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Selfie and personal branding phenomena in the context of the network economy. A literature review

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Self-taken pictures called "selfies" shared on social media have become a worldwide phenomenon. This is due to the increased need for a human being to share with people their daily lives and to build their own personal brand in a networked world. Despite that, the subject of personal branding has not been sufficiently discussed in academic marketing literature over the past decade. The objective of the study is to present the concept of personal branding and to better understand the role selfie has, being one of the most frequently used social network, in helping people to build personal branding in the online context. Based on a literature review, Authors highlight that building a personal brand in the network economy is one of the key factors influencing a personal position in valued networks.
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Kucharska, W., Confente, I. (2017). Selfie and personal branding phenomena in the context
of the network economy. A literature review, Handel Wewnętrzny, 6(371), 161-169.
Wioleta Kucharska
Gdańsk University of Technology
Ilenia Confente
University of Verona
SELFIE AND PERSONAL BRANDING PHENOMENA
IN THE CONTEXT OF THE NETWORK ECONOMY.
A LITERATURE REVIEW
Summary
Self-taken pictures called “selfies” shared on social media have become a worldwide
phenomenon. This is due to the increased need of human being to share to our people their
daily lives and to build their own personal brand in a networked world. Despite that, the
subject of personal branding has not been sufficiently discussed in academic marketing
literature over the past decade. The objective of the study is to present the concept of
personal branding and to better understand the role selfie has, being one of the most
frequently used social network, in helping people to build personal branding in the online
context. Based on a literature review, Authors highlight that building a personal brand in
the network economy is one of the key factors influencing a personal position in valued
networks.
Key words: personal branding, networked world, selfie, social media, social network
JEL codes: M31
Introduction
Innovation, relationships, collaboration and knowledge are key
determinants of the competitive advantage in the network economy.
Referring to Tapscott (1989, p.13), Powell (1990, p. 295-336), Perechuda
(2007, p.16) and Mazurek (2012, p.12) the network economy serves as an
infrastructure for contemporary processes of market coordination.
Co-creation and co-operation of network members are the essence of a
consciously configured network of value. Social media are considered to be
a logical consequence of changes which take place in the information
society. They are an important part of the networked environment and
contribute to creating value in the network (Castells 2000, p.693-699;
Mazurek 2014, p.70-77). Social media, in general defined as networking
Kucharska, W., Confente, I. (2017). Selfie and personal branding phenomena in the context
of the network economy. A literature review, Handel Wewnętrzny, 6(371), 161-169.
sites (SNS), are technologically developed to allow users to create and
exchange content (Kaplan and Haenlein 2010, p. 59-68). The origins of
social media date back to the late ‘90s of the XX century. They gained
popularity in the first decade of this century. Social media range from blogs,
social networking sites (such as Facebook and Twitter), collaborative
projects (such as Wikipedia), content communities (such as You Tube),
virtual social worlds (for example Second Life), virtual game worlds (such
as Warcraft), and Internet forums. In terms of engagement, according to the
above classification, the most attractive forms of social media are 'social
networks' and 'virtual worlds'.
Similarly to the capital in the economic context, social relations and
network connections between individuals are perceived as a resource in the
context of social capital (Putnam 1995, p. 664-683). Thanks to the high
quality of such relations and connections, it is possible for the said social
capital to be gathered around a particular person both in the real and the
virtual worlds. Reality and virtuality co-exist, intertwine and mix. It is one
of characteristics of modern societies today. The network economy imposes
building a relational equity which, according to Sawhney and Zabin (2012,
p. 313-332), is the essence of efficiency in a network. In principle, social
media, collaborative networks and professional networks serve the purpose
of building relationships between people. Within this context, people are
enabled to self-expressed themselves and can build their own personal
brand.
The objective of the study is to present the essence of personal branding
and based on a literature review highlight that building a personal brand in
the network economy is one of key factors influencing personal position in
valued networks and as a result a new desired skill for everyone today.
Kucharska, W., Confente, I. (2017). Selfie and personal branding phenomena in the context
of the network economy. A literature review, Handel Wewnętrzny, 6(371), 161-169.
Personal branding phenomena
The personal branding dimension was introduced by Peters in the late
nineties of the XX century (Peters 1997, p.83). The crux of personal
branding is a planned process of self-marketing (Karaduman 2013, p.465-
473; Khedher 2014, p.41). At the beginning, the self-marketing idea seemed
to be mainly applied to celebrities (Rein, Kotler, and Shields 2007),
politicians and business leaders (Shepherd 2005, p.589-606; Schawbel 2009,
p.15), or even to non-profit organizations leaders (Nolan 2015, p.288-292).
However, such dimension has become also useful for managers (Kang
2013; Evans 2017), scientists, higher education teachers (Gander 2015,
p.99-102), and for knowledge workers in general. For example, project team
members (Kucharska and Dąbrowski 2016, p.435-443), librarians (Ahmad
et al. 2016, p.452-458), students searching for a job (Merdin 2011, p.104-
109; Lee and Cavanaugh 2016, p.61-68), and all average social media users,
regardless their profession adopt social media to express themselves and to
share their image (Lampel and Bhalla 2007, p. 434-455; Schawbel 2009;
Vitberg 2009, p.10-13; Labrecque, Markos and Milne 2011, p.37-50).
Developing a personal brand in the social media is now a rapidly
growing trend. The idea of online personal branding was broadly discussed
by Lampel and Bhalla (2007, p.434-455), Vitberg (2009, p.10-13), and
Karaduman (2013). They argued that social media have led to an era of
consumer-to-consumer driven information that creates consumers personal
branding. Labrecque, Markos and Milne (2011, p.37-50), and Kucharska
(2016) implied that people today use social media actively in order to create
their personal brands. Seidman (2013, p.402-407) claimed, that the second
major motivation for using Facebook is self-presentation. Also, Orehek and
Human’s (2017, p.60-70) findings suggest that social media platforms can
be an effective outlet for self-expression of personality. A person's brand
should be grounded in individual values, personal beliefs and interests.
Kucharska, W., Confente, I. (2017). Selfie and personal branding phenomena in the context
of the network economy. A literature review, Handel Wewnętrzny, 6(371), 161-169.
Poeppelman (2014, p.112-119) suggests that examination of such
characteristics leads to self-discovery and is the first step for building a
successful personal brand strategy. Philbrick and Cleveland (2015, p.181-
189) present an entire personal brand strategy formulation process and
highlited that effective brand management is a key component to
maintaining a positive brand reputation. The process of personal branding is
peculiar, introspective and requires a high level of self-awareness.
Formulating a good strategy will not take only time but also a lot of
personal effort. As the above literature review suggests, it is worth taking up
this challenge.
Selfie phenomena
Social media provide users with an ideal venue for self-presentation
(Zhao et al. 2008, p.1816-1836). In fact, social network sites offer the ability
to present themselves in a more selective and desirable manner by
enhancing their profiles (Manago et al. 2008, p.446-458; Zhao et al. 2008,
p.18161836). Selfies, or pictures taken of oneself and shared on social
media, have become phenomenon support for the need to self-present
ourselves. Halpern et al. (2016, p.98-101) and McCain et al. (2016, p.126-
133) argue that this trend is attributable to the fact that posting and editing
photos encourage users to engage in self-promoting and superficial
behaviours.
Sorokowska et al. (2015, p.119-123) exam the connections between to
social exhibitionism, extraversion, and self-esteem and and selfie’s
frequency posting. They findings suggest that women engage in selfie-
posting behaviour significantly more often than men do this and that
extraversion and social exhibitionism, but not self-esteem, predict online
selfie-posting behaviour in both groups of men and women. Pounders et al.
(2016, p.1879-1892) examed young women and find out that self-esteem
Kucharska, W., Confente, I. (2017). Selfie and personal branding phenomena in the context
of the network economy. A literature review, Handel Wewnętrzny, 6(371), 161-169.
was revealed as a motivator and an outcome of selfie-posting as well.
Sorokowska et al. (2015, 119-123) selfie’s and groupie’s understand all self-
making photos as selfies, but Wang et al. (2016) define “selfie” as a self-
portrait picture taken by an individual using a digital camera or a
smartphone for posting on social network sites and “groupie” as the self-
portrait featuring more than one person. Wang et al. (2016) claim that
frequent selfie viewing behaviour led to decreased self-esteem whereas
frequent groupie viewing behaviour led to increased self-esteem. They
explain that it is possible that the differential pattern of results is observed,
linking self-esteem to selfie posting in men but not women, is related to the
nature of self-esteem. What’s more, Shin et al. (2017, p.139-145) suggest
that people who posted their own selfie on social media using a computer,
act stronger and are more involved than people who post their photo using
their mobile devices. This is due to the fact that they could have only a
chance to choose the aspects they would like to emphasise and this would
positively affect participants' level of self-esteem.
Eagar et al. (2016, p.1835-1857) present selfies as a combined effect of
consumption of a social media service (Instagram) and the co-production of
valued content (the selfie) that recognizes the individual as an active
constructor of their digital self what finally support an individual’s human
brand. Ozansoy Çadırcı and Sağkaya Güngör (2016, p.1-20) also claim that
selfies can be used for purposes of self-extension and personal branding.
Figure 1 presents the graphical summary of Personal Branding and
Selfie Framework based on the presented literature review.
Kucharska, W., Confente, I. (2017). Selfie and personal branding phenomena in the context
of the network economy. A literature review, Handel Wewnętrzny, 6(371), 161-169.
Figure1. Selfie and Personal Brand Framework
Source: Author’s own study based on Eagar et al. (2016, p. 1835-1857), Ozansoy Çadırcı and Sağkaya
Güngör (2016, p. 1-20), Pounders et al. (2016, p. 1879 - 1892), Sorokowska et al. (2015, 119-123)
Conclusions and further research
Developing a personal brand in social media is now a rapidly growing
trend. Consumers today have been empowered by social media and have
become more sophisticated. New lifestyles and consumption trends have
emerged (O’Brien 2011, p.32-40). Chen (2013, p.32-347) claims that online
self-branding is a rapidly growing business in its own right. YouTube,
Instagram and Facebook, in particular are market leaders among user-
generated content sharing websites. Gershon (2014, p.281-295) draws
attention to the fact that marketing oneself as a desirable employee on
Facebook, LinkedIn, Twitter, and other social media contributes to
popularising the notion of self-branding. Pihl (2013, p.112-127) identifies
several challenges in the borderland between personal brands and corporate
brands, based on studies conducted on professional bloggers in Sweden. His
findings lead to interesting conclusions that personal branding efforts can
generate competitive advantage for individuals who undertake
entrepreneurial ventures. Furthermore, he argues why conditions for
individuals to engage in personal branding might be more favourable in an
entrepreneurial context than in a labour market setting. It is congruent with
assumptions regarding knowledge workers as independent knowledge
SELF-ESTEEM
SELFIE
PERSONAL
BRAND
Kucharska, W., Confente, I. (2017). Selfie and personal branding phenomena in the context
of the network economy. A literature review, Handel Wewnętrzny, 6(371), 161-169.
creators formulated by Kucharska and Dąbrowski (2016, p.438) for their
empirical research about personal branding of knowledge workers and its
influence on project performance.
Selfie is often claimed as a result of narcissism (Sorkowski et al. 2015,
p.123-127; Fox and Rooney 2015, p. 161165). In the context of presented
literature review Authors claim that it is rather connected to concepts of
authenticity, consumption, self-expression and personal branding. Our
conclusions are consistent with Igani and Schreder (2015) findings that the
selfie is connected to practices of art history, media forms, and self-
portraiture. They claimed that strategic use of the selfie reveals shifts in the
traditional functions of the advertising photograph, from sources of
information, persuasion, and representation to emblems of social currency.
In their opinion, the position the selfie not as a postmodern anomaly but as a
type of image with a history.
Developing a personal brand in social media is a rapidly growing trend now.
Selfie seems to be one of the most popular tools for this activity. According
to directions for further research, and in the reference to the theoretical
investigation conducted in this article and presented in Figure 1, selfie has a
mediation function for the self-esteem and personal brand relation, what
should be empirically verified.
What is more, it is worth to examine what is the “selfie” position in the
structure of relationships of all factors which influence on personal brand
creation in the social media environment. This direction of the research
requires deeper and thorough literature study connected with personal
branding phenomena.
Kucharska, W., Confente, I. (2017). Selfie and personal branding phenomena in the context
of the network economy. A literature review, Handel Wewnętrzny, 6(371), 161-169.
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ZJAWISKA: SELFIE I PERSONAL BRANDING W KONTEKŚCIE GOSPODARKI
SIECIOWEJ, PRZEGLĄD LITERATURY
Streszczenie
Samodzielne fotografowanie się zwane “selfie” następnie rozpowszechnianie tych zdjęć w
mediach społecznościowych staje się coraz bardziej popularne, co jednocześnie budzi
zainteresowanie naukowców. Podobnie, tematyka kreowania marki osobistej w ostatniej
dekadzie budzi coraz szersze zainteresowanie świata nauki jak i praktyki. Mimo to
literatura naukowa dotycząca tego zagadnienia nie jest zbyt obszerna. Celem niniejszego
opracowania jest przedstawienie istoty pojęcia marki osobistej oraz jej powiązania ze
zjawiskiem „selfie”. Autorzy wskazują na podstawie przedstawionego przeglądu literatury,
że budowanie osobistej marki w gospodarce sieciowej jest jednym z kluczowych
czynników wpływających na osobistą pozycję danej marki osobistej w poszczególnych
sieciach wartości, w które dana osoba jest zaangażowana.
Słowa kluczowe: personal branding, social media, network economy
Kody JEL: M31
Afiliacja:
Wioleta Kucharska, Ph.D
Marketing Department
Faculty of Management and Economics
Gdańsk University of Technology, Gdańsk, Poland
ul. Narutowicza 11/12
80-233 Gdańsk
Tel. +48 58 347 28 62
e-mail:wkucharska@zie.pg.gda.pl
Ilenia Confente, Ph.D
Assistant Professor in Marketing and Logistics
Dipartimento of Business Administration
Università di Verona
Via Cantarane, 24 37129 Verona
Tel. +390458028174
e-mail: ilenia.confente@univr.it
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The forms of identity exploration tools and trends have been changed enormously with the rapid expansion of internet media and communication technology for the last decades. Modern dwellers are enthusiastically found to be exposed themselves in online social media through different types of digital contents for establishing their socio-situational identity every day. The random practice of sharing digital contents in online social media is not only a matter of technological instigation, but also a stimulation of late modern socio-situational condition in the process of forming identity for its’ users. Undoubtedly, the digital contents have reasonable grounds to be accepted and celebrated by the social media users in terms of their aptness in purpose. Guided by the spirit of modern technological advancement, the digital contents like digital compositions and photographs seem to occupy a huge amount of social media space today. Although the increasing endorsement and adoration of digital contents in the construction of socio-situational identity in online social platforms is alleged to manufacture a generation having less competence and compassion in the use of language in proper order, many scholars find the initiation however facilitating multidimensional avenues in the narration and construction of socio-situational self for the users. In this circumstance, with the help of recognized works and materials related to the fields, the study intends to investigate, interpret, and review the possible opportunities and challenges in the use of digital write-ups and photographs on the construction of socio-situational identity in online social media platforms.
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Obecne uwarunkowania gospodarcze determinowane przez stale rosnące znaczenie wirtualnego środowiska, tworzonego przez technologie oraz informacje, zmieniają sposób, w jaki funkcjonują przedsiębiorstwa i w jaki są zarządzane. Podmioty te coraz częściej mają problem z określaniem swoich granic – struktury i hierarchie ulegają rozmyciu, powstają byty tymczasowe, związane nie z przedsiębiorstwem, a przedsięwzięciem do realizacji. Coraz więcej działań prowadzonych jest poza sferą materialną, cechuje je tymczasowość i nietrwałość, zmianie ulegają role i funkcje, jakie pełnią podmioty rynkowe. Wartość kreowana jest w sferze niematerialnej, tak trudnej do określenia i zmierzenia, gdyż wyrażanej poprzez relacje, wiedzę, więzi, współpracę. Nie tylko świat nauki, ale i praktyki, poszukuje rozwiązań, które pozwoliłyby nakreślić kierunki rozwoju organizacji w tych zdominowanych przez informację i technologie informatyczne czasach.
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Within the relatively quick transformation of the Industrial Age into the Information Age, career management has not only gained increased importance but also its content and domain changed very much accordingly. As Drucker (1994) argues, we are in the middle of a great social transformation where the primary resource is knowledge and the new class of post-capitalist society is made up of knowledge workers and service workers. Due to these major transformations, in career management we witness much interdisciplinary collaboration with psychology, economics or marketing. This work is also built upon the foundations of such collaboration, the possible uses and benefits of marketing and product management theory and practice within the domain of career management. The transition to Information Age and the accompanying paradigm shift have been put forward as environmental changes and the statement of a current problem. One of the strategies to advance a career in such an environment is self-marketing which has been theoretically explained and supported by a realistic self-marketing plan example in this paper. Overall, this study is aiming to provide an explanation of how self-marketing changes the perspective to career management as well as a practical guide. As there have been major definitions of “career” in the Information Age and many alternative roads of advancing it have occurred, also the ways to manage career have varied. Let alone the management of a career, also ways of even starting it have been topics of thought and discussion. Getting employed, sticking to the company or the position and getting the desired promotions are not as easy as before. According to McCorckle and others’ analysis (2003), today’s job market is much more competitive and challenging than before, and also it requires substantial effort in order to pursue a suitable position successfully. Some facts, observed in the USA but also easy to be observed in other countries as well, are presented to support this argument. By the end of 2001, the national unemployment rate in the U.S. had reached a 5-year high of 5.4%, with the pool of unemployed managers and professionals increasing 63% to 1.2 million in the past year (Dunham, 2002). What this means is that the potential chances of recent graduates are decreasing due to the enlargened pool of experienced yet unemployed people in the economy, bringing further competition. In addition, fewer employers are visiting college campuses for potential hirings. Even if they had done these visits, the year of 2003 witnessed varying amounts of open positions, decreases between 4-20% compared to previous years (McCorckle et al., 2003). According to the OECD reports (2007), the unemployment rate among university graduates in Turkey is 12,5%, and some European countries are closely following it with ratios of 8.1% in Spain, 7.4% in France and 7.3% in Poland. As reported by MonsterTRAK (2001), “Students are finding that they need to be more proactive in their job search than in years prior” (p.1).
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Brands’ social networking sites (fan pages) are increasingly attracting the attention of scientists and managers intrigued by their potential application for brand value creation. The aim of this research is to understand better how users choose among social networking sites as an act of brand identification. The study presents a new model whose structure of identification drivers for social networking brand sites varies for customer brand identification in the real and virtual worlds. The presented model reveals that personal branding is a planned effect of brand identification and it is crucial for brand value creation in social networks.
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Branding has been a key part of business and marketing for several millennia (not centuries, millennia). In this paper, we begin with a discussion about general branding concepts and the evolution of branding, brand positioning, brand equity, communications, and corporate branding. Then we turn to a specific use of branding–self‐branding–which needs to be understood within the context of branding overall. We present an overview of self‐branding and then describe the steps in self‐branding, differentiation/positioning, self‐brand management and re‐invention, the online self‐ brand, and several real examples of successful and unsuccessful self‐branding. Conclusions and recommendations are offered. An extensive literature review is provided.
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Self-expression values are at an all-time high, and people are increasingly relying upon social media platforms to express themselves positively and accurately. We examined whether self-expression on the social media platform Twitter elicits positive and accurate social perceptions. Eleven perceivers rated 128 individuals (targets; total dyadic impressions = 1,408) on their impulsivity, self-esteem, and attachment style, based solely on the information provided in targets’ 10 most recent tweets. Targets were on average perceived normatively and with distinctive self-other agreement, indicating both positive and accurate social perceptions. There were also individual differences in how positively and accurately targets were perceived, which exploratory analyses indicated may be partially driven by differential word usage, such as the use of positive emotion words and self- versus other-focus. This study demonstrates that self-expression on social media can elicit both positive and accurate perceptions and begins to shed light on how to curate such perceptions.
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Purpose This paper explores the purposive use of the selfie in the construction of personal narratives that develop and support an individual’s human brand. Selfies were divided into archetypical clusters of “genres” that reflected the combined story told through Instagram image and accompanying text captions. Design/methodology/approach The analysis drew a randomized sample of 1,000 images with accompanying text from a large capture of 3,300 English language captioned selfies. Coding for semantic and semiotic data used a three-wave technique to overcome interpretive limitations. Findings Based on their structural characteristics, seven genre types emerged from the coded sample set. These primary genres of selfie meta-narratives are autobiography, parody, propaganda, romance, self-help, travel diary and coffee-table book. Research limitations/implications The research is limited in generalization to the Instagram photo-sharing app platform by design. Samples were taken from the app due both to its popularity and its capacity to annotate images. Selfies conducted in non-public, non-annotation-based apps may produce alternative genres and classifications. Practical implications The paper presents a genre classification to examine how selfies are used to “show, not tell” a portion of the consumer’s life story. Brands, firms and marketers can apply genres to examine the selfie types that best connect with the identity of their brands and consumers, based on how their consumers communicate within the Instagram network. Social implications Selfies are an oft pathologized and moralized aspect of consumer conduct. We present a view of the selfie as a deliberate, consciously considered communication approach to maintaining social bonds between friends, family and wider audience. Selfies are presented as a combined effect of consumption of a social media service (Instagram) and the co-production of valued content (the selfie) that recognizes the individual as an active constructor of their digital self. Originality/value The paper outlines a novel framework of selfie genres to classify the deliberate human-brand narratives expressed in selfies. By taking a narrative perspective to the Instagram selfie practice, the genre type captures the combined effect of the mimesis and diegesis, where the mimesis showing of self is contextualized with the diegesis of the provided captions to capture an intentional storytelling act of image and text.
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Purpose Social media enables consumers to regularly express themselves in a variety of ways. Selfie-postings are the new tool for self-presentation, particularly among millennials. The purpose of this paper is to identify the motivations associated with selfie-postings among female millennials. Design/methodology/approach The exploratory study consisted of 15 in-depth interviews with women who were 19-30 years of age. The analysis of data was facilitated by an iterative constant comparison method between data, emerging concepts and extant literature. Findings Textual analysis reveals impression management to be pivotal in understanding the consumer selfie-posting process. Other sub-themes include happiness and physical appearance. In addition, self-esteem was revealed as a motivator and an outcome. Research limitations/implications The study was limited to females who were 19-30 years of age. Future research should include males and a wider age group and focus on empirical testing of the identified themes. Practical implications This research sheds light on the motivation and outcomes associated with selfie-postings. Implications for marketers and advertisers include a better understanding of how to engage consumers to post content in the form of selfies with brands and products. Originality/value This paper fulfils an identified need to explore the growing trend of selfie-postings and contributes to academic literature in consumer behavior by identifying the motivations of selfie-postings.
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Innovation, relationships, cooperation, and knowledge are key factors which determine a competitive advantage in the network economy. A network serves as a contemporary form of market process coordination. Network economy, according to the idea of prosumerism, is founded on collaboration of individual creators based on a network of values instead of hierarchical dependencies. Another feature of a network is that it imposes symmetry of advantages. In such conditions, a set of relationships of a company in an arrangement: " one to many " changes into a relationship " many to many " (networking), and creates a complete network of company values including: business partners and customers (external network), as well as the company's employees (internal network). The importance of knowledge and relationship in the process of network value creation by innovation is significant. In light of all the above, identifying valuable innovations takes place as a result of symmetrical co-creation and cooperation of members of a consciously configured value network. The objective of the study is to highlight that building a personal brand could be a natural motivator for knowledge workers to share the tacit knowledge they possess. This knowledge, next to explicit knowledge, innovation, relationship, and cooperation, is a key determinant of competitive advantage in the networked economy. Knowledge, as a source of innovation, determines an advantage of one network arrangement over another. This situation has completely changed the role of knowledge workers who now become independent knowledge producers. Modern companies are increasingly likely to work in a project management environment because it ensures their success in the implementation of innovation. Knowledge sharing and team cooperation encourage innovative solutions creation and consequently positively affect project performance. Bearing this fact in mind, the authors studied how tacit knowledge sharing affects the process of building a personal brand and project performance. For this purpose, the authors conducted a study among Polish professionals with different roles and experience in managing projects in various industries. The data collected during the study has been analysed using the equal structural modelling method. The results indicate that tacit knowledge sharing is used when developing a personal brand of knowledge workers. The intermediary role of personal branding in the relationship of tacit knowledge sharing and project performance points to a new context of tacit knowledge sharing as a key factor of knowledge management in learning organisations, which can be used for designing incentive schemes. A personal brand as a strong motivator for tacit knowledge sharing is a gain based not on financial benefits but on creating a perspective of future income whose foundation is a good reputation of one's strengthened brand. Tacit knowledge being a source of innovation stimulated by tailored incentive schemes enhances growth of successful innovation.
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The phenomenon of taking and sharing selfies has become widespread in everyday life. However, previous studies on the selfie have not dealt with the effect of the experience of a selfie. Therefore, we examined the effect of the selfie on people who took and shared their selfies. Based on the social comparison theory, we focused on two psychological factors: social sensitivity and self-esteem. In the experiment, we manipulated the context of experiencing selfies. The participants were asked to take a picture of a self-portrait or a cup, using their own smartphone. Then, they were instructed to either post it on social media or save it on their smartphone. The participants' social sensitivity was assessed by measuring their reaction time (RT) to a social probe, and self-esteem was evaluated by measuring the size of their signatures. We found that participants' RT to a social probe decreased and the size of their signature decreased, after they took and shared their selfie. These results suggest that taking and sharing selfies could result in greater social sensitivity and lower self-esteem of selfie takers.
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This study aims to provide insights on personal branding and impression management practices in the context of selfie production and sharing on online social networking sites (oSNSs). The theoretical framework of the study was constructed according to Goffman’s ‘Dramaturgy Theory’ and Belk’s ‘Digital Extended Self’ theory. Four constructs; de-materialization of photography, co-construction of the self, sharing economy of digital media and online social networks, and distributed memory were included in the study. The results of the literature review were further explained according to the production and consumption of selfies. This study provides detailed information about how selfies can be used as a mediator for purposes of self-extension and personal branding. Even though selfies are seen as an everyday activity and a raw presentation of the subject, they also include extra contextual information about the subject. The results of the study exert that selfies shared online can be used as a tool for impression management in oSNSs.