlett et al., 2021;Mohammed et al., 2018) are prone to lower stress levels, lower pain levels and overall general improvement, than ones not partaking in these types of activities. This entails that designers design easily accessible areas that fit these types of activities, both inside and outside to accommodate for weather changes. ...
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Goal Three of the Sustainable Development Goals emphasizes the concept of “leaving no one behind”; a model for inclusivity and coherence. Amongst those that are often “left behind” are patients at the end stage of their life due to a terminal illness or a medical diagnosis. These are often left to die without thought to the quality of life that they receive before their demise, and many experience this stage at home due to fear of expenses, or in a best-case scenario at a hospital to help alleviate or manage pain. In many places worldwide, this is where palliative and hospice care come in and focus on the End-of-Life care provided to patients who fit the criteria. The number of architecture and design related studies in this field are not numerous, and those that are there do not focus on the patient as a user with rights, but merely as a patient that is there. The concept of a user-centered design is forgotten in midst of all the pain and suffering of all concerned, namely, the patient, his beloved, and his caregivers. However, focusing on this nexus at the core of the design project may help promote this painful and stressful time in life and induce serenity and acceptance in a time that is often dark and ominous. This research aims to develop a design framework for places that deal with End-of-Life care and how to provide a better quality of End-of-Life experience for terminally ill patients.
... Of all the preventive measures prescribed for health management in war and conflict-related conditions, yoga can be a major rehabilitative intervention. Several studies have found that yoga can help in relieving stress, [16] perceived stress and work-related stress, [17] anxiety, [18,19] depression, [20] and PTSD. [21] Earlier studies suggest that different practices of yoga, such as breath control and meditation, promote good mental health. ...
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Conflicts and humanitarian crises lead to serious mental health disorders, including depression, anxiety, stress, and cognitive decline. Exposure to these circumstances in early life can lead to the development of disorders such as mild cognitive impairment, dementia, and Alzheimer's disease (AD), for which no treatments are available. In this review, various research papers have been compiled to develop an understanding about mental health of population affected due to wars and conflicts and how stress and depression can accelerate the development of dementia and AD. Due to failure of drugs in the treatment of dementia and AD, yoga and mindfulness-based approach has been proposed for future investigations. Although studies have shown that yoga and mindfulness can be helpful in the management of stress, anxiety, depression, and posttraumatic stress disorder in the war-afflicted areas, limited mechanistic studies in yoga and mindfulness remain the chief cause precluding its clinical application in such warzones. The molecular studies in the field of yoga can be undertaken by targeting these warzones. This review provides a scientific evaluation of mind-body techniques as a justification for mental health rehabilitation in the war-afflicted zones in face of failed clinical trials for various drugs. This may help reduce the risk of developing dementia and AD in this susceptible population.
... Moderate to high stress employees were randomly assigned to 16 consecutive weeks of yoga or to a waitlist crossover group who did not practice yoga for eight weeks and then practiced yoga for eight weeks Maddux & Telled [44]. Surprisingly, the groups practiced for 16 weeks showed equivalent reductions in stress, anxiety, depression and insomnia. ...
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... [29] Yoga is an alternative and complementary treatment used in reducing psychosomatic challenges including stress. [30] Yoga is a form of exercise that integrates the mind, spirit, and body to promote the wellbeing of individuals. Historically, yoga is an ancient Indian practice focusing on physical and breathing exercises that combines relation, mediation, and physical workout. ...
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Job-related stress undermines occupational, personal, and organizational outcomes. Stress symptoms are common among teachers of children with autism spectrum disorders and affect the academic progress of the children. This study investigated the effectiveness of yoga-based cognitive behavioral therapy in reducing occupational stress among teachers of children with autism in Lagos states, Nigeria. The current study adopted a group-randomized waitlist control (WLC) trial design with pre-test, posttest, and follow-up assessments. Participants included 58 teachers of children with autism in public and private special schools in Lagos state. Participants were randomly assigned to combined cognitive behavioral therapy and yoga (Y-CBT) (N = 29) and WLC (N = 29) groups. The Y-CBT group participated in a 2 hours Y-CBT program weekly for 12 weeks. Three instruments – Demographic Questionnaire, Single-Item Stress Questionnaire, and Teachers’ Stress Inventory (TSI) were used to collect data. Data were collected at baseline; posttest and follow-up evaluations. Data were analyzed using means, standard deviations, t test statistics, repeated measures analysis of variance, and bar charts. Results revealed that all dimensions of job stress (perception of stress sources, stress manifestation, and total TSI scores) reduced significantly at posttest and follow up assessments among the Y-CBT group, compared to the WLC. It was concluded that Y-CBT modalities could help to minimize the perception of stress sources and stress manifestation as well as total TSI scores among teachers of children with autism spectrum disorders.
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Wanting to help others and benefit society in one's future career are examples of communal career goals. Raising these goals in youth should increase interest in HEED‐occupations (Healthcare, Early Education, Domestic, and the Domestic fields) which are strongly gender‐skewed and face labor shortage. Research has yet to find ways to increase communal career goals. In this study, we test the novel hypothesis that after listening to a brief loving‐kindness meditation, participants will rate stronger communal career goals, as compared to controls. In three experimental studies, volunteering high‐school students (Study 1 and 3) and university students (Study 2) listened to a 12‐min recording of the meditation with the explicit purpose of investigating its effect on stress. They thereafter filled out an apparently unrelated career goal survey. We compared the results with a control group that just rated the career goals (Studies 1–3) and a control group that listened to calm music before filling out the survey (Study 2 and 3). The results showed that the high‐school students rated higher communal career goals after listening to the meditation, as compared to controls. We did not replicate the result in the sample of university students, which could relate to adults having less flexible career goals than youth, or to a ceiling effect in communal goals. This is the first study that has demonstrated a method with the potential of increasing communal career goals in youth. In addition to increasing interest in HEED, raising communal goals could benefit society, since they are intrinsically prosocial.
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The purpose of this study is to systematically review the literature on the role of yoga in managing the consequences of work stress to examine the current body of knowledge in this field and to provide directions for future research in this domain. A comprehensive literature search of 14 databases using 12 different search term combinations in the area of ‘yoga and work stress’ was carried out till the period January 2022 following the PRISMA guidelines to select the relevant English-language peer-reviewed SCImago Ranked articles for review. Two broad classification areas were considered to understand the research question of interest in this study: (i) consequences of work stress [which includes—(a) behavioural; (b) physical; and (c) psychological] and; (ii) schools of thought in yoga for work stress management [which includes—(a) Hatha yoga (HY); (b) Vini yoga (VY); (c) Dru yoga (DY); (d) Integrated yoga (IY); (e) Kundalini yoga (KUY); (f) Kripalu yoga (KRY); (g) Iyengar yoga; (h) Ashtanga yoga (AY); (i) Power yoga (PY); and (j) Yoga (General)]. The main contribution of this study is that it is the first of its kind comprehensive review in the area of ‘yoga and its role in managing the consequences of work stress’ collating the dispersed knowledge in this area by indicating the various understudied stand-alone and combined consequences of work stress and the less researched schools of thought in yoga and yoga practices administered to manage these consequences of work stress, to provide promising avenues for further examination for the development of this research field.
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The present study examined the effects of a four-week physical activity (PA) programme on employees’ general affective well-being the acute effects of fitness and stretching sessions on momentary affective states. Participants were divided between an experimental (n = 54) and a comparison group (n = 57). After one month, only employees in the experimental group increased their general affective well-being. Moreover, momentary positive affective states were significantly higher after PA sessions, especially after fitness sessions. For both activities, momentary negative affect significantly decreased after PA sessions, with a larger reduction in the levels of high-activated unpleasant affect. In the short and middle terms, brief PA programmes seem relevant to enhance employees’ affective well-being. PA programme characteristics are finally discussed.
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Interest in yoga as an intervention for psychological wellbeing has increased in recent years, with literature investigating beneficial effects in a variety of presentations and settings. The theoretical understanding of this benefit has previously focused on physiological changes involved in yoga practice, however interest has turned to the potential psychological mechanisms eliciting psychological wellbeing. The current paper builds on previous theory and argues that yoga practice targets transdiagnostic psychological processes; mechanisms that feature commonly across a wide range of presentations, thus reducing distress and increasing wellbeing across clinical and non-clinical populations. Features of yoga practice are discussed in relation to these transdiagnostic processes and the features of modern talking therapies. A new model is proposed positing specific aspects of yoga practice correlate with specific transdiagnostic processes to elicit psychological change and argues that the mechanisms by which change occurs are directly compared with the changes observed in talking therapies. The implications for future research and the potential for this to support the commissioning of holistic approaches in clinical practice are discussed.
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Background: Interventions are needed to alleviate memory difficulty in cancer survivors. We previously showed in a phase III randomized clinical trial that YOCAS©® yoga-a program that consists of breathing exercises, postures, and meditation-significantly improved sleep quality in cancer survivors. This study assessed the effects of YOCAS©® on memory and identified relationships between memory and sleep. Study design and methods: Survivors were randomized to standard care (SC) or SC with YOCAS©® . 328 participants who provided data on the memory difficulty item of the MD Anderson Symptom Inventory are included. Sleep quality was measured using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. General linear modeling (GLM) determined the group effect of YOCAS©® on memory difficulty compared with SC. GLM also determined moderation of baseline memory difficulty on postintervention sleep and vice versa. Path modeling assessed the mediating effects of changes in memory difficulty on YOCAS©® changes in sleep and vice versa. Results: YOCAS©® significantly reduced memory difficulty at postintervention compared with SC (mean change: yoga=-0.60; SC=-0.16; P<.05). Baseline memory difficulty did not moderate the effects of postintervention sleep quality in YOCAS©® compared with SC. Baseline sleep quality did moderate the effects of postintervention memory difficulty in YOCAS©® compared with SC (P<.05). Changes in sleep quality was a significant mediator of reduced memory difficulty in YOCAS©® compared with SC (P<.05); however, changes in memory difficulty did not significantly mediate improved sleep quality in YOCAS©® compared with SC. Conclusions: In this large nationwide trial, YOCAS©® yoga significantly reduced patient-reported memory difficulty in cancer survivors.
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Grit, passion and perseverance for long-term goals, is strongly related to success in goal attainment even under challenging circumstances. We investigated how grit relates to three aspects of well-being: psychological well-being (PWB), satisfaction with life, and harmony in life. This relationship is approached through organismic valuing theory, which proposes that people are naturally motivated to grow towards their highest potential; grit is proposed as being akin to such growth motivation. In two studies (Study 1 with 196 university students, and Study 2 with 396 non-students), direct and indirect (mediating) effects between grit and well-being were investigated. Sense of coherence (SOC) and authenticity were used as mediators, and gender as a moderator. Grit was positively related to all well-being factors, and SOC and authenticity were significant mediators (complementary for PWB and indirect-only for satisfaction with life and harmony in life). This suggests that grittiness in goal pursuits requires both a sense that the world is coherent and an authentic connection with the self in order for it to fully benefit well-being. No gender moderation was found.
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The role of psychosocial work stress as a risk factor for chronic disease has been the subject of considerable debate. Many researchers argue in support of a causal connection while others remain skeptical and have argued that the effect on specific health conditions is either negligible or confounded. This review of evidence from over 600,000 men and women from 27 cohort studies in Europe, the USA and Japan suggests that work stressors, such as job strain and long working hours, are associated with a moderately elevated risk of incident coronary heart disease and stroke. The excess risk for exposed individuals is 10-40 % compared with those free of such stressors. Differences between men and women, younger versus older employees and workers from different socioeconomic backgrounds appear to be small, indicating that the association is robust. Meta-analyses of a wider range of health outcomes show additionally an association between work stress and type 2 diabetes, though not with common cancers or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, suggesting outcome specificity. Few studies have addressed whether mitigation of work stressors would reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease. In view of the limited interventional evidence on benefits, harms and cost-effectiveness, definitive recommendations have not been made (e.g. by the US Preventive Services Taskforce) for the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease via workplace stress reduction. Nevertheless, governments are already launching healthy workplace campaigns, and preventing excessive work stress is a legal obligation in several countries. Promoting awareness of the link between stress and health among both employers and workers is an important component of workplace health promotion.
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During recent decades numerous yoga-based practices (YBP) have emerged in the West, with their aims ranging from fitness gains to therapeutic benefits and spiritual development. Yoga is also beginning to spark growing interest within the scientific community, and yoga-based interventions have been associated with measureable changes in physiological parameters, perceived emotional states, and cognitive functioning. YBP typically involve a combination of postures or movement sequences, conscious regulation of the breath, and various techniques to improve attentional focus. However, so far little if any research has attempted to deconstruct the role of these different component parts in order to better understand their respective contribution to the effects of YBP. A clear operational definition of yoga-based therapeutic interventions for scientific purposes, as well as a comprehensive theoretical framework from which testable hypotheses can be formulated, is therefore needed. Here we propose such a framework, and outline the bottom-up neurophysiological and top-down neurocognitive mechanisms hypothesized to be at play in YBP.
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Objective: Depression and burnout are two psychopathological labels that have been subject to an extensive discussion over the last decades. The crucial question is whether they can be seen as conceptually equal or as two distinct syndromes. One argument for the distinction is that depression impacts on the whole life of a suffering person whereas burnout is restricted to the job context. Depression has been shown to be affected by life stress. The more stressful life events a person experiences, the more he or she is susceptible for developing a depression. As there is the widespread but controversial opinion that burnout is a prodromal syndrome of depression, the present study examined whether the number of stressful life events is also associated with an increased risk for burnout. Methods: N = 755 healthy participants and N = 397 depressed patients completed the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI), the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI II) and reported the extent of experienced life stress. Results: A significantly closer relation between depression and life stress than between burnout and life stress was found in the healthy (z = 3.01, p = .003) as well as in the depressed sample (z = 3.41, p = .001). This finding was supported in both samples by means of a path analytic approach where the associations between life stress, burnout, and depression were controlled for possible mediator and moderator effects, also considering the influence of age. Conclusion: By considering the influence of life stress it could be demonstrated that depression and burnout are not identical although they share substantial phenotypic variance (r = .46–.61). Most important, the trivariate associations are the same in a representative employee sample and in an inpatient clinical sample suggesting the same underlying mechanisms covering the whole range from normal behavior to psychopathology. However, only longitudinal data can show if burnout necessarily turns into depression with the consequence that the burnout – life stress association approaches the depression – life stress association over time.
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This paper evaluates the results of a longitudinal investigation of the potential benefits of yoga in a nonclinical sample of chronically stressed women (N = 116). Women undertook a twice weekly, hour-long yoga class for a period of 2 months, measuring psychological and physical indicators of health periodically. Changes in both areas were compared against a wait-list control group. The reported energy expenditure between groups was estimated to be similar, which suggests that the control group engaged in physical activities other than yoga. Of the six psychological outcomes measured, we found improvements in three. Specifically, those in the practicing yoga group experienced increases in positive affect, decreases in levels of distress and stress, as well as a decrease in waist circumference and increased flexibility. No between-group differences were found in mindfulness, well-being, and negative affect. These findings are generally consistent with an emerging literature, suggesting that yoga may provide both psychological and physiological effects that extend beyond its more obvious physical benefits, and are discussed in terms of the body’s allostatic load. These results should be considered in light of this study’s limitations, which include its small sample size, lack of an “active” control group, and female-only participants.
Background • Children who experience abuse and neglect and are exposed to adverse life events are at risk of developing emotional and behavioral problems. They may display variable internalizing and externalizing symptoms, such as posttraumatic stress, depression, anxiety, low self-esteem, and aggression. Yoga may be able to regulate body-brain pathways that cause stress following traumatic experiences, thereby reducing adverse mental and physical sequelae. Objective • The objective of this preliminary study is to examine changes in functioning following meetings of a yoga-based psychotherapy group (YBPG) for boys with a history of interpersonal trauma exposure. Methods/Design • The study was a prospective, intervention cohort study. Setting • The study occurred at an urban-based mental health center focusing on treatment of children exposed to interpersonal trauma in their communities and families. Participants • Participants were 10 boys, aged 8-12 y, who primarily were African-Americans (70%) and who had a history of trauma. Intervention • The YBPG was a 12-wk, yoga-based, group therapy, integrated with mental health treatment that was trauma informed and evidence-based. Outcome Measures • Measures of attendance and interpersonal functioning-the Behavioral and Emotional Rating Scale 2 (BERS-2) and patient satisfaction surveys-were collected. The pre- and post-YBPG, paired t test; Wilcoxon's signed rank test; and effect sizes were calculated to assess change in interpersonal functioning following the YBPG, as reported by the parents and children. Results • The BERS-2 scores yielded clinically and statistically significant mean improvements on the parents' ratings of participants' (1) Interpersonal Strength, Intrapersonal Strength, and Family Involvement scores, with mean improvements on those subscales being 1.4 (P = .007), 1.9 (P = .012), and 1.4 (P = .045) points, respectively; and (2) Strength Index scores, with a mean improvement of 8.7 (P = .004). The effect size was in the large range. In addition to significant improvements posttreatment, the parents' mean rating score of their children's functioning was closer but still lower than the children's self-reports on all subscales. The attendance rate for the YBPG was among the highest for group therapies at the center. Conclusions • The study provided preliminary evidence for the feasibility of YBPG as an effective intervention for boys exposed to trauma in urban settings.
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Yoga can be an effective intervention for physical and psychological symptoms and decreased ability to cope with physical, emotional, vocational, or academic stress. One group of individuals challenged regarding adequate self-care in the face of stress are personnel in university training programs for helping professions (e.g., psychology, nursing, nutrition). This feasibility study explored engagement in and effectiveness of a systematic 10-week yoga program aimed at university faculty, staff, and students. The intervention consisted of 10 weekly 90-minute sessions that were structured to include conceptual grounding, breathing, postures, and meditation. Weekly class outlines were made available to students for home practice. Participants signed informed consents, liability waivers, and health screenings. Self-reports of home practice, barriers to practice, perceived stress, and stress symptoms were used to evaluate whether the intervention was successful in engaging participants and reducing stress-related symptoms. Engagement was demonstrated by study adherence in the first 10-week series (88%; 44 of 50 enrolled), as well as re-enrollment for at least one additional 10-week series (64%; 28 of 44). Intervention success was demonstrated through repeated measure s ANOVAs of 44 participants' data, which showed significant improvement after a single 10-week series in perceived stress, as well as self-reported psychological, behavioral, and physical symptoms of stress. The study demonstrates feasibility of a yoga intervention in an academic setting and provides preliminary evidence for efficacy in stress reduction. It also supplies 10 detailed session protocols for intervention replication.
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This is the first book to demonstrate how to use the multilevel and longitudinal modeling techniques available in IBM SPSS Version 18. The authors tap the power of SPSS's Mixed Models routine to provide an elegant and accessible approach to these models. Readers who have learned statistics using this software will no longer have to adapt to a new program to conduct quality multilevel and longitudinal analyses. Annotated screen shots with all of the key output provide readers with a step-by-step understanding of each technique as they are shown how to navigate through the program. Diagnostic tools, data management issues, and related graphics are introduced throughout. SPSS commands show the flow of the menu structure and how to facilitate model building. Annotated syntax is also available for those who prefer this approach. Most chapters feature an extended example illustrating the logic of model development. These examples show readers the context and rationale of the research questions and the steps around which the analyses are structured. The data used in the text and syntax examples are available at http://www.psypress.com/multilevel-modeling-techniques/.
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Introduction: The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence, patterns, and predictors of yoga use in the U.S. general population. Methods: Using cross-sectional data from the 2012 National Health Interview Survey Family Core, Sample Adult Core, and Adult Complementary and Alternative Medicine questionnaires (N=34,525), weighted frequencies for lifetime and 12-month prevalence of yoga use and patterns of yoga practice were analyzed. Using logistic regression analyses, sociodemographic predictors of lifetime yoga use were analyzed. Analyses were conducted in 2015. Results: Lifetime and 12-month prevalence of yoga use were 13.2% and 8.9%, respectively. Compared with nonpractitioners, lifetime yoga practitioners were more likely female, younger, non-Hispanic white, college educated, higher earners, living in the West, and of better health status. Among those who had practiced in the past 12 months, 51.2% attended yoga classes, 89.9% used breathing exercises, and 54.9% used meditation. Yoga was practiced for general wellness or disease prevention (78.4%), to improve energy (66.1%), or to improve immune function (49.7%). Back pain (19.7%), stress (6.4%), and arthritis (6.4%) were the main specific health problems for which people practiced yoga. Conclusions: About 31 million U.S. adults have ever used yoga, and about 21 million practiced yoga in the past 12 months. Disease prevention and back pain relief were the most important health reasons for yoga practice. Yoga practice is associated with age, gender, ethnicity, SES, and health status.