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Abstract

Introduction Severe trampoline injuries in children and adolescents are rare; however, minor injuries are common and their incidence is increasing. Severe injuries are most commonly head and neck injuries. They may result in long-term morbidity. This study aimed to illustrate these severe injuries and to find out their incidence and risk factors. Materials and Methods This is a population-based, prospective study in the Oulu region of Finland completed over 2 years (May 1, 2015 to April 31, 2017). All children (<16 years of age) with severe trampoline injuries were included. Cervical spine fractures, chest wall and skull fractures, lesions of internal organs, hip and knee dislocations, and permanent disorders of the peripheral veins or nerves were in prior defined as severe. Multiple jumpers, stunts, younger age, previous injuries, insufficient use of safety equipment, and lack of supervision were hypothesized as risk factors. Results There were 11 injured patients (10 boys). The annual incidence was 6.28/100,000 children <16 years of age. Mean age was 11.5 years. Severe injuries included five ligamentous cervical spine injuries and two sternal bone fractures. In addition, there were one lumbar spine ligament injury, two hip dislocations, and one severe axillary plexus nerve lesion. Eight out of 11 accidents were not seen by any adult and none of them happened under professional supervision. Most injuries (N = 8) happened by failed backflips. Conclusion Most severe injuries happened in unsuccessful flips. Children should have an adult supervisor and flips should not be attempted.

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... Nevertheless, trampolining also has downsides, as shown by studies on trampolining accidents in children [3,4,[7][8][9][10][11][12][13]. Indeed, several studies demonstrate that there has been an increase in the incidence of trampoline-related injuries in children in recent decades [14]. ...
... Indeed, several studies demonstrate that there has been an increase in the incidence of trampoline-related injuries in children in recent decades [14]. Although the majority of injuries are minor, approximately 10% of all paediatric trampolineassociated injuries are severe [8], which can ultimately lead to major functional disability such as paraplegia and quadriplegia or even death [1,7,15,16]. Trampolining injuries in adults have not been adequately investigated [17][18][19][20][21], although severe injuries such as head and neck trauma may lead to death or long-term disability [8,17,22]. ...
... Although the majority of injuries are minor, approximately 10% of all paediatric trampolineassociated injuries are severe [8], which can ultimately lead to major functional disability such as paraplegia and quadriplegia or even death [1,7,15,16]. Trampolining injuries in adults have not been adequately investigated [17][18][19][20][21], although severe injuries such as head and neck trauma may lead to death or long-term disability [8,17,22]. In addition, a recent study examined trampoline-related injuries in adults and found a three-fold increase in surgical interventions compared to children [23]. ...
Article
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Purpose: Only a few studies have been conducted on trampoline-associated injuries in adults, especially in Switzerland. The aim of the present study was to describe the characteristics of trampoline-related injuries in patients older than 16 years of age and track their development over time by comparing two different time periods. Methods and materials: Data were gathered from the emergency department (ED) of Bern University Hospital. A retrospective design was chosen to allow analysis of changes in trampolining accidents between 2003-2020. Results: A total of 144 patients were enrolled. The number of ED presentations due to trampoline-related injury rose significantly over time. The most common injuries were sprains to the extremities (age group 31-62: 58.4% and age group 16-30: 50.8%), followed by fractures (age group 31-62: 33.3% and age group 16-30: 32.5%). Lower extremities appeared to be the most frequently injured body region (age group 31-62: 20.8% and age group 16-30: 10.0%), although the differences were not statistically significant, p = 0.363. BMI was significantly higher for older than for younger patients (p = 0.004). Conclusion: Over the last two decades, trampoline-related injuries have become more common in patients older than 16 years of age. These are most common in the lower extremities. While most of the patients in the present study only suffered minor injuries, the occasional severe injury might result in long-term disability. As trampoline-related injuries in adults are becoming more common, prevention strategies in public education and safety instructions must be optimised.
... 4 A study from Finland showed that the annual incidence of severe trampoline injuries, such as cervical spine injury, in the pediatric population was 6.28 per 100,000. 5 Based on these findings, recommendations and regulatory policies to prevent trampoline-related injuries are being made continuously. [5][6][7] As in many other countries, Korea has seen an increase in the number of trampolines and consequently in related injuries. ...
... 5 Based on these findings, recommendations and regulatory policies to prevent trampoline-related injuries are being made continuously. [5][6][7] As in many other countries, Korea has seen an increase in the number of trampolines and consequently in related injuries. According to a survey conducted by the Korea Consumer Agency in 2013, there are more than 400 facilities with trampolines, and trampoline-related injuries have been increasing steadily since 2010. ...
Article
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Objective: Trampoline-related injuries have increased in South Korea. However, little research has been conducted on this topic. This study aimed to show the characteristics of pediatric trampoline-related injuries in South Korea and to investigate the factors associated with admission. Methods: A retrospective, cross-sectional study was conducted using data from South Korea's Emergency Department-based Injury In-depth Surveillance registry for dates between January 2011 and December 2016. All patients under 18 years of age with trampoline-related injuries were included. We divided the patients into two groups based on whether they were admitted or discharged. Odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals were calculated to evaluate the factors associated with hospital admission for pediatric trampoline-related injuries. Results: A total of 2,745 patients were enrolled and the incidence increased over time (P for trend<0.01). The most common injury site was the lower extremity (45%). Fracture was the most frequent diagnosis (34.3%). Compared to the discharge group, the adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) for hospital admission were 3.53 (1.73-7.17) for the teenage group, 2.62 (1.82-3.77) for upper extremity injuries, 18.48 (7.95-42.95) for fractures, 2.28 (1.35-3.86) for falls, and 2.04 (1.15-3.60) for collisions. Conclusion: Trampoline-related injuries in children have increased over time in South Korea. Most occur in children under the age of 12 years, but children between the ages of 13 and 18 years are at a higher risk for hospitalization. Also, injuries of the upper extremity, fracture, falling, and collision are risk factors for admission. Preventive strategies are needed to reduce trampoline-related injuries in children.
... 7 Most (95%) trampoline injuries are slight and do not require any hospital treatment. 8,9 Male predominance and the mean age of 11 years among all patients with a trampoline injury has been reported. 10 Trampoline injuries usually occur at home on the body of the trampoline, while falling off the trampoline has not been common since safety nets have become more popular. ...
... To our understanding, no longitudinal population-based evidence of the recent epidemiology of typical trampoline leg fractures is available, while much recent research has focused on the more severe trampoline injuries. 9,17,18 Taking into account that the proximal tibia physis is still one of the most vulnerable bones in the entire skeleton, 15,16,[19][20][21] trampoline leg fractures should not be overlooked. 13,22 We, therefore, aimed to study the annual incidence and its potential changing trend, risk factors and clinical and radiographic characteristics of trampoline-related proximal tibiae fractures in children. ...
Article
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Purpose Proximal tibia impaction fractures are specific injuries, usually caused by trampolining. They may associate with later growth disturbances. There is sparse understanding about their recent epidemiology, in particular the changing incidence. Their typical radiographic findings are not completely known. Methods All children, aged < 16 years, who had suffered from proximal tibia fracture in Oulu Arc and Oulu between 2006 and 2017 were enrolled (n = 101). Their annual incidence was determined using the official population-at-risk, obtained from the Statistics Finland. The specific characteristics and risk factors of the patients and their fractures were evaluated. Radiographic findings were analyzed, in particular the anterior tilting of the proximal growth plate, due to impaction. Results The annual incidence increased two-fold from 9.5 per 100 000 children (2006 to 2009) to 22.0 per 100 000 (2014 to 2017) (difference: 12.5; 95% confidence interval 5.1 to 20.3 per 100 000; p = 0.0008). The mean annual incidence of trampoline impaction leg fractures was 15.4 per 100 000 children. In 80% of the cases multiple children had been jumping together on the trampoline. Anterior tilting (mean 7.3°, SD 2.5°, 6.1° to 19.1°) ) of the proximal tibial plate was seen in 68.3% of the patients. Satisfactory bone union was found in 92.7% during follow-up. Isolated patients presented delayed bone healing. Conclusion The incidence of trampoline leg fractures has increased 130% during the 12 years of the study period. Many of these injuries could have been prevented by avoiding having several jumpers on the trampoline at the same time. Anterior tilting of the growth plate was a common finding and should be recognized in the primary radiographs. Level of evidence IV
... [5] Safety at trampoline parks is an emerging health concern, and there has been international attention drawn from the medical community as well as the media regarding the safety issues of such facilities. [6] While most injuries related to trampoline use are minor and do not require hospitalization, severe injuries, as rare as they are, can be detrimental. [2,6] Public health and preventive measures have focused mostly on domestic trampoline use. ...
... [6] While most injuries related to trampoline use are minor and do not require hospitalization, severe injuries, as rare as they are, can be detrimental. [2,6] Public health and preventive measures have focused mostly on domestic trampoline use. [7] Despite the alarmingly increasing rates of preventable injuries associated with trampoline parks, current statements on the use of trampolines from societies such as the American Academy of Editor: N/A. ...
Article
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Rationale: Recently, commercial indoor trampoline parks have been opened around the globe, and both the number of venues and the park users are increasing. Academic literatures have largely focused on home trampoline related injuries, and less is known about the injuries associated with trampoline parks due to the limited number of studies or cases reported. In this report, we present a complete spinal cord injury sustained at a commercial indoor trampoline park. Patient concerns: A 26-year old male developed tetraplegia after plainly jumping on the trampolines and diving into one of the foam pits head first. Diagnosis: C-spine CT revealed bilateral interfacetal dislocation on C6-7, and his C-spine MRI showed anterior translational injury at C6-7 with severe cord encroachment and complete discoligamentous complex disruption. He was diagnosed with complete spinal cord injury. Interventions: The patient underwent 30 minutes each of physical therapy and occupational therapy twice a day for a total of 25 days of in-patient rehabilitation. Interventions included tilt table, passive range of motion exercises, functional electrical stimulation, sitting balance training, upper extremity strengthening exercise, and hand manipulation exercises. Outcome: Despite intensive rehabilitation and the patient's good spirit, there was no functional change in all physical examinations between evaluations at initial and at discharge. Lessons: In conclusion, we aim to alert the risks associated with improper use of trampolines, promote safer entertainment environment, and aid in developing mandatory safety measures. We hope to alert the risks associated with improper use of trampolines, promote safer entertainment environment, and aid in developing mandatory safety measures.
... Trampoline-related injury distribution included a higher percentage of fractures/dislocations, lower extremity fractures and surgical interventions (Doty et al. 2019, Korhonen et al. 2018. Furthermore, injuries and fractures were related to hoverboards (Ho et al. 2018), all-terrain vehicles (Hogue et al. 2015), falls from skateboards (Tuckel et al. 2019) and riding dirt bikes (Abdelgawad et al. 2013). ...
Technical Report
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Much research has been done on musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs), but most reports focus on adults. This scoping review focuses on research in children and young people — both before and after joining the labour market. As many MSD problems begin in childhood, it is important to identify how they can be prevented at an early age. Many factors influence the development of MSDs, including physical factors (e.g. obesity, lack of sleep, prolonged periods of sitting), socioeconomic factors and individual factors (e.g. gender, age). This review examines how these factors affect MSDs in children and young people, how they can be prevented and how good musculoskeletal health can become an integral part of education.
... However, the reality is that children and adolescents are likely to endure any number of various forms of trauma. Birth trauma [23], unintentional falls [24], sports-related trauma [25], motor vehicle crash trauma [26], play-related trauma [27], childhood violence [28], and other trauma risks are ever present. A major problem is that many forms of childhood trauma are not reported and underestimated [29]. ...
Article
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Introduction: Cervical Spondylolisthesis (CS) in children is under-studied. This cross-sectional study reports the CS prevalence in children. Materials & methods: Subjects were selected from a private practice. Inclusion criteria: 0-17 years of age; documented demographics and health complaints; neutral lateral cervical (NLC) radiographs; and CS. Exclusion criteria: pseudosubluxation. Results: 342 NLC radiographs were analyzed. 73 (21.3%) had CS greater than 2.0 mm. 42 (57.5%) had no musculoskeletal complaints. 8 (2.3%) had the presence of a CS greater than 3.5 mm. 5 (62.5%) had no musculoskeletal complaints. Discussion: Pediatric populations endure various traumas. Pediatric cervical spine biomechanics has an increased risk of upper cervical spine injury. Regular spinal radiographic exams may help identify serious spinal conditions in their pre-symptomatic state. Conclusion: CS in pediatric populations is under-studied. CS is present in children and adolescents with and without symptoms.
... Considering the serious risks for injury, some healthcare professionals deem trampolines that are used for leisure activities of children as too dangerous, with some even calling for the ban of such trampolines (Eberl et al. 2009;Furnival et al. 1999;Brown & Lee 2000;Hammer et al. 1982 (Klimek et al. 2013). Today, about 95% of all trampoline accidents happen at home, with fractures and soft tissue wounds of the extremities among the most common injuries (Korhonen et al. 2018). Head injuries, on the other hand, occur less frequently, and currently no published data are available on dental injuries owing to trampoline use (Cho et al. 2019). ...
Article
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Garden trampolines are very popular in Switzerland. Most trampoline related accidents result in fractures and soft tissue injuries of the extremities. While these types of injuries have been well investigated in numerous studies, there has been no study on dental injuries on trampolines. The aim of the present study was to investigate dental accidents on garden trampolines in Switzerland and to analyze possible influencing factors. Data collection was carried out by analyzing aerial photographs and a questionnairebased survey. Out of 1212 questionnaires sent out, 637 could be included in the study. The data were evaluated in terms of accident, type of trampoline (inground or onground), and whether a safety net was present. A total of 105 trampoline accidents (16.5%) occurred, of which 23 were dental injuries (23.2%). 39.1% (n=9) were tooth fractures, 30.4% (n=7) were concussions, 17.4% (n=4) were avulsions, and 13.0% (n=3) were dislocation injuries. Teeth were predominantly impacted on the trampoline frame (26.2%, n=6) or on a person's own knee (26%, n=6). Dental accidents occurred 3.6 times more frequently when the trampoline was used by more than one person at a time. Dental accidents occurred 2.4 times more frequently on inground trampolines than on onground trampolines. Statistically, only the diameter of the trampoline had an influence on the frequency of accidents: Larger trampolines led more frequently to accidents. The present study showed that trampolining poses a risk of dental injury like other sports such as kick scooter or skiing. It is therefore important to increase parental and public awareness regarding the potential dangers of trampoline use.
... Greater trauma-energy may result more frequently in proximal humerus fractures than distal humerus or forearm fractures, which are usually caused by falling against the fully extended arm. From an epidemiological point of view, the number of backyard trampolines in the study area has increased since the beginning of 2000s [30,31]; therefore, it is reasonable that trampoline related distal humerus injuries have increased [32]. However, any increase in horse riding or winter sports within the child population has not been reported in the area, to our knowledge. ...
Article
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Background: Proximal humerus fractures comprise approximately 2% of all pediatric fractures. In general, upper extremity fractures have increased in children. However, recent trends of proximal humerus fractures are not analyzed yet. The aim was to study the incidence and treatment trends of proximal humerus fractures in children. Methods: All 300 children, aged < 16 years, who suffered from a proximal humerus fracture in the catchment area of Oulu University Hospital, Finland, between 2005 and 2015, were included. Radiographs were reviewed, and patients, injuries, treatments, and outcomes were comprehensively studied. Annual incidence was based on the child population at risk, which changed between 84.500 and 88.100 in the study time. Results: The annual incidence of childhood proximal humerus fractures was mean 31.4/100,000 and no variation trend was found. The majority (92%) was treated nonoperatively, however, there was an increase of operative fixation from 0 to 16% during the study time (Difference 16, 95% CI 0.3 to 34.9%, P = 0.045). Bayonet displacement increased the risk of surgical fixation up to 16-fold (95% CI 4.8-51.4, P < 0.001) in a multivariate analysis when adjusted with other potential risk factors. Higher age was also associated with operative treatment (P = 0.002). The most usual recreational activities were horse riding, downhill skiing, snowboarding, and trampolining. Conclusion: Contrary to most upper extremity fractures in children, proximal humerus fractures did not increase during the long study period. However, their operative treatment increased compared to nonoperative treatment, but the evidence supporting that trend remains unclear.
Article
Résumé Introduction Le trampoline est une activité attractive et répandue chez les enfants. Une revue de la littérature a démontré une augmentation des traumatismes en trampoline et une augmentation concomitante du nombre de consultations aux urgences pédiatriques. L’objectif principal de notre étude était de décrire la sévérité des blessures en trampoline chez l’enfant. Les objectifs secondaires étaient de réaliser une analyse épidémiologique de la population étudiée, des traumatismes et des traitements. Hypothèse L’hypothèse principale de notre étude était que les traumatismes sévères représentaient plus de 10 % des traumatismes en trampoline. Matériel et méthodes Nous avons réalisé une étude prospective sur une période de 10 mois. Nous avons inclus toutes les consultations pour motif chirurgical réalisées dans notre service d’urgences pédiatriques. Parmi elles, 103 faisaient suite à un accident de trampoline (1,2 % des consultations). Les enfants étaient âgés de 4 mois à 16 ans (âge moyen de 8 ans). Etait considéré comme sévère, tout traumatisme ayant nécessité une anesthésie générale. Résultats Les traumatismes sévères représentaient 16,5 % des traumatismes en trampoline. Au sein des traumatismes sévères, l’atteinte du membre supérieur prédominait (70,6 %). Sur l’ensemble des traumatismes, les fractures étaient localisées au membre supérieur dans 66,7 % des cas, tandis que 76 % des contusions concernaient le membre inférieur. Dans notre série, nous avons observé une majorité de fractures supra-condyliennes (15,3 %) et du radius distal (15,3 %). Quatre enfants sur 5 qui ne présentaient pas de traumatisme sévère ressortaient des urgences avec une immobilisation temporaire. Discussion Nous avons obtenu dans notre étude un taux légèrement plus élevé de traumatismes sévères en comparaison à la littérature. Les blessures induites par le trampoline restent un motif de consultation rare mais grave. En effet, dans notre série, près d’un enfant sur 6 nécessitait une prise en charge au bloc opératoire. Niveau de preuve IV ; étude épidémiologique descriptive.
Article
Background: Trampolining is popular and widely practiced among children. A literature review has shown a rise in the incidence of trampoline injuries with a concomitant increase in paediatric emergency department visits. The primary objective of this study was to describe the severity of trampoline injuries in children. The secondary objectives were to assess the epidemiology of the study population and injuries and to describe the treatments. Hypothesis: We hypothesized that over 10% of trampoline injuries were severe. Material and Methods: We prospectively evaluated consecutive patients seen for surgical conditions at our paediatric emergency department over a 10-month period. Among them, 103 (1.2% of visits) aged 4 months to 16 years (mean, 8 years) had trampoline injuries. We classified trampoline injuries as severe if they required general anaesthesia. Results: Severe injuries accounted for 16.5% of all trampoline injuries. The upper limb was predominantly affected (70.6% of cases). Overall, 66.7% of fractures were at the upper limb and 76% of contusions at the lower limb. The predominant fracture sites were the supra-condylar humerus (15.3%) and distal radius (15.3%). Among patients with non-severe injuries, four-fifths left the emergency department with a temporary immobilisation system. Discussion: The proportion of severe injuries was slightly higher in our study than in earlier reports. Trampoline injuries remain uncommon but can be severe. Thus, in our study over one-sixth of patients required surgery under general anaesthesia. Level of evidence: IV, prospective descriptive epidemiological study
Article
Introduction: Trampolines are responsible for specific injuries. We examined the severity of these injuries in children compared with those occurring in other activities. Our primary goal was to compare the injury severity between trampolining and other activities. Our secondary goal was to evaluate risk factors for severity in order to establish preventative measures and, third, to evaluate the increased prevalence of these injuries in our hospital from 2008 to 2016. Material and methods: Our study was a retrospective, comparative, descriptive, and epidemiological research. Children aged 2-15 years admitted to our traumatology emergency services between June and October 2016 were included in the study. Non-sport-related injuries were excluded. Serious injuries were classified as fractures and admissions to the operating room. Results: In total, 1106 children were admitted including 107 trampoline accidents. The fracture rate was similar in the two groups: 34 (31.78%) vs. 309 (30.93%), OR=1.039, 95% CI [0.65, 1.62] P=0.91. Surgical treatments were more frequent in the trampoline group: 4 (3.74%) vs. 18 (1.80%) OR=2.114, 95% CI [0.51, 6.58] P=0.156. Several people jumping simultaneously on the trampoline was a risk factor (OR=1.56, 95% CI [1.0908, 2.308], P=0.018). Parental supervision was a protective factor (OR=0.271, 95% CI [0.08, 0.80], P=0.023). Trampolining accidents were 9.7 times more common in our center in 2016 compared with 2008. Discussion: To our knowledge, no study has compared trampoline injuries with those stemming from other activities. Awareness campaigns are needed as well as information from sellers, who have to be trained. Conclusion: Surgical treatments are twice as likely in trampoline accidents. Prevention is simple: Children should be alone on the trampoline and supervised by an adult.
Article
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The number of injuries caused by accidents while springing on a trampoline has increased significantly. This study therefore focused on the incidence, morbidity and circumstances of the accidents in pediatric patients. The children admitted to this hospital from 2002 to 2010 were re-examined and the children injured during trampolining were asked to fill out a questionnaire focusing on the mechanism of the injury and the circumstances. A total of 268 accidents were included in the study and 28% of the injuries were severe (e.g. fracture, luxation and rupture). If there were special safety measures (e.g. safety net, floor mats, surrounding water 63%) 28.4% of the injuries were severe and without safety measures 28.6% were severe. Safety measures did not influence the incidence of severe trauma (p=1). If a trampoline was equipped with a safety net (53%) 31% of the injuries were severe and without a safety net 25% were severe (p=0.473). Pediatric accidents on a trampoline result in severe injuries in 28% of cases. There is no difference in the severity of the injury regarding trampolines with or without special safety measures. Safety nets do not reduce the risk of severe injury.
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Fractures are most common in youth and in the elderly, with differences in incidence over time and between regions. We present the fracture pattern in a population of youths <or= 19 years of age, who were seen at Umeå University Hospital, Sweden. All injuries seen at the hospital have been recorded in a database since 1993. The data include variables such as age, sex, date, type of injury, mechanism of injury, and treatment. For the period 1993-2007, there were 10,203 injury events that had resulted in at least 1 fracture. The incidence for the whole period was 201/10(4) person years. The incidence increased by 13% during the period 1998-2007, when we were able to control for registration errors. The most common fracture site was the distal forearm. The most common type of injury mechanism was falling. The peak incidence occurred at 11-12 years in girls and at 13-14 years in boys, with a male-to-female incidence ratio of 1.5. We found variations in mechanisms and activities at injury with age, and over time. Fractures are caused by a combination of intrinsic and extrinsic factors that vary with age. We believe the increase in incidence is partly explained by changes in children's activity patterns over time. Further research may help to identify preventive measures to reduce the number of fractures, in particular those involving hospital care, surgical treatment, and-most importantly-long-term impairment.
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This review highlights recent work evaluating the relationship between exercise, physical activity and physical and mental health. Both cross-sectional and longitudinal studies, as well as randomized clinical trials, are included. Special attention is given to physical conditions, including obesity, cancer, cardiovascular disease and sexual dysfunction. Furthermore, studies relating physical activity to depression and other mood states are reviewed. The studies include diverse ethnic populations, including men and women, as well as several age groups (e.g. adolescents, middle-aged and older adults). Results of the studies continue to support a growing literature suggesting that exercise, physical activity and physical-activity interventions have beneficial effects across several physical and mental-health outcomes. Generally, participants engaging in regular physical activity display more desirable health outcomes across a variety of physical conditions. Similarly, participants in randomized clinical trials of physical-activity interventions show better health outcomes, including better general and health-related quality of life, better functional capacity and better mood states. The studies have several implications for clinical practice and research. Most work suggests that exercise and physical activity are associated with better quality of life and health outcomes. Therefore, assessment and promotion of exercise and physical activity may be beneficial in achieving desired benefits across several populations. Several limitations were noted, particularly in research involving randomized clinical trials. These trials tend to involve limited sample sizes with short follow-up periods, thus limiting the clinical implications of the benefits associated with physical activity.
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We reviewed the records of children referred to our hospital between April and September 2005 who had been injured whilst trampolining. Of 88 such children there were 33 boys and 55 girls with a mean age of 8 years 6 months (2 years 4 months to 15 years 9 months). Most of the injuries (53; 60%) occurred when bouncing and 34 (39%) were secondary to falls from the trampoline. The cause of injury was unknown in one child. The injured child was supervised in only 35 cases (40%). In 31 (35%) cases, the injury was related to the presence of others on the trampoline. A total of 36 (40%) children required surgery. Fractures of the upper limbs occurred in 62 cases (70%). Injuries related to the recreational use of trampolines are a significant cause of childhood injury. Our results suggest strongly that there is a need for clear guidelines on safe and responsible use of domestic trampolines.
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Objectives: Recreational trampoline use is increasing in popularity, with a resulting increase in significant trampoline-related injuries in children. Parents are the best advocates for the safety of their children during recreational trampoline use. Our primary objective was to determine the proportion of parents who were aware of five key recommendations for safer recreational trampoline use in children. Methods: This was a cross-sectional survey of parents whose children presented to a tertiary care pediatric emergency department (ED) with an extremity injury. Survey questions were derived and validated using expert opinion, available literature, and pre and pilot testing of questions on the target audience. Results: Of the 1415 enrolled parents, 654 (46.2%) had regular access to a trampoline and 125 (8.8%) of their children had a history of trampoline injury. A total of 116 (8.2%; 95% CI 6.8 to 9.6) parents were aware of all five key safety recommendations for home trampoline use. Specifically, the proportion of parents who reported knowledge of the requirement for active supervision, regularly inspected safety equipment, avoiding stunts, multiple jumpers and use by children 6 years of age and older was 89.0%, 77.2%, 44.3%, 41.6%, and 18.3%, respectively. Conclusions: Trampoline safety knowledge of the five key recommendations amongst parents was low, specifically with respect to recommended age, number of jumpers, and stunts. Since it is unlikely that use of recreational trampolines will decrease, a harm reduction approach that includes a public knowledge translation strategy of recommendations for safer home use of trampolines is necessary.
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BACKGROUND: Although the majority of trampoline injuries in children are minor, severe injuries occur as well. METHODS: We have analyzed the risk factors, treatment and outcome of severe trampoline injuries treated in the Oulu University Hospital in children and the young between April and November 2105. RESULTS: There was a total of eight severe injuries. Five injuries involved a danger of death. Almost all severe trampoline injuries resulted from an unsuccessful trick. A safety net was in use in half of the cases. CONCLUSIONS: All cervical spine injuries would have been avoided provided that the children would have refrained from doing a somersault on the trampoline.
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We report the case of a 15-year-old boy who presented to accident and emergency following a trampolining injury. Initially, the patient was discharged, diagnosed with a soft tissue injury, but he re-presented 48 h later with worsening low back pain and neurological symptoms in the left leg. Subsequent MRI revealed a left iliacus haematoma causing a femoral nerve palsy. The patient was managed conservatively and by 6 months post injury all symptoms had resolved. This is the first reported case of an iliacus haematoma causing a femoral nerve palsy, after a trampolining injury. We believe this case highlights to our fellow clinicians the importance of a detailed history when assessing patients with trampolining injuries to evaluate the true force of injury. It also acts as a reference for clinicians in managing similar cases in future. 2015 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.
Article
Despite previous recommendations from the American Academy of Pediatrics discouraging home use of trampolines, recreational use of trampolines in the home setting continues to be a popular activity among children and adolescents. This policy statement is an update to previous statements, reflecting the current literature on prevalence, patterns, and mechanisms of trampoline-related injuries. Most trampoline injuries occur with multiple simultaneous users on the mat. Cervical spine injuries often occur with falls off the trampoline or with attempts at somersaults or flips. Studies on the efficacy of trampoline safety measures are reviewed, and although there is a paucity of data, current implementation of safety measures have not appeared to mitigate risk substantially. Therefore, the home use of trampolines is strongly discouraged. The role of trampoline as a competitive sport and in structured training settings is reviewed, and recommendations for enhancing safety in these environments are made. Pediatrics 2012;130:774-779
Article
The aim of this study was to report a case of a 4-year-old boy who had been playing on the trampoline and presented to the emergency department (ED) with vomiting and ataxia, and had a vertebral artery dissection with subsequent posterior circulation infarcts. This study is a chart review. The patient presented to the emergency department with a 4-day history of vomiting and gait unsteadiness. A computed tomography scan of his head revealed multiple left cerebellar infarcts. Subsequent magnetic resonance imaging/magnetic resonance angiogram of his head and neck demonstrated multiple infarcts involving the left cerebellum, bilateral thalami, and left occipital lobe. A computed tomography angiogram confirmed the presence of a left vertebral artery dissection. Vertebral artery dissection is a relatively common cause of stroke in the pediatric age group. Trampoline use has been associated with significant risk of injury to the head and neck. Patients who are small and/or young are most at risk. In this case, minor trauma secondary to trampoline use could be a possible mechanism for vertebral artery dissection and subsequent strokes. The association in this case warrants careful consideration because trampoline use could pose a significant risk to pediatric users.
Article
A girl of preschool age fell off a trampoline in a sitting position onto an iron bar sticking up from the ground. In addition to a laceration of the terminal portion of the rectum, she was found to have a severe sphincter injury. The sphincters were repaired by a surgeon the next morning. After one month from the surgery the anal canal pressure was found to be symmetrical with good contractile force of the sphincters. No abnormalities were found in a contrast study or in rectoscopy. The protective stoma was closed after three months from the injury and fecal continence was normal after one and a half years.
Article
Backyard trampolines are immensely popular among children, but are associated with an increase of trampoline-related injuries. The aim of this study was to evaluate radiographs of children with trampoline related injuries and to determine the risk factors. Between 2003 and 2009, 286 children under the age of 16 with backyard trampoline injuries were included in the study. The number of injuries increased from 13 patients in 2003 to 86 in 2009. The median age of the 286 patients was 7 years (range: 1-15 years). Totally 140 (49%) patients were males, and 146 (51%) females. Medical records and all available diagnostic imaging were reviewed. A questionnaire was sent to the parents to evaluate the circumstances of each injury, the type of trampoline, the protection equipment and the experience of the children using the trampoline. The study was approved by the Institutional Ethics Committee of the University Hospital of Bern. The questionnaires and radiographs of the 104 patients were available for evaluation. A fracture was sustained in 51 of the 104 patients. More than 75% of all patients sustaining injuries and in 90% of patients with fractures were jumping on the trampoline with other children at the time of the accident. The most common fractures were supracondylar humeral fractures (29%) and forearm fractures (25%). Fractures of the proximal tibia occurred especially in younger children between 2-5 years of age. Children younger than 5 years old are at risk for specific proximal tibia fractures ("Trampoline Fracture"). A child jumping simultaneously with other children has a higher risk of suffering from a fracture.
Article
: This is a literature review generated from The Committee on Trauma and Prevention of Pediatric Orthopaedic Society of North America to bring to the forefront 4 main areas of preventable injuries in children. : Literature review of pertinent published studies or available information of 4 areas of childhood injury: trampoline and moonbouncers, skateboards, all-terrain vehicles, and lawn mowers. : Much literature exists on these injuries. : Preventable injuries occur at alarming rates in children. By arming the orthopaedist with a concise account of these injuries, patient education and child safety may be promoted. : 3.
Article
Trampolines for home use have become common in Finland during the past ten years, being especially favored by children. Trampoline jumping is beneficial and constructive physical exercise, but poses a significant risk for injuries. The most common injuries include sprains and strains. During summertime, trampoline injuries account for as many as 13% of children's accidents requiring hospital care. Fractures are by far the most common trampoline injuries requiring hospital care. Injuries can be prevented by using safety nets. Only one child at a time is allowed to jump on the trampoline.
Article
Physical activity is thought to have a crucial role to play in health, psychomotor development and habit formation for children between 0 and 5 years old. However, all children under 6 are not as active as recommended in the literature. Objective: to provide physicians with some guidelines, based on the principle of Early Screening and Brief Intervention, in order to encourage parents with young sedentary children to be more active. Literature review, development of a decision algorithm, analysis by professionals. Results: Data were gathered from Medline Pubmed, Cochrane Library, and the French Database in Public Health (any date to November 2009). Papers which did not give enough details (length, nature, etc.) on the advice were rejected and papers which dealt with a brief consultation, or with advice that was given either to a whole group of people, or that was given by several health professionals during the course of a personal coaching program. For instance, 1 492 hits were found after researching the terms screening and brief intervention on Medline, but there were only 12 when the research was run together with the terms (physical activity or active play or exercise) and primary care. A decision algorithm to advise parents was developed, based on Early Screening and Brief Intervention principle. This tool should be usable by every doctor in primary care. "Early screening" starts with the parents being asked questions concerning their young child's physical activity, and "Brief Intervention" is based on existing recommendations, as well as recent studies on the key factors linked to physical activity in very young children. The ESBI approach proved successful when applied to psychoactive substances and merits testing in the field of physical activity. Further studies are needed to provide doctors with efficient tools to evaluate physical activity during a consultation.
Article
In recent years, media formats with risk-glorifying content, such as video games that simulate illegal street racing ("bang and crash" games), films about extreme sports, and risky stunts have emerged as top sellers of the media industry. A variety of recent studies conducted by several researchers revealed that exposure to risk-glorifying media content (e.g., video games that simulate reckless driving, smoking and drinking in movies, or depictions that glorify extreme sports) increases the likelihood that recipients will show increased levels of risk-taking inclinations and behaviors. The present article (1) reviews the latest research on the detrimental impact of risk-glorifying media on risk-taking inclinations (cognitions, emotions, behaviors), (2) puts these findings in the theoretical context of recent sociocognitive models on media effects, and (3) makes suggestions to science and policymakers on how to deal with these effects in the future.
Article
The recent popularity of domestic trampolines has seen a corresponding increase in injured children. Most injuries happen on the trampoline mat when there are multiple users present. This study sought to examine and simulate the forces and energy transferred to a child's limbs when trampolining with another person of greater mass. The study used a computational biomechanical model. The simulation demonstrated that when two masses bounce out of phase on a trampoline, a transfer of kinetic energy from the larger mass to the smaller mass is likely to occur. It predicted that when an 80&emsp14;kg adult is on a trampoline with a 25 kg child, the energy transfer is equivalent to the child falling 2.8 m onto a solid surface. Additionally, the rate of loading on the child's bones and ligaments is greater than that on the accompanying adult. Current guidelines are clear that more than one user on a trampoline at a time is a risk factor for serious injury; however, the majority of injuries happen in this scenario. The model predicted that there are high energy transfers resulting in serious fracture and ligamentous injuries to children and that this could be equated to equivalent fall heights. This provides a clear take-home message, which can be conveyed to parents to reduce the incidence of trampoline-related injuries.
Article
Epidemiological data on the incidence of surgical treatment of pediatric fractures are sparse. Our aim was to determine the incidence of in-hospital-treated fractures and of the surgical treatment of these fractures in children and adolescents. National Discharge Register data on pediatric fractures (in patients younger than the age of eighteen years) treated in the hospital in Finland between 1997 and 2006 were evaluated. During the ten-year follow-up period, the incidence (per 100,000 persons) of fractures leading to hospitalization increased by 13.5% (from 319 in 1997 to 362 in 2006; p < 0.001). This change resulted mainly from an increase in the incidence of hospital-treated upper-extremity fractures (23% increase; from 189 in 1997 to 232 in 2006). The incidence of primary fracture surgery increased by 20% (from 237 in 1997 to 284 in 2006; p < 0.001). The incidences of surgery for upper-extremity, lower-extremity, and axial fractures increased by 28%, 3.9%, and 10.7%, respectively. Within the upper-extremity-fracture group, the incremental increase was mainly due to an increase in forearm fracture surgery (62% increase; from fifty-five in 1997 to eighty-nine in 2006) (p < 0.001). Operative treatment of children's fractures has increased markedly during the last ten years. Evidence-based medical and economic data supporting this change in practice are sparse.
Article
There has been an unprecedented surge in the popularity of trampolines in the UK and in the number of children attending emergency departments with associated injuries. To record the incidence, injury type and risk factors for children attending the emergency department of a busy suburban hospital with trampolining injuries. Between May and September 2008, all eligible patients had a proforma completed recording mechanism, time and type of injury, the number of children trampolining at the time of the injury and whether a supervising adult or safety net was present. Analgesia requirements, treatment and follow-up were recorded. 131 children presented with trampolining injuries (1.5% of paediatric attendances). The average age was 8.8 years (range 1-16). 77 (59%) had no net present and 87 (66%) no supervising adult. 89 (68%) sustained injuries without actually falling from the trampoline and, on average, 2.6 people (range 1-7) were on the trampoline at the time of the injury. 81 (62%) required a radiograph and 40 (31%) were diagnosed with fractures. 18 (14%) required surgery and 28 (21%) were discharged with clinic follow-up. 18 (14%) sustained lacerations that required closure in the department. The enormous increase in trampoline sales has brought with it a significant increase in the injuries presenting to UK emergency departments. Safety information is given by manufacturers, retailers and local government authorities, but many parents fail to heed this advice. A combination of inadequate adult supervision, several people using a trampoline simultaneously and insufficient safety equipment seems inextricably linked with injury. Greater parental and public awareness is required regarding the potential dangers of what is perhaps unwittingly considered a light-hearted pastime.
Article
Trampoline-related injuries are preventable by avoidance. There are few published reports focusing on cervical spine injuries from trampolines in the paediatric population. Patients younger than 18 years of age who presented to Stollery Children's Hospital (Edmonton, Alberta) between 1995 and 2006, with a cervical spine injury or death from trampoline use were identified via a medical records database search. Data were collected retrospectively from the hospital charts, and were presented using descriptive statistics. There were seven cases of cervical spine injury secondary to trampoline use. Four patients had lasting neurological deficits at discharge from hospital, and another patient died at the scene due to refractory cardiac arrest. Injuries were sustained both on (n=5) and off (n=2) the trampoline mat from mechanisms that included attempted somersaults on the trampoline and falls from the trampoline. All the trampolines were privately owned home trampolines. An ambulance was called for five patients, intravenous fluids were administered to two patients with hypotension and spinal shock, and cardiopulmonary resuscitation was performed on one patient. All six patients surviving the initial injury were admitted to hospital for a mean +/- SD of 9.5+/-9.0 days. These six patients underwent imaging including x-rays, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, and three patients required surgery for spinal stabilization. Cervical spine injuries from trampolines lead to severe neurological sequelae, death, hospitalization and significant resource use. The authors agree with the Canadian Paediatric Society's statement that trampolines should not be used for recreational purposes at home, and they support a ban on all paediatric use of trampolines.
Article
The number of recreational trampolines in Finnish households has increased. There also appears to be a drastic increase in trampoline-related injuries among paediatric patients. The aim of this study was to quantify and describe trampoline-related injuries in North Finnish paediatric patients. A retrospective analysis of medical data was used in the study, covering children 16 years and younger treated for trampoline-related injuries at Oulu University Hospital over a five-month period of time from May 1 to September 30, 2005. Medical records were reviewed and additional details regarding the injuries were obtained by questionnaire. Altogether 76 patients were treated for trampoline-related injuries, which represented 13.4 % of all paediatric accidental trauma patients. In 57 accidents (86 %), there had been multiple jumpers on the trampoline. Twenty-five of the injuries (38 %) had occurred on the trampoline, in 25 cases (38 %) a child had fallen off, in 8 cases (12 %) there had been a collision with another jumper and the person had jumped onto a trampoline from a high platform in 5 incidents (8 %). Only 3 children (5 %) hurt themselves on the trampoline when jumping alone. Orthopaedic procedures requiring general anaesthesia were necessary in a total of 31 cases (41 %). The study shows that 50 % of traumas (falling off and collisions) could have been avoided by using a safety net and by jumping one at a time. The importance of following safety instructions and the need for a safety net should be emphasised to both the supervising adults and the children.
Article
A search of the medical literature failed to reveal any articles that discuss pediatric injuries acquired on privately owned recreational trampolines. This study was undertaken to quantify and qualify pediatric injuries from recreational trampoline use. A group of 114 patients who presented to the Emergency Department at Primary Children's Medical Center in Salt Lake City, Utah, with injuries directly related to use of a trampoline are discussed. There was a 1.2:1 male-female ratio. The average age was 8.0 years. Forty-eight percent of the patients were injured on their family's trampoline, with the remainder injured on a friend's, neighbor's, relative's, or gymnasium's equipment. The majority of injuries involved group use of the trampoline and the youngest person in a group was most often the injured participant. Extremity injuries were seen in 55% of the patient and head or neck injuries in 37%. Seventy-five percent of the patients required radiographs, 23% hospitalization, and 17% operative intervention. The history of the trampoline and medical literature discussions concerning injuries and safety are reviewed.
Article
To describe the epidemiology of trampoline-related injuries among children in the United States. A retrospective analysis of data for children 18 years old and younger from the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System of the United States Consumer Product Safety Commission for 1990 through 1995. There were an estimated 249 400 trampoline-related injuries [95% confidence interval (CI), 166 300-332 500] to children 18 years old and younger treated in hospital emergency departments in the United States during the 6-year study period. The number of injuries increased by 98% from 29 600 in 1990 to 58 400 in 1995, with an average of 41 600 (95% CI, 27 700-55 500) injuries per year, or 59.4 injuries per 100 000 United States children per year (95% CI, 39.6-79.3). The median age of injured children was 10 years, and 50% were males. Ninety-three percent of injuries occurred at home. Injuries to the extremities predominated among children of all ages and accounted for more than 70% of all injuries. This study identified several age-specific injury patterns. There was an inverse relationship between age versus the relative frequency of upper extremity injuries, and fractures and dislocations; and there was a direct relationship between age versus lower extremity injuries and soft tissue injury. There was also an inverse relationship between age versus facial injuries, head and neck injuries, and lacerations. Annually, an estimated 1400 children (95% CI, 800-2000), or 2.0 per 100 000 United States children (95% CI, 1. 1-2.9), required hospital admission or interhospital transfer because of a trampoline-related injury. This represented 3.3% of all children with a trampoline-associated injury. Fractures or dislocations accounted for 83% of injuries among admitted or transferred children, and children with a fracture or dislocation were more likely to be admitted or transferred to another hospital (8.4%) than children with other types of injury (relative risk, 10.80; 95% CI, 9.40 < relative risk < 12.29). Among children released home from the emergency department, soft tissue injuries (53%), fractures or dislocations (30%), and lacerations (14%) were the most common injuries treated. Injuries related to trampolines, especially backyard trampolines, are an important cause of pediatric morbidity. These injuries have also resulted in death. The rapid increase in the number of trampoline-related injuries to children during recent years is evidence that current prevention strategies are inadequate. Children should not use trampolines at home, and the sale of trampolines for private recreational use should be stopped.
Article
Trampolining on an outdoor oval or circular trampoline is a popular activity for children but is associated with a number of orthopedic injuries, especially in children between the ages of 5 and 15 years. In this paper we review the orthopedic injuries in children associated with backyard trampoline use, through our experience with a series of children admitted to the Winnipeg Children's Hospital, the only tertiary care pediatric centre in Manitoba. We reviewed the charts, x-ray films and operative reports for 80 children under 16 years old (mean 9 yr, with 14 [18%] children between 2 and 4 yr) with an orthopedic injury sustained when using a trampoline in the backyard. We noted the mechanism of injury and type and severity of orthopedic injury sustained. Fifty-two (65%) children were injured on the trampoline mat, and 24 (30%) were injured when they were ejected from the trampoline. Sixty (75%) children sustained a fracture or fracture-dislocation. Forty-eight (80%) orthopedic injuries occurred in the upper extremity. No child died as a result of a trampoline injury. The use of the "backyard" trampoline by young children can cause significant orthopedic injury.
Article
This study reports three cases of ulnar neuropathy after trampoline injuries in children. A chart review was performed on children who sustained an ulnar nerve injury from a trampoline accident. In all cases, surgical intervention was required. Injuries included upper-extremity fractures in two cases and an upper-extremity laceration in one case. All cases required surgical exploration with internal neurolysis and ulnar nerve transposition. Nerve grafts were used in two cases and an additional nerve transfer was used in one case. All patients had return of intrinsic hand function and sensation after surgery. Children should be followed for evolution of ulnar nerve neuropathy after upper-extremity injury with consideration for electrical studies and surgical exploration if there is no improvement after 3 months.
Article
To compare mini- and full-sized trampoline-related injuries in the United States. A retrospective analysis of data was conducted for all ages from the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System (NEISS) of the US Consumer Product Safety Commission from 1990 to 2002. We compared 137 minitrampoline-related injuries with 143 full-sized trampoline-related injuries, randomly selected from all full-sized trampoline-related injuries reported to the NEISS during the study period. Patients ranged in age from 1 to 80 years (mean [SD]: 13.9 [17.7]) and 2 to 52 years (mean [SD]: 11.0 [8.0]) for mini- and full-sized trampoline-related injuries, respectively. Most patients were younger than 18 years (82% mini, 91% full-sized). Thirty-two percent of minitrampoline- and 19% of full-sized trampoline-related injuries were to children who were younger than 6 years; girls predominated (63% mini, 51% full-sized). Children who were younger than 6 years were more likely to be injured on a minitrampoline than on a full-sized trampoline, when compared with 6- to 17-year-olds (odds ratio [OR]: 2.43; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.33-4.47). The majority of injuries occurred at home (87% mini, 89% full-sized). All patients who were injured on a minitrampoline were treated and released, whereas 5% of patients who were injured on a full-sized trampoline were admitted to the hospital. On minitrampolines, children who were younger than 6 years were at risk for head lacerations (OR: 4.98; 95% CI: 1.71-16.03), and children who were 6 to 17 years were at risk for lower extremity strains or sprains (OR: 6.26; 95% CI: 1.35-59.14). Children who were 6 to 17 years and injured on a full-sized trampoline were at risk for lower extremity strains or sprains (OR: 4.85; 95% CI: 1.09-44.93). Lower extremity strains or sprains were the most common injury sustained by adults (18 years and older; 33% mini, 15% full-sized). Injury patterns were similar for mini- and full-sized trampolines, although minitrampoline-related injuries were less likely to require admission to the hospital and more commonly resulted in head lacerations among children who were younger than 6 years. Risk for injury could not be determined because of the lack of data regarding duration of exposure to risk. We therefore conclude that the use of full-sized trampolines by children should follow the policy recommendations of the American Academy of Pediatrics. Trampolines, including minitrampolines, should be regarded as training devices and not as toys. Until more data are available regarding exposure to risk, we caution against the use of the minitrampoline as a play device by children in the home, which is where most minitrampoline-related injuries occur.
jota ei voi pelata: pelivideoiden kulttuuri. Pelitutkimuksen Vuosikirja
  • T Kerttula
Kerttula T, Peli. jota ei voi pelata: pelivideoiden kulttuuri. Pelitutkimuksen Vuosikirja; 2014