Article

The role of value on teachers' internalization of external barriers and externalization of personal beliefs for classroom technology integration

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Abstract

Recent research has shown that access alone does not automatically equate to greater or higher quality of technology integration. Teacher beliefs are also important factors of how teachers integrate technology in the classroom. This study examined how teachers’ value beliefs about technology affect the way they internalize actual technology access and administrator support into perceptions of support on first-order barriers. This study also examined how teachers’ value beliefs affect the relationship between perceived support on first-order barriers and their classroom technology integration practice. Using hierarchical linear modeling and multilevel path modeling, the study found that value beliefs moderated the extent to which teachers translate actual school support into perceptions of support on first-order barriers. Value beliefs also mediated and moderated the relationship between how teachers’ perceived support on first-order barriers influences both the quantity and quality of classroom technology integration, suggesting a moderated-mediation interaction pattern. This study makes contribution to the literature by highlighting the importance of teachers’ values beliefs in technology integration.

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... Studies utilizing these instruments were generally interested in factors influencing students' adoption, intention, and frequency of use borne out of the technology acceptance tradition (e.g., Al-Adwan et al., 2013;Cheung & Vogel, 2013;Edmunds et al., 2012;Park et al., 2012). Others have also investigated student technology use via teachers' accounts of their integration practices-such as teacher-directed student usage (Miranda & Russell, 2012;Vongkulluksn et al., 2018;Wang et al., 2014). While important to our understanding of technology integration, these studies do not address how students leverage technology tools in diverse ways within the cognitive processes of learning. ...
... Their questionnaire not only assessed frequency of use, but also how much teachers felt competent at helping students gain relevant skills with technology, such as expressing ideas in a creative way with technology, and communicating with technology in a safe, responsible and effective way. Another example includes the instrument used by Kim et al. (2017) and Vongkulluksn et al. (2018), which measured both quantitative and qualitative characteristics of technology use in middle and high school settings. The quantity of technology use was measured by the percentage of classroom time spent using technology, whereas the quality of technology use was measured by the extent to which teachers used technology for student-centered and higher-order thinking activities. ...
... However, as our literature review revealed, there is a gap in current research in terms of how students' classroom technology usage is measured. Research in this area typically used teachers' accounts of technology integration efforts (e.g., Miranda & Russell, 2012;Vongkulluksn et al., 2018), relied on usage accounts of different digital tools (Inan et al., 2010;Lust et al., 2013;Rashid & Asghar, 2016), accessed behavioral log data to infer about cognitive engagement Gašević et al., 2017;Jiang et al., 2009), or analyzed in-depth qualitative data in examining students' cognitive engagement with technology. These past studies provided valuable insights into how technology can support learning, and the CET scale can be used to triangulate, complement, and extend these findings. ...
Article
Quantitative studies on technology integration often examined general quantity of classroom technology use or teacher-reported accounts of integration practices. There is a current need for a measurement tool that links students’ technology use and cognitive engagement, which will allow researchers to better illustrate how technology is woven into the learning process. The purpose of this study is to develop a scale to measure how students use technology for different cognitive tasks, following theoretical conceptions from Bloom’s Digital Taxonomy and Multiple-Document Task-based Relevance Assessment and Content Extraction. We employed Confirmatory Factor Analysis, as well as both classical test theory and item response theory over three studies to validate our newly created scale. The new Cognitive Engagement with Technology (CET) scale showed good psychometric properties, item functioning, and construct validity. The CET scale can be used to triangulate students’ technology use patterns with other research methods. It can also help extend past findings by taking into account how students use technology to aid in the cognitive processes of learning.
... While some avenues for schools to help teachers surpass technology integration barriers such as providing materials are fairly straightforward, others include providing effective professional development, building a coherent technology integration vision, and focusing on improving the beliefs and attitudes of teachers (Ertmer, 1999;Fishman & Pinkard, 2001;Hew & Brush, 2007). Individual studies focusing on the effects of ability and value beliefs on technology integration have confirmed their importance (e.g., Cheng et al., 2020;Vongkulluksn et al., 2018;Wozney et al., 2006). Additionally, studies exploring external factors including perceived support and commitment to technology within a school or district have demonstrated the importance of overcoming external barriers to technology integration (e.g., Inan & Lowther, 2010a, 2010bO'Dwyer et al., 2004O'Dwyer et al., , 2005. ...
... The limited research exploring changes in barriers over time showed that continuous access to technology and support for its use is needed, and without that continuous support, teachers do not necessarily improve their beliefs and technology integration behaviors (Kafyulilo et al., 2016). Most of these studies connecting barriers and technology integration were conducted under large intervention programs (e.g., professional development), and most take a variable-centered approach that looked at the changes at an overall level (e.g., Cheng et al., 2020;O'Dwyer et al., 2004O'Dwyer et al., , 2005Vongkulluksn et al., 2018). While a variable-centered approach, such as the repeated measures design or the hierarchical liner modeling technique, is capable of detecting longitudinal differences in specific variables for an entire sample, this approach does not consider joint patterns and combinations of variables. ...
... For these reasons, teacher beliefs about technology integration have been widely examined in the field for the past decade (Hur et al., 2016;McCulloch et al., 2018;Teo et al., 2018;Willis et al., 2019;Xie et al., , 2019. According to the literature, ability beliefs and value beliefs have been identified as major belief factors that are consistently and strongly associated with teachers' practices of using technology in classrooms (Chaaban & Ellili-Cherif, 2017;Petko, 2012;Vongkulluksn et al., 2018). ...
Article
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This study examined changes in teachers' perceptions of external barriers, internal barriers, and their integration of digital educational resources across two years through variable-centered and person-centered approaches. Participants included 301 in-service middle and high school teachers from 18 schools in the United states. the results of variable-centered approaches showed some significant changes in external barriers and teacher behavior but not in internal barriers. however, person-centered approaches revealed that perceived changes in external barriers significantly predicted nuanced changes in the patterns of teachers' educational digital resource integration and their beliefs about technology. as teachers perceived a stronger technology vision and commitment to professional development in their school environments, their personal practices and beliefs shifted together.
... Technology use is often impacted by teachers' beliefs and attitudes regarding the role of technology in teaching and learning (O'Neal et al., 2017). Teacher beliefs associated with technology integration practices includes value beliefs and ability beliefs (Vongkulluksn et al., 2018). Value beliefs about technology include a conviction that important instructional goals can be met with the help of technology, while ability beliefs have to do with the self-efficacy of the teacher for using educational technology tools and resources (Ertmer et al., 2012;Vongkulluksn et al., 2018). ...
... Teacher beliefs associated with technology integration practices includes value beliefs and ability beliefs (Vongkulluksn et al., 2018). Value beliefs about technology include a conviction that important instructional goals can be met with the help of technology, while ability beliefs have to do with the self-efficacy of the teacher for using educational technology tools and resources (Ertmer et al., 2012;Vongkulluksn et al., 2018). Vongkulluksn et al. (2018) compared value and ability beliefs among teachers and found that a teacher who believes technology can assist in meeting important instructional goals (value belief) is more likely to integrate technology effectively than a teacher who has confidence in using technologies for teaching and learning (ability belief). ...
... Value beliefs about technology include a conviction that important instructional goals can be met with the help of technology, while ability beliefs have to do with the self-efficacy of the teacher for using educational technology tools and resources (Ertmer et al., 2012;Vongkulluksn et al., 2018). Vongkulluksn et al. (2018) compared value and ability beliefs among teachers and found that a teacher who believes technology can assist in meeting important instructional goals (value belief) is more likely to integrate technology effectively than a teacher who has confidence in using technologies for teaching and learning (ability belief). The results also indicated that teachers' value beliefs predicted how well teachers integrated technology in their classrooms, including how much they used technology to foster student-centered instruction and higher-order tasks. ...
Article
The purpose of this phenomenographic study was to acquire a better understanding of the lived experiences of 12 secondary mathematics teachers who integrated one-to-one technology into their classrooms as part of a district-wide one-to-one technology initiative. Transcripts from semi-structured interviews were analyzed to elicit and describe different ways in which secondary mathematics teachers experienced the phenomenon. Data analysis showed teachers experienced technology integration in classrooms based on their attitude towards using technology. Those who expressed positive attitudes used technology to support modeling mathematics, differentiate learning, problem-solving, expedite grading, and provide instant feedback to students. Those who did not have positive attitudes refrained from using technology unless they had to. The results will be useful for educators, teacher educators, instructional and technology coaches, administrators, and district leaders to understand the phenomenon of one-to-one technology integration through the actual experiences of the secondary mathematics teachers, improve instructional technology practices in the classrooms, identify the need for effective professional development based on the teachers’ experiences specific to the content area they work with, and to develop district-wide policies regarding technology integration in the classrooms. Recommendations for future research suggested including larger sample size across different grade levels and content areas and looking more closely into how the external variables affected the teachers’ acceptance to one-to-one technology.
... In India, the study of Singhavi and Basargekar (2019) reported inadequate skills of teachers to be the most important barrier in Indian English middle schools, whereas in Indian regional middle schools, it was teacher beliefs (i.e., "No or unclear benefit of using ICT for teaching"). Moreover, recent American studies, such as the one by Vongkulluksn et al. (2018), have re-emphasized that perceived support on first-order barriers still plays an important role for technology integration in class. Overall, the findings are ambivalent and, depending on the context, the importance and the interplay of first-or second-order barriers might differ. ...
... The higher-and lower-order tasks were based on Bloom's digital taxonomy, which targets remembering, understanding, and applying as lower-order tasks, while analyzing, evaluating, and reporting are considered higher-order tasks (Bowman et al., 2020). In another study, technology integration was assessed as technology use for student-centered activities and facilitation of higher-order thinking tasks (Vongkulluksn et al., 2018). Other studies have provided rather broad and overarching ratings on the comprehensiveness and confidence of technology integration for educational innovation and have attempted to correlate it with student achievement, such as studies using the concerns-based adoption model . ...
... To be less dependent on respondents' personal attitudes and beliefs and due to the fact that in the dataset of the European 2nd Survey of Schools, only quantity-related measurements are available as possible indicators of technology integration, the relative frequency of students' and teachers' technology use in class was chosen for this study. The advantage of a simple frequency rating of teachers' and students' technology use reported by teachers over composite indices (for examples, see Miranda & Russell, 2011;Vongkulluksn et al., 2018) is that the frequency of tool use is not confounded with the type or purpose of tool use. Compared to average classroom computer use in minutes (for an example see Norris et al., 2003), this measure of technology integration also has the advantage that it is easier to estimate relative percentage frequency in retrospect than absolute frequency in minutes. ...
Article
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Many researchers have investigated how barriers to technology integration affect the use of digital technologies in teaching and learning. However, the results have varied across educational contexts and countries. Large-scale assessment studies have described barriers only on a descriptive level instead of analyzing the effects of barriers on actual indicators of technology integration, such as technology use. Therefore, this study investigated the effects of barriers on technology use through the lens of the “will, skill, tool” model (WST model) in different European countries while taking the countries’ technological development level into account. A regression analysis showed that barriers had only a minor impact on the frequency of technology use in the classroom in the large majority of countries. In accordance with theoretical expectations, we found country-specific patterns, with a higher negative impact of technological barriers in less technologically developed countries and teacher-belief related barriers prevalent in developed countries. These findings may help policy makers identify needed interventions in different contexts.
... Suddenly, universities, professors, and students were thrust into learning and integrating technology rapidly and for at least eight weeks. Research in the field of professional development posits the necessity of offering specialized training to faculty where teaching experiences, areas of expertise, and personal interests are in play to motivate and have a more positive attitude towards technology integration in the curriculum (Hutchison & Woodward, 2018;Schmidt et al., 2016;Vongkulluksn et al., 2018). This research examines how the implementation of professional learning communities help faculty with online learning practices in their curriculum design during this unprecedented transition. ...
... Garrison et al. (2000) discussed how technology in education moves faculty towards a different type of communication, creating some new challenges that imply a foundation to connect with and support students as well as creating cooperative opportunities for faculty to grow their educational experiences within digital environments. However, having access to technology is not enough when educators find themselves with an opposing perception towards technology due to a lack of knowledge or digital skills (Dinc, 2019;Vongkulluksn et al., 2018). Nugent et al. (2008) suggest that the expectation of the current millennial and digital generation of students is what urges universities and colleges to support faculty in developing technological proficiency towards the digitalization of education. ...
... Educational technology in the classroom might leave a negative impact on faculty preparation if there is an unforeseen transition from regular methodologies to implementation of digital tools due to lack of support and knowledge (Vongkulluksn et al., 2018), which occurred during the pandemic transition. Without proper professional development, faculty might change their perception of the positive outcomes that digital tools bring to education. ...
Article
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The COVID-19 pandemic resulted in the dramatic shift to online learning for professors and students. In addition to rapidly building capacity to teach and to learn online, professors were removed from their professional communities. Social learning opportunities which exist in the workplace are essential to brainstorm ideas, to discuss teaching practices, and to problem-solve situations (Gerken et al., 2016). However, some universities focused on formal technical training to rapidly build capacity, e.g. how-to video conference, how to share files. A qualitative study was conducted to investigate the impact of complementing the formal technology training provided by the university with weekly Professional Learning Communities (PLC) during the unexpected online transition. Full and part-time faculty members from two departments were invited to participate. After 10 sessions, the findings revealed significant community-building that ranged from self-care to professional support. The participants evolved from simply sharing tools and asking technical how-to questions to deep discussions around online learning pedagogy. The PLC approach allowed the faculty to move from simply learning online teaching tools to engaging in meaningful discussions around online teaching pedagogy and improving student learning.
... Research has shown that eradicating external barriers is not sufficient for successful technology integration (Ertmer, 2005). Teacher beliefs also play a substantial role in explaining how and how often technology is used in classrooms (Vongkulluksn et al., 2018). ...
... A study by Cheng et al. (2020) showed that competence beliefs had a significant and positive correlation with how often technology was used in classrooms and the extent to which technology was used to support student-centered learning among in-service teachers. Vongkulluksn et al. (2018) showed that in-service teachers' competence beliefs significantly and positively predicted how and how often technology was used in classrooms. Another study by Uslu and Usluel (2019) also demonstrated that in-service teachers' competence beliefs significantly and positively predicted the use of ICT (information and communications technology) for teaching preparation. ...
... For instance, a study by Cheng and Xie (2018) showed that inservice teachers' positive value beliefs were significantly and positively correlated with technology use experience and Technological Pedagogical and Content Knowledge (TPACK). Both Vongkulluksn et al. (2018) and Bowman et al. (2020) found that in-service teachers' positive value beliefs significantly and positively predicted how technology was used in classrooms. A study by (Cheng et al., 2020) demonstrated that in-service teachers' perceived cost was a negative predictor of how frequently they used technology in classrooms over and beyond competence beliefs and positive value beliefs. ...
Article
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The purpose of this study was to examine how pre-service teachers' competence beliefs, value beliefs, pedagogical beliefs, and their intention to integrate technology were related to one another. The sample was composed of 137 pre-service teachers from 22 schools in Taiwan. Using path modeling, the current study found that there was an interaction between competence and pedagogical beliefs. The relations between pedagogical beliefs and teachers' intention to integrate technology were only significant when competence beliefs were low. These findings highlight the interdependent nature of teacher beliefs and suggest that pedagogical beliefs are not necessarily an internal barrier for teachers' technology integration as long as competence beliefs are high.
... Over many decades, researchers have explored the use of digital technologies in schools by both students and teachers (for example, Cuban, 2001;McDougall et al., 2010). Much has been done to address the (non)use of digital technologies, including teachers' attitudes and perceptions towards technologies (Vongkulluksn et al., 2018), teachers' willingness to take risks, technology's contribution to learning etc. There are complex factors for the take-up or resistance to utilising digital technologies in one's teaching (Bulfin et al., 2015;Pareja Roblin et al., 2018;Selwyn et al., 2018). ...
... Lynch et al., 2000;Morris et al., 2016;Saxe & Kirby, 2018;So, 2016). Many studies have been completed in a bid to identify the barriers to technology use and integration (Bahçivan et al., 2018;Francom, 2020;Kopcha, 2012;Vongkulluksn et al., 2018) and have explored why digital technologies are integrated (or not) into the classroom across primary (Khlaif, 2018;Petko et al., 2018), secondary (Howard, 2013;Hur et al., 2016) and tertiary sectors (Henderson et al., 2016;Saubern et al., 2020;Selwyn, 2016), and indeed have been going on for some time (see Selwyn, 2007). Additionally, various viewpoints exist about whether digital technologies are actually useful and really make a difference to students' learning and their academic outputs (Bulfin et al., 2015). ...
... For those whose sustained temporal priority is to use digital technologies, it appears their subjectivity reinforces their time investment in the use, deployment of digital technologies and the subsequent, needed development of knowledge and skills to know how to use them effectively. This aligns with research which suggested teachers use technology if they believe it will enhance their teaching (Vongkulluksn et al., 2018). For some teachers, their beliefs, practices and temporal autonomous spaces meant they did not either have or 'make' time to effectively learn how to use digital technologies in their teaching, positioning their use as a low temporal priority. ...
Article
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Digital devices and ubiquitous online access contribute to the nature and amount of digital labour conducted by school staff. Drawing on more than 40 interviews with staff at one Australian secondary school, the general nature of this digital labour is presented, then Clancy’s notion of temporal autonomous spaces is introduced and applied to theorise why some teachers used digital technologies constantly in their teaching. The article highlights how some teachers invested their time in learning about and using digital technologies because it enhanced their sense of autonomy and increased their sense of freed time. It theorises how teachers who invest their time into developing their knowledge and effective use of digital technologies in their teaching practice do so because of the perceived benefits that temporal autonomous space brings. Therefore, their practice is sustained as a high temporal priority.
... Value belief is teachers' belief about the usefulness and value of technology in fulfilling important instructional goals. It is identified as the most influential determinant of teachers' technology integration (Cheng & Xie, 2018;Petko et al., 2018;Vongkulluksn et al., 2018). Teachers with high value belief are found to be more resilient in the face of unfavorable external influences and obstacles, and they exhibit greater agency in working around barriers in technology integration (Kimmons & Hall, 2016;Vongkulluksn et al., 2018). ...
... It is identified as the most influential determinant of teachers' technology integration (Cheng & Xie, 2018;Petko et al., 2018;Vongkulluksn et al., 2018). Teachers with high value belief are found to be more resilient in the face of unfavorable external influences and obstacles, and they exhibit greater agency in working around barriers in technology integration (Kimmons & Hall, 2016;Vongkulluksn et al., 2018). ...
... Mishra and Koehler (2006) introduced TPACK as a framework for teacher knowledge needed for technology integration, which highlights the interweaving of three key sources of knowledge: content, pedagogy and technology. TPACK self-efficacy is found to associate positively with teachers' intention for technology integration and their actual technology use (Farjon et al., 2019;Teo et al., 2019;Vongkulluksn et al., 2018). Since pedagogy is a constitutive component of TPACK, teachers' pedagogical practices are closely associated with their TPACK self-efficacy. ...
Article
Teacher technology integration is an evolutionary process, and its relation with various personal and contextual variables may change over time. This study collected questionnaire responses from 429 Chinese K-12 teachers at two time points, and examined how the associations of technology-related beliefs, pedagogical practices and perceived contextual barriers with student-centered technology use and teacher-centered technology use changed over time. PLS path modeling analysis revealed that value belief about technology use became less important and TPACK self-efficacy became more important for both types of technology use over time. The relationship of pedagogical practices with technology use decreased over time too as teachers developed greater flexibility toward technology use. The study further revealed that the evolution of the association varied for student-centered technology use and teacher-centered technology use. The findings advocate a dynamic and differentiated approach to understanding and supporting teacher technology use.
... Three decades of research has identified different dimensions of determinants of teacher technology adoption. These dimensions include the attitude and belief dimension (eg, attitudes to technology, behavioural control beliefs about technology, value belief of technology), the knowledge dimension (eg, the TPACK framework) and the contextual dimension (eg, subjective norms) (Cheng & Xie, 2018;Scherer & Teo, 2019;Vongkulluksn et al., 2018). A teacher's decision making on technology usage entails the ongoing negotiation between the environment (Ifinedo et al., 2020;Kopcha et al., 2020;Lai & Bower, 2019), individual beliefs, knowledge and experience. ...
... Studies have started to situate themselves in the nexus of relationships of beliefs, knowledge and contextual factors to examine these factors together (eg, the Will-Skill-Tool-Pedagogy model by Knezek and Christensen (2016)). However, these studies are limited in the scope: some focused on the more generic technology-related beliefs (eg, value beliefs, behavioural control beliefs and attitudinal beliefs) and computer self-efficacy (Bowman et al., 2020;Teo et al., 2019;Uslu & Usluel, 2019;Vongkulluksn et al., 2018). Others examined the additive effects of these factors without taking into account the interplay of these factors (eg, Farjon et al., 2019;Francom, 2020;Knezek & Christensen, 2016). ...
... Building facilitative measures to reduce the first-order barriers does not automatically lead to increased frequency and level of technology usage. Instead, this relationship is mediated by the second-order barriers (Ertmer & Ottenbreit-Leftwich, 2010;Miranda & Russell, 2012;Vongkulluksn et al., 2018). Moreover, the relative strength of second-order barrier influences the weight individual teachers assign to first-order barriers and consequently reduce or magnify the inhibiting effects of firstorder barriers on technology integration (Ertmer, 1999). ...
Article
Previous research has identified various internal and external factors that predict teachers' technology adoption. Limited studies have explored how these internal and external factors interplay to determine different types of technology use. This study used the survey responses of 280 English as foreign language (EFL) teachers to examine how two key external factors (ie, school culture and professional development) interact with the two constitutive internal components (ie, knowledge/skill and belief) to determine three types of technology use in teaching and learning (ie, technology for content delivery, technology for learning enrichment and technology for transformed education towards self‐directed learning). It identified the salience of school culture, professional development and TPACK over teaching and learning beliefs in determining technology use. It further revealed that these factors influenced the three types of technology use differently. The findings suggest a differentiated approach towards researching and supporting teacher technology adoption. Practitioner notes What is already known about the topic Belief factors (Beliefs about teaching), knowledge factors (TPACK) and contextual factors (school culture and professional development) are significant predictors of teacher technology adoption. What this paper adds When examined together, school culture, professional development and TPACK were the more significant predictors of in‐service EFL teachers' technology integration, and the contributions of the belief systems were minimal. The interactions of these factors vary for different types of teacher technology use. Implications for practice and/or policy Need differentiated considerations in supporting different types of teacher technology use. A favourable school culture is instrumental to teachers' technology use for content delivery and for supporting students' self‐directed learning. TPACK is most critical to the use of technology for learning enrichment. What is already known about the topic Belief factors (Beliefs about teaching), knowledge factors (TPACK) and contextual factors (school culture and professional development) are significant predictors of teacher technology adoption. What this paper adds When examined together, school culture, professional development and TPACK were the more significant predictors of in‐service EFL teachers' technology integration, and the contributions of the belief systems were minimal. The interactions of these factors vary for different types of teacher technology use. Implications for practice and/or policy Need differentiated considerations in supporting different types of teacher technology use. A favourable school culture is instrumental to teachers' technology use for content delivery and for supporting students' self‐directed learning. TPACK is most critical to the use of technology for learning enrichment.
... The inhibitors of technology integration fall into two categories: external barriers, which include accessibility to technology hardware, software, resources and training; and internal barriers: Confidence, beliefs and attitudes towards technology integration in educational contexts (Ertmer, 1999;Tondeur et al., 2017;Makki et al., 2018). Intrinsic factors, such as beliefs, confidence and attitude, have been singled out as crucial determinants that impact how teachers choose to use technology in their practice (Tondeur et al., 2017a(Tondeur et al., , 2017bVongkulluksn et al., 2018;Farjon et al., 2019). Current evidence indicates pre-service teachers, also commonly referred to as trainee-teachers or student-teachers, despite growing up in a digital age, experienced similar difficulties integrating technology as their experienced teacher counterparts; with confidence and skill limitations cited as the most common inhibitors of technology practice (Ottenbreit-Leftwich et al., 2018;Sadaf et al., 2016). ...
... First-order barriers included external factors such as access to resources, support and training; and second-order barriers incorporated internal factors such as beliefs, attitudes and skills. Despite preliminary efforts by key stakeholders to address external barriers, internal barriers prove to be more of an immovable obstacle (Tondeur et al., 2017;Ottenbreit-Leftwich et al., 2018;Vongkulluksn et al., 2018). While in-service and pre-service teachers recognised the critical role of technology in educational contexts, low levels of beliefs and confidence using technology compromise the realisation of technology integration goals. ...
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Post-graduate teacher recruitment schemes are designed to fulfil ongoing teaching shortages. However, despite the emphasis of technology integration in educational contexts, little research has examined the knowledge, skills and attitudes post-graduate pre-service teachers bring to teaching from a technology perspective. This paper presents findings from the final phase of an explanatory case study exploring the development of post-graduate pre-service teachers’ technology integration beliefs and practice during a teacher education program at an Australian university. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 17 post-graduate pre-service teachers after two professional (field) experiences. A social cognitive lens was applied to understand how technology integration beliefs and practice developed during this time. Results showed occupation-specific technology experience provided this group with a diversity of technology expertise, confidence using technology, resilience to overcome technical issues, and self-regulatory traits to learn new technology tools. Contributing personal factors influencing beliefs and practice included age, professional background, technology skills and technology self-efficacy beliefs. Initial practice revealed a predilection to integrate technology to supplement teacher-directed pedagogy. The shift towards technology integration to support student-centred pedagogy was dependent upon modelling and mentoring provisions offered by both teacher-educators and teacher-mentors during professional (field) experience placements. Other extrinsic factors, such as hardware provisions, Information Technology infrastructure, and school culture, were also instrumental in the conceptualization and realization of technology pedagogy. Recommendations include the necessity for post-graduate teacher education programs to recognise the untapped technology expertise this group may bring to teaching, and practical suggestions to support the development of meaningful technology integration epistemologies.
... Erwartungen wurden ebenfalls in Form von Überzeugungen untersucht, dass der Einsatz digitaler Technologien einen positiven Einfluss auf das Lernen von Schülerinnen und Schülern hat. Für deren Beziehung zur Nutzungsintention wurde ein statistisch signifikanter Zusammenhang gefunden (Nelson und Hawk 2020), in Bezug auf die tatsächliche Nutzung wurden statistisch signifikante positive kleine bis große Zusammenhänge festgestellt (Inan und Lowther 2010;Petko 2012;Vongkulluksn et al. 2018). Ähnlich operationalisiert wurde auch die sogenannte "Lehrkräfte-Selbstwirksamkeit". ...
... Ähnlich operationalisiert wie die Selbstwirksamkeit wurden auch Überzeugungen über die eigenen Fähigkeiten, Technologie in den Unterricht zu integrieren. Für den Zusammenhang dieser Variable mit der Nutzungsintention wurde ein statistisch signifikanter kleiner positiver Effekt festgestellt (Vongkulluksn et al. 2018). ...
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Zusammenfassung Neben dem Professionswissen werden in verschiedenen Kompetenzmodellen der Lehrkräfteprofessionalität auch einstellungs- und motivationsbezogene Variablen berücksichtigt. Die vorliegende Arbeit gibt einen systematischen Literaturüberblick zum empirischen Forschungsstand bezüglich deren Rolle für die Nutzung digitaler Technologien im Unterricht. Anknüpfend an Theorien der Technologieakzeptanz werden zunächst relevante potenzielle Einflussfaktoren auf die beabsichtigte und tatsächliche Nutzung digitaler Technologien im Unterricht identifiziert und mit Hilfe der Theory of Planned Behavior systematisiert. Daran anknüpfend werden empirische Befunde aus englischsprachigen Veröffentlichungen aus den Jahren 2010 bis 2020 dargestellt. Der Überblick liefert Hinweise, dass die untersuchten einstellungs- und motivationsbezogenen Einflussfaktoren überwiegend erwartungskonform mit der Nutzung digitaler Technologien im Unterricht zusammenhängen. Forschungslücken zeigen sich unter anderem bezüglich der Rolle einstellungs- und motivationsbezogener Einflussfaktoren für Aspekte der Unterrichtsqualität sowie Interventionsmöglichkeiten zur Beeinflussung dieser Variablen.
... Teachers' persistent beliefs in their educational practices constitute a key barrier that delays or hinders the integration of new technology into courses (Ertmer, 2005;Vongkulluksn et al., 2018;Sánchez-Gómez et al., 2020;Vongkulluksn et al., 2020). Teacher beliefs can be defined as tacit assumptions about effective teaching methods and student learning that are influenced by ideologies, values and attitudes about teacher education strategies. ...
... Using digital tools for delivering information showed positive, but only moderate, correlation with competencies. Belief that distance teaching is useful likewise showed a relation to all the purposes of using digital tools for teaching, indicating that positive belief is linked to more frequent use, which corresponds to previous results about teacher beliefs and technology use (Chen, 2010;Ertmer et al., 2012;Kim et al., 2013;Vongkulluksn et al., 2018;Jwaifell et al., 2019;Sánchez-Gómez et al., 2020;Beltran-Sanchez et al., 2020;Vongkulluksn et al., 2020;Adov and Mäeots, 2021). ...
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This study examines, using a cross-sectional approach, the digital competence of academic teachers at a time when teaching shifted to digital distance learning at the start of the COVID-19 pandemic. Teachers from different academic fields at a large multidisciplinary Finnish university (N = 265) responded to a questionnaire about the purposes for which they use digital tools in teaching, how they evaluated their competence at distance teaching during the lockdown of March-May 2020 and their beliefs about distance teaching. The respondents used digital tools in teaching mostly for delivering information. According to their evaluations, their competence in distance teaching increased during the early stages of COVID-19 pandemic in 2020, but their beliefs about distance teaching did not relate to the feelings of competence. Respondents with no experience in distance teaching before the lockdown evaluated their competence as having increased more than did respondents with previous experience. The implications of the findings for understanding competence development are then discussed.
... In this way, teacher motivation can make the difference and is seen as critical prerequisite for technology integration. Previous research has demonstrated the crucial link between teacher motivation and the frequency (Petko, 2012;Taimalu & Luik, 2019;Vongkulluksn, Xie, & Bowman, 2018) as well as quality of technology use during teaching (Backfisch, Lachner, Hische, Loose, & Scheiter, 2020a). However, most of the previous research was cross-sectional, and based on self-reported survey data, which has not allowed researchers to investigate the variability and reciprocal relationships between teacher motivation and the quality of technology integration. ...
... This finding might be due to the fact that the use of technologies for teaching is a very complex task that is constrained by diverse conditions (see, e.g., will skill tool model, Farjon, Smits, & Voogt, 2019;Knezek & Christensen, 2016;Petko, 2012). Whereas early research has mainly focussed on teachers' professional knowledge as a crucial condition for technology integration (e.g., TPACK model by Mishra & Koehler, 2006), more recent research has addressed the role of teacher motivation (Backfisch et al., 2020a;Cheng & Xie, 2018;Ifenthaler & Schweinbenz, 2013;Petko, 2012;Scherer, Siddiq, & Tondeur, 2019;Scherer & Teo, 2019;Taimalu & Luik, 2019;Teo, 2011;Vongkulluksn et al., 2018). In line with the literature on organizational change processes (Hussain et al., 2018;Lewin, 1947), (teacher) motivation has demonstrated to be particularly important for the successful implementation of educational innovation, such as technology integration (e.g., Specht, Kuonath, Pachler, Weisweiler, & Frey, 2018;Wright, Christensen, & Isett, 2013), and sustainable educational change processes at schools (Eickelmann, 2011;Fullan, 2007). ...
Preprint
Technology integration in the classroom is seen as a crucial factor to enhance teaching and learning processes. Whether and how technology affects student learning, depends on how teachers integrate technology into their classroom practice. To investigate technology integration, we used an experience sampling method with in-service teachers (N = 18). Over a period of six weeks, we assessed teachers’ technology integration and technology-related motivation. By using a mixed-method approach, we found considerable variability of teacher motivation, frequency, and quality of technology integration across lessons. The variability could be explained by teachers’ technology-related utility beliefs and specific factors within the different instructional contexts. The findings highlight the importance of teachers’ utility and contextual aspects in their technology integration.
... When requiring innovative use of ICT from teachers themselves and to facilitate these skills in their students, there may be a discrepancy in the skills and knowledge being taught and provided to teachers and the development design thinking skills may not be supported by ICT training provided (Vongkulluksn, Xie & Bowman, 2018). The lack of design thinking skills and growth-oriented mind-set (Dweck, 2012) may in turn hinder the possibilities of teachers facilitating their students' process of becoming capable digital citizens (Choi, Cristol & Gimbert, 2018). ...
... Second-order barriers are internal human level barriers that affect whether technology is used in classroom practices such as teacher attitudes and beliefs (Ertmer, 2005;Ertmer, Ottenbreit-Leftwich, Sadik, Sendurur & Sendurur, 2012). Intrinsic factors such as teacher beliefs and attitudes, knowledge and skills may play a significant role in determining whether technology is used in their classes (Vongkulluksn, Xie & Bowman, 2018). As was pointed out by Kim, Kim, Lee, Spector and DeMeester (2013) that while teacher beliefs have been widely studied in several countries in relation to ICT use, the definition of teacher beliefs varied and many studies examining teacher beliefs in relation to ICT integration, adopted a narrower definition of teacher beliefs focusing only ICT related beliefs. ...
Thesis
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Learning and teaching with digital technology in classrooms has provided both challenges and opportunities for education providers and teachers for decades. Research on technology integration in education has identified several barriers to technology use that influence teachers’ technology integration. These barriers include both technology related barriers and human factors that hinder or prevent the use of technology in teaching and learning. Furthermore, lack of understanding about the complexities of educational use contexts among the designers of learning technologies can render some offered technological solutions unsuitable for educational use. Moreover, the use of digital technologies in education is not necessarily universally accepted or supported by all teachers and many teachers remain hesitant to use technology with their students. The need for this research stems from two observations made while conducting technical evaluations and user testing on digital learning technologies. Firstly, usability evaluations revealed that the assessed learning technologies contained critical usability issues that hinder their use for teaching and learning purposes. Secondly user testing with teachers showed that there also remain human level barriers (e.g. attitudes and beliefs about technology and own capabilities) that prevent the use of digital technologies for teaching and learning purposes. This thesis addresses both sides by creating a theoretical model that aims to bridge the gap between design and use of learning technologies. On the one hand to provide teachers and students with technology that has been designed to suit their needs and use contexts, and on the other hand to support teachers in finding the courage to use technology and creating digitally oriented and meaningful learning activities for their students. The results of this research provide theoretically rich and practice-based model that benefit both the design and evaluation of learning technology. Firstly, the results can be used to evaluate and design technological solutions that address the needs of educational use contexts. Secondly the results can also be applied and used in the efforts to provide all teachers with the necessary support for using Information and Communication Technology (ICT) with their students, which ultimately benefits the students by equipping them with the skills they need to successfully navigate the digital environments they face now and in the future. This work also calls for practical long-term applications of the theoretical model from the early stages of development to the implementation and use of the designed technologies.
... Furthermore, positive beliefs about the value of technology for teaching and learning predicted how much teachers and students used technology (Miranda & Russell, 2012;Mueller et al., 2008). Value beliefs also predicted the quality and quantity of technology integration (Vongkulluksn et al., 2018). ...
... Additionally, teachers' value beliefs may affect how they perceive external barriers to integration. For example, teachers who value technology may perceive limited access to technology resources differently than teachers who value technology less because they work around the constraints (Vongkulluksn et al., 2018). ...
Article
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The amount of technology available in schools has increased steadily over the past two decades, but higher-level uses have not followed, and many teachers continue to struggle integrating technology in their classrooms. The purpose of this study was to describe teachers’ beliefs about technology in the classroom and identify whether their beliefs are reflected in practices of integrating technology at a small, private school for students with dyslexia. A convergent mixed methods action research study was conducted to understand how teachers’ beliefs may be affecting technology integration at the school. Quantitative data was collected through a survey administered to all 55 teachers at the school to describe how technology was being used throughout the school. From this sample, six participants were selected for three rounds of follow-up interviews and observations. Quantitative data revealed more teacher-centered beliefs and practices of teachers at the school. Qualitative findings showed teachers with more student-centered beliefs integrated technology more in their classrooms. Findings also revealed the school culture influenced teachers’ beliefs about the role of technology. Implications are provided on offering professional development adapted to teachers’ levels of technology integration.
... Earlier research with this framework focused on students, but more recent research has studied teachers' attitudes and values through the lens of EVT (Bowman et al. 2020;Cheng et al. 2020;Vongkulluksn et al. 2020). For instance, empirical research has shown the importance of the teacher's value beliefs, such as usefulness, along with personal characteristics, and internal and external barriers to technology integration, suggesting the importance of perceived values on whether or how technology is integrated (Vongkulluksn et al. 2018;Cheng and Xie 2018). EVT encompasses four motivational values as well as one's expectancies for success to describe one's reasons for engaging in learning tasks (Wigfield 1994;Wigfield and Eccles 1992). ...
Chapter
Professional development for teachers is an important professional endeavor and is increasingly conducted online. One concern, however, is the extent of teachers’ motivation to engage. Among motivational theories, the Expectancy-Value Theory is one empirically tested framework which appropriately encompasses these values. Teacher-perceived task values, or the reasons to engage in a task, along with teachers’ expectancy for success, may help explain why teachers engage in online professional development. In this chapter, we synthesize the available research literature guided by this integrated motivational framework of Expectancy-Value Theory, and we propose five design principles to guide future online professional development in ways that may improve teachers’ motivation to engage. We discuss implications for researchers and designers of mathematics professional development.
... • an inability of teacher education programs to build technical knowledge and skills (Fishman & Davis, 2006) • a lack of funding and resources (Nikolopoulou & Gialamas, 2015) • an absence of direction related to e-course design and delivery (Vongkulluksn et al., 2018) • limited motivational incentives (Scherer et al., 2019) Although first-order barriers (e.g., funding, equipment, technical support, training) are crucial in determining the successful integration of technology in schools (Inan & Lowther, 2010), secondorder barriers (e.g., teachers' beliefs, confidence, attitude, skills) may play an equally crucial role. However, limited research expressly targets the latter set of barriers (Ghavifekr et al., 2016;Scherer et al., 2019), and even fewer studies examine these topics in recent circumstances (Francom, 2020). ...
Article
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This study analyzes the integration of an educational technology platform and relates the difficulties faced amidst the Covid-19 pandemic. Initially, we sought to identify the chief barriers educators face when considering the adoption of Information and Communication Technology (ICT). Factors influencing primary and secondary education teachers' (n = 15) and students' (n = 335) perspectives on ICT integration for mathematics instruction were identified and analyzed from the perspective of different contexts (school vs home) and circumstances (in-person vs remote learning). Although we acknowledge the need for immediate decisions by educational stakeholders to facilitate online learning, our findings indicate the necessity of (a) careful examination of the features of potential platforms or tools and (b) a trial of such features prior to integration within an educational system. From an instructional design perspective, educational technologists should pay special attention to the degree of gamification, especially beyond the primary school level, as it may negatively impact incentives for student interaction and engagement. Where possible, the integration of technology should be driven by pedagogical goals and not technological pressures.
... For example, high personal academic expectations predict subsequent performance, course enrolment, and occupational aspirations choice. Researchers claimed that the value teachers place on their own learning influences their performance and behaviour (Vongkulluksn et al., 2018). Teachers elf-efficacy have direct affect on the students such as how talented and motivated students feel, which then influences the subjects they take on, how much effort they devote to their work, how enthusiastic they are, and how they behave in the classroom (Canales & Maldonado, 2018). ...
Article
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Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the level of self-efficacy among teachers in Arab Secondary Schools in Malaysia and to validate the two-dimensional scale of self-efficacy including academic and social self-efficacy. Methods: A quantitative research methodology was adopted in this study. Data was collected using random sampling from 101 teachers working in Arab schools in Malaysia. The collected data were statistically analysed using the SPSS. Findings: The findings show a low level of academic self-efficacy and a high level of social self-efficacy among the teachers. Further, this study also validated the two-dimensional scale of teachers’ self-efficacy with social and academic self-efficacy. Originality: To the best of the current study author's knowledge, this study is one of its own kind and no such study has been conducted before.
... In order to take full advantages of technology, teachers need to experience a paradigm shift from teacher-oriented to student-oriented (Bitner and Bitner 2002;Chen et al. 2019) and "from traditional transmissive pedagogy to constructivist pedagogy" (Liu et al. 2017, p. 758). They also need to understand the inherent value of technology integration because this will help them implement technology in a meaningful, student-centred manner (Vongkulluksn et al. 2017). In this sense, the current findings have great relevance to the global audience because the issue of not using technology for student-centred purposes has also been reported elsewhere and is yet to be resolved. ...
Article
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Despite the increasing use of technology in education, university teachers' perceptions and use of technology are under-explored, particularly in the context of English language classrooms in mainland China. To fill the research gap, this article reports the findings of a case study exploring university teachers' perceptions of and practices with technology as well as the challenges of technology implementation. To provide a microscopic understanding of these issues from teachers' perspective, an online survey was first distributed to all 60 English teachers at a focal university, with 35 valid surveys returned. Subsequently, nine survey respondents participated in in-depth follow-up interviews. The findings suggest that teachers used technology predominantly for teacher-centred purposes rather than for active student engagement although they had positive perceptions of technology integration. They also held critical viewpoints on the use of technology in English teaching. In addition, teachers perceived more external barriers to technology integration (e.g. insufficient technical and pedagogical training, "the Great Firewall") than internal challenges (e.g. students' lack of interest in technology). The study contributes to the understanding of university teachers' technology uptake and carries important implications for the promotion of teaching innovation and effectiveness in higher education contexts. Supplementary information: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s43545-021-00223-5.
... Teacher's technological literacy skills that are integrated with education will increase the effectiveness of learning such as the efficiency of learning time, increased student learning performance, and high student motivation. Another benefit for the teachers is the ease in using technology when learning is adapted to strategies and methods of teaching activities [15], [16]. ...
... Previous studies showed that teacher and students believe that mobile devices are useful for teaching and learning, especially for M-Learning (Christensen & Knezek, 2018;Kolog, Tweneboah, Devine, & Adusei, 2018;Ott, Magnusson, Weilenmann & af Segerstad, 2018. Some teachers found challenges in accessing education resources due to poor Internet connectivity, while others required skills and knowledge about the technology that promote interactive learning (Busulwa & Bbuye, 2018;Baran, 2013;2018) and lack of teachers' values beliefs in technology integration (Vongkulluksn, Xie, & Bowman, 2018). ...
... There has been a great interest specifically in teachers' beliefs about 21st century teaching and learning, and their beliefs towards technology integration. Teachers' beliefs were found to be related to their technology integration practices (Kim, Kim, Lee, Spector, & DeMeester, 2013;Vongkulluksn, Xie, & Bowman, 2018) and such pedagogical beliefs play an important role in a teacher's decision-making especially when it comes to planning and designing lesson activities (Boschman, McKenney, & Voogt, 2014). Thus, it can be argued that teacher beliefs have a strong impact on how they teach and incorporate technology for the attainment of 21st century skills in a classroom. ...
Article
This study explores how Technical and Vocational Teachers’ intentions to incorporate technology in teaching and learning are influenced by their beliefs. It is theorised that teachers’ beliefs about using technology in their instructions are influenced by teachers’ perceptions of technology usefulness, ease of use, and self-efficacy. In the current study, a series of workshops for technology-enriched instructions were mounted for the professional development of technical and vocational teachers. In these workshops, teachers planned, designed and developed 21st century learning activities. Data was collected using a questionnaire, which was distributed to the TVET teacher participants after the completion of the professional development workshops for technology-enriched instruction. The data was subjected to confirmatory factor analysis, and structural equation modelling which were used to analyze the proposed modified Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) model. The modified TAM model proposed that TVET teachers’ intention to use technology, and their beliefs about self-efficacy are directly influenced by their beliefs about perceived ease of use, and perceived usefulness of technology, and that the variable, self-efficacy is a mediator variable to intention. It was shown that the proposed modified TAM model is a good fit model to explain the variance in 52% of teachers’ beliefs about the self-efficacy, and 40% variance of intention. The positive outcome of the technology enriched instruction professional development program is that it provided a common language and skills that overcame some of the TVET teachers’ concerns with regards to technology integration in their lessons. This study contributes towards an understanding of the factors that influence TVET teachers’ intentions to use technology in teaching and learning through a professional development programme for technology enriched instruction.
... Teacher integration of technology has encountered internal and external barriers (Albion et al., 2015;Lowther et al., 2008;Vongkulluksn et al., 2018). Chiu and Churchill (2016) found that teachers could only incorporate technology and subsequent digital pedagogy when they had an overall understanding of it. ...
Article
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While technology use is becoming increasingly common in education, teachers remain reluctant to use technology and hesitant on how best to incorporate it into their teaching and practice. There is a strong demand from institutions for English language teachers to cope with the changing landscape of teaching in the twenty-first century. This explorative study investigated Hong Kong tertiary teachers' beliefs on continuing professional development activities to enhance their teaching. The study had a two-phase research design, with an initial questionnaire (N = 58) followed by semi-structured interviews (N = 12) to unpack the participants' hidden voices. The findings illustrated that most teachers are enthusiastic about professional development activities, though there is a misalignment between what universities value and reward and what teachers see as most beneficial for enhancing their teaching practices. The results suggested that professional development activities should focus on sharing good teaching practices (e.g., informal chats, mentoring) within universities rather than rewarding attending conferences and nonintegrated workshops.
... However, number of new applications emerging technology such Cloud Intelligent Systems has been revealed during this Covid-19 pandemic that possibly mitigate the problem. Vongkulluksn et al., (2018) noted that there were responsive teachers and administrators to the challenges brought about by available technological and organizational resources with full administrative leadership and school culture in support of technology integration. Technology use in blended learning resources such as desktop and/or laptop computers, tablets and connection network for the teachers and students narrows down inequity and digital divide. ...
Chapter
The purpose of this chapter is to provide a discussion about the compatibility and complementarity of blended learning and knowledge management (KM) and their relationship. Blended learning combines classroom instruction with e-learning while KM is the process of creating, capturing, disseminating, applying, and managing organizational knowledge. This chapter illustrates how attention to two main perspectives exists in KM field; namely, objectivist perspective and practice-based perspective can inform the learning and teaching approach, the deep and surface learning. Yet they are two complementary processes if they are properly integrated. From here, a shift to the need to rethink and restructure the learning and teaching experience occurs, and its transformative potential is analysed. This chapter proposes a Two-C (compatible and complementarity) model which accommodates the blended learning and KM simultaneously. This suggests an integrated approach to provide for a balanced strategy in terms of both blended learning with KM approach can be applied in higher education institution (HEI).
... However, researchers have argued that even if teachers frequently use technology in their teaching, they often struggle with barriers that prevent them from using technology in ways they envision (U.S. DOE, 2016(U.S. DOE, , 2017. Researchers found that the factors of whether teachers enact an ideal vision of technology use to support their teaching practices include teachers' knowledge and skills (Taimalu & Luik, 2019), value beliefs (Vongkulluksn et al., 2018), and school support (Genlott et al., 2019). Therefore, identifying ways to support teachers' competencies in technology integration to enhance their own teaching practices remains a critical need for schools and stakeholders. ...
Article
The aim of this multiple case study was to investigate the influences of professional development coaching on three elementary school teachers' technology integration practices and their coaching experiences. We found that authentic coaching experiences, including modeling and hands-on activities, were considered supportive for teachers' technology integration. However, the teachers' positive perceptions of coaching did not directly translate into changes in their technology integration practices as the standardized testing-focused assessment system was the biggest hindrance. We recommend that more teachers' involvement in planning and reflection with transparent coach-teacher communication and consistent support for teachers’ technology integration from school leaders are needed.
... In such cases, some were motivated to make changes. Teachers need to understand technological tools and digital pedagogy holistically [33] to overcome barriers that exist both internally (e.g., beliefs, attitudes, and classroom practices) and externally (e.g., access, support, and time) [34][35][36]. To understand how the forced transition to ERT may impact future EAP delivery, it is necessary to investigate whether this experience changed teachers' beliefs and agency and motivated them to make lasting changes. ...
Article
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This study explored the remote teaching experiences of a group of English for academic purposes teachers during the COVID-19 pandemic, focusing on what was learned from the transition to identify which practices are worth keeping and which should be abandoned as well as how English for academic purposes practitioners can move from emergency to sustainability. In this qualitative, interpretive study, a total of 15 teachers participated in semi-structured interviews investigating their experiences, challenges, and opportunities teaching English for academic purposes during emergency remote teaching and their opinions on how this information could be leveraged to develop sustainable English-for-academic-purposes technology practices. The results indicated that the teachers understood the necessity of emergency remote teaching, were aware of their role in their students' academic success, and believed in the importance of integrating technology into language teaching and learning. They also adopted various strategies for online English-for-academic purposes delivery. It is suggested that effective professional development for English-for-academic-purposes teachers consider what teachers believe they need, the shifting educational landscape, and how to inculcate pedagogical practices that will enrich the language classroom by using technology in language teaching and learning. They also adopted various strategies for online English for academic purposes delivery. It is suggested that effective professional development for English for academic purposes teachers must consider what teachers believe they need, the shifting educational landscape, and how to inculcate pedagogical practices that will enrich the language classroom.
... Earlier research with this framework focused on students, but more recent research has studied teachers' attitudes and values through the lens of EVT (Bowman et al. 2020;Cheng et al. 2020;Vongkulluksn et al. 2020). For instance, empirical research has shown the importance of the teacher's value beliefs, such as usefulness, along with personal characteristics, and internal and external barriers to technology integration, suggesting the importance of perceived values on whether or how technology is integrated (Vongkulluksn et al. 2018;Cheng and Xie 2018). EVT encompasses four motivational values as well as one's expectancies for success to describe one's reasons for engaging in learning tasks (Wigfield 1994;Wigfield and Eccles 1992). ...
... This is also supported by Reich (2020) who in his study argued that while technology use in schools has become ubiquitous, the use of technology in the teaching and learning processes has failed to disrupt how teachers teach and students learn as teachers continue to use traditional methods of teaching. While some studies show that limited staff and student motivation to use ICT in the teaching and learning process (Christopoulos et al., 2018;Scherer et al., 2019;Tondeur et al., 2017), the absence of a structured way of integrating technology in the teaching and learning process (Vongkulluksn et al., 2018 ), and a lack of funding and resources in schools (Francom, 2020;Nikolopoulou & Gialamas, 2015) are some of the factors affecting the integration of ICT in schools, more research is still needed for a wholesome identification of more factors. The need for more research on factors influencing the integration of ICT in secondary is also confirmed in the results of a study by OECD (2019), which found that slightly above half (57%) of secondary school teachers feel prepared to use ICT for teaching, around 59% of secondary school teachers let their students use ICT for learning, and also that about half (50%) need professional development and of these, 18% need urgent professional development in ICT. ...
Article
Full-text available
The use of information and communication technologies (ICTs) also known as educational technology in the teaching and learning context, has become a new normal in all sectors of education world-wide. The most important driver of the use of ICT in education has been the rapid advances in technology and to some extent, natural disasters such as COVID-19 that has affected access to education across all sectors of the education system. As a result, it has become very important that teachers in secondary schools adopt ICT for their teaching. This study therefore seeks to establish factors influencing the behavioural intentions of secondary school teachers to adopt ICT in Zimbabwe. A sample of 251 teachers were selected using stratified random sampling strategy from 10 secondary schools to participate in the study. A structured questionnaire adapted from the Oscarson Scale for Measuring Adoption-proneness (OSMA) was used for data collection. Results of the study showed that the use of technology in teaching, professional development, attitudes toward ICT, gender and ICT support services have a significant influence on the behavioural intentions of secondary school teachers to adopt ICT. A number of challenges that affected the adoption of ICT in secondary schools were also identified. The study has implications on both policy and practice with regard to the adoption of ICT in secondary schools.
... Teniendo en cuenta esto, es importante considerar la experiencia de los profesores cuando utilizan la tecnología. Por ejemplo, la opinión de los profesores sobre la tecnología hace que el aprendizaje sea más eficaz (Heitink et al., 2016), su confianza influye en el uso de la tecnología en el aula (Li et al., 2018) y si ven valor en el uso y la integración de las herramientas tecnológicas podrían ser más propensos a usarlas de manera significativa y superar las barreras (Vongkulluksn et al., 2017). Sin embargo, la implementación de tecnología ha llevado a investigadores a estudiar las barreras que se presentan durante este proceso, como los recursos, los conocimientos y habilidades, así como también las actitudes sobre la tecnología por parte de los profesores (Tosuntaş et al., 2019). ...
... As previously discussed, the quality of teacher technology integration reflects the degree to which teachers use technology to support student-centered learning and to personalize their teaching (Mueller et al., 2008;Vongkulluksn et al., 2018). The teachers' low-and high-quality integration practices were assessed according to their teaching and learning activities with technology. ...
Article
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Teacher technology integration research on persistence is needed. Teachers' persistence is strongly associated with their autonomous motivation, as defined by self-determination theory (SDT); however, most SDT-based studies have focused on teachers' support and students' motivation and well-being. SDT founders also recently suggested that future studies should include teacher motivation towards the use of technology. Accordingly, this experimental and longitudinal study aimed to investigate how the proposed support encouraged and sustained the low- and high- quality teachers' integration practices. It proposed a school learning support intervention with three dimensions-leader, expert, and peer support-to meet teachers' basic needs and thereby increase their motivation for and persistence in classroom technology integration. It had a sequential explanatory mixed-methods design, involved 122 school teachers and lasted for 22 months. Pre-, post- and delay- questionnaires and two arounds of interviews were used to collect the teachers perceptions on needs satisfaction and technology integration practices. The results suggest that the support increased the extent to which the teachers' needs were met, resulting in more high-quality (student-centered) but not low-quality (lecturing) integration practices. However, the intervention sustained both types of integration practices. The findings offer three major empirical implications, makes two theoretical contributions, and offers four practical suggestions for researchers and practitioners.
... If these beliefs about the role of educational technology were largely aspirational and future-oriented, this finding once again underlines the connection of technology to actual practices and not as an abstract concept, and the essential role of pedagogical (Ertmer et al., 2012) and value beliefs (Vongkulluksn et al., 2018) in technology adoption. Teaching practices and beliefs about teaching, as "the material used to constitute one's identity as a teacher" (Miller et al., 2017, p. 95), are conscious aspects of the substance of teacher identity (Clarke, 2009) and thus amenable to adaptation and change (Farrell, 2011). ...
Thesis
Full-text available
Teachers across a wide range of educational, geographic and practice contexts are being confronted with technologies that have the potential to both disrupt and transform their classrooms, relationship to students, and their own understandings of themselves as professionals. As educational technologies become more integrated into the teaching and learning of English for Academic Purposes (EAP) at universities, developing better understandings of why and in what ways teachers implement and use them can support this integration in constructive ways for both teachers and learners. This thesis explores the idea that interrogating teachers’ ideas about who they are, their identities, may shed light on how they perceive, engage with, and choose whether and to what extent to adopt technologies in the context of their educational practice. This approach may also be useful in supporting EAP teachers’ learning and integration of technology in ways that enhance their practice and relationships to students. Using Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA), this study explores the experiences of university EAP teachers using Moodle in their teaching practice. It seeks to develop a clearer understanding of the identities they construct within the context of the language centre of a large European research university. This research also explores the construct of identity as a means of understanding educational technology adoption and use, an approach that has not been widely explored to date, as well as the usefulness of IPA as a methodology suitable for interrogating such experiences within the field of Education. Over the course of a single semester, six EAP teachers took part in focus groups and individual interviews and provided written narratives through which they shared their experiences and individual journeys, their aspirations, frustrations, and changes in their teaching practices. Using IPA data analysis, these narratives together were used to create idiographic sketches of each participant and to develop a detailed analysis of both convergence and divergence of themes across the participants. The study found that participants’ experience of educational technology is always viewed in light of their teaching practices and their relationships to students. It also suggests that professional precarity and beliefs in unsubstantiated myths such as the “digital native” may constitute barriers to teachers’ educational technology integration. These findings support a useful role for identity, conceived as a holistic model incorporating various aspects of a teacher’s being and doing, in not only understanding but also supporting these technology-related practices. The results generate recommendations for practice, including first and foremost that professional learning and support for technology integration begin with teachers, their ideas about themselves, and their concrete practices rather than the technologies themselves. Keywords: Educational Technology, English for Academic Purposes (EAP), Higher Education Teaching, Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA), Language Teacher Identity, Teacher Identity, Technology Integration
... While the technology-related beliefs of teachers are frequently studied and have consistently been used to predict technology integration behaviors or intentions (e.g., Teo, 2009;Vongkulluksn et al., 2018), studies that investigate a diverse range of technology-related beliefs are needed. This study utilized a range of beliefs outlined in Eccles et al.'s (1983) expectancy value theory to add more nuance to the literature connecting beliefs and technology integration. ...
Article
Studies of technology in teacher education programs have rarely investigated how both coursework and field experiences impacted the beliefs and technology integration behaviors of preservice teachers. To address this gap, this study utilized online surveys administered to student teachers across ten different institutions to determine how the prevalence of technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPACK) in their field observations and the teacher educator technology competencies (TETCs) in their university coursework predicted preservice teachers' beliefs and teaching behaviors with technology. Analyses with structural equation modeling indicated that preservice teachers’ interest in technology and beliefs in its utility predicted their TPACK application. Additionally, their self-efficacy to improve student learning with technology predicted their value beliefs and their TPACK application. While TETC prevalence in university coursework directly predicted their self-efficacy and teaching behaviors, the prevalence of TPACK in their field placements did not predict beliefs but were associated with TPACK application.
... Teachers have explained how digital technology may help diversify learning and "increase grades, keep students' interest, and even enhance the confidence of many kids," [46]. However, more recent research has demonstrated that growing technology accessibility does not always imply increased or improved technology usage quality [47,48]. The findings, which are consistent with earlier studies, emphasize the factors that impact instructors' usage of technology [49,50]. ...
Article
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This study examines the online teaching abilities and competencies needed to teach online courses in Saudi Arabia’s higher education system. As a result, the goal of this study was to examine and expand the technology acceptance model (TAM) to assess online teaching abilities and competences utilizing digital technologies in higher education during the COVID-19 epidemic. Therefore, it aimed to develop a new model to measure and explore critical factors that influence online teaching skills, competencies, and actual use of digital tools in higher education. The participants in the study were 350 lecturers at King Faisal University. The research data were analyzed using structural equation modeling (AMOS-SEM). The findings revealed that: (a) perceived ease of use and perceived usefulness on using digital tools during the COVID-19 pandemic has a direct positive impact on perceived teaching self-efficacy, perceived enjoyment, online teaching skills, and digital tools access; (b) perceived ease of use and perceived usefulness of using digital tools have a direct positive impact on lecturers’ attitude toward use and lecturers’ behavioral intention to use digital tools during the COVID-19 pandemic; and (c) perceived ease of use. As a consequence of the findings, a validated instrument was designed to assess and investigate crucial elements that impact lecturers’ real usage of digital technologies for teaching and learning in Saudi Arabia’s higher education.
... Despite advances in education and technology research and the variety of benefits associated with digital resources, substantial barriers remain for their classroom integration. Research has explored the difficulties preventing teachers from taking advantage of their pedagogical affordances, examining the problems teachers encounter when incorporating technology into their teaching practice (Goktas, Gedik, & Baydas, 2013;Hsu, 2016;Vongkulluksn, Xie, & Bowman, 2018;Wachira & Keengwe, 2011). Ertmer (1999) classified teachers' difficulties in integrating digital technology into their teaching practice as 'first-order' and 'second-order' barriers, with first-order barriers referring to the teachers' external obstacles and the second-order to the internal ones. ...
Thesis
This thesis examines Chilean student teachers' (ST) understanding of digital technology's pedagogic uses and primary classroom issues. Its initial assumption is that focusing on technology use in particular contexts is critical to understanding its effects on education and creating contextually appropriate pedagogies that can enhance students’ experiences. This work presents qualitative case studies of seven primary STs from a small city in southern Chile, exploring how they used and conceptualised technology and how they dealt with issues in their teaching practice. These aspects reflected their pedagogical understanding of the technologies used and their relationship with the educational context. The data collected comprised lesson plans, videos of classroom teaching, semi-structured interviews, audio recordings of supervision meetings and field notes from classroom observations, analysed thematically. The research revealed a pattern across cases. The intended and enacted pedagogies using technology supported existing teacher-centred approaches. The technology employed consisted of multimedia resources conceived to deliver and explain content, attract students' attention, and engage pupils in dialogic interactions. This perception of technology reveals a strong interest in maintaining discipline and learning environments in the classroom. The issues STs faced when using technology ranged from the inexistent digital culture at educational institutions to aspects of their agency and identity as teachers who use technology. This thesis uses the analysis to propose the Orchestration and Improvisation Pedagogical framework for integrating digital technology into teacher training. The framework aims to support STs in planning, implementing and reflecting on the uses of technology in synergy with the context. Using this framework, practitioners can evaluate different intertwined pedagogical aspects from research to practice. By foregrounding the importance of pedagogy and contextual reflection on technology application, these findings have value not only for STs and their teaching practice teams, but also for teacher-training programmes, educational policymakers and syllabus designers.
... Kim et al. [28] examined the concrete correlation between teacher outcome expectations and integration practice in a 4-year teacher development project funded by the United States Department of Education and reported that teacher outcome expectations in effective teaching methods directly correlated with integration of ICT-integrated teaching. Moreover, teachers with higher positive beliefs tend to adopt student-centered teaching methods and design more critical, creative, and cooperative tasks [29]. Also, outcome expectations not only correlated directly with behavior but also regulated behavior when hindered. ...
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In the context of information-driven Education transformation, this study investigates factors that influence the continuous transformation of teacher information and communications technology (ICT) teaching methods. Although some studies have found that teacher psychological cognition exerts different effects on different types of teacher ICT-integrated teaching behaviors, the current literature on influencing factors lacks the classification of behaviors. Based on the learner-centered transformation, this study divides teacher ICT-integrated teaching behaviors into teacher-centered teaching behavior and student-centered teaching behavior, and constructs a hypothesis model of influencing factors on teacher ICT-integrated teaching behavior. We collected questionnaire data from 795 primary and secondary school teachers, then validated and adjusted the model through structural equation modeling (SEM). The social environment exerted a significant indirect impact on teacher technology application behaviors via mediation of teacher efficacy and outcome expectations. The two types of self-efficacy directly affected the student-centered ICT application behavior more than the teacher-centered ICT application behavior. The student-centered ICT application behavior exerted a significant impact on the teacher-centered ICT application behavior. This study confirms the significance of classifying teacher ICT-integrated teaching behavior and supports the transformation of learner-centered ICT-integrated teaching by improving the social environment to realize equitable and sustainable Education development.
... According to prior literature review, the inclusion of external variables in the TAM model will improve its accuracy in forecasting a target group's behavior or intention toward acceptance or adoption of new technological systems (Wallace & Sheetz, 2014). We considered contextualizing and adhering to theoretical foundations established by the Theory of Acceptance Model, Extrinsic/Intrinsic Motivation, and Social Cognitive Theory (Armenteros et al., 2013;Bowman et al., 2020;Hew & Brush, 2007;Panigrahi et al., 2018;Vongkulluksn et al., 2018Vongkulluksn et al., , 2020; as such, several variables identified in these prior studies were evaluated for our purposes. PE and CSE are framed as intrinsic variables alongside PEOU and PU, as they all concern an individual's subjective beliefs about a specific domain or subjective reasons for using technologies, whereas PVA, SR, and CHA can be framed as external. ...
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In recent years, increased attention has been given to programming instruction for primary and secondary students. Several game-based programming learning platforms, such as Code.org, Lightbot, and Run Marco, have been created to offer enticing, enjoyable, and visualizable programming learning conditions that facilitate student interest and engagement in learning programming. However, few studies have explored the perceptions of younger adolescents regarding the use of game-based programming learning. The study aims to adopt a technology acceptance model rooted in perceived enjoyment, computer self-efficacy, perceived visual attractiveness, system response, and challenge to investigate the intentions of younger adolescents regarding the use of game-based programming learning supported by Code.org and to analyze the moderating influence of gender and grade level. Data obtained from 1,539 primary (grades 3–6) and secondary (grades 7–8) students in eastern China through questionnaire surveys were analyzed using structural equation modeling. The results showed that perceived usefulness, perceived enjoyment, and computer self-efficacy all had a direct impact on students’ intentions to use game-based programming learning, while perceived visual attractiveness, system response, challenge, and perceived ease of use all had an indirect effect. Moreover, we also found that gender and grade level had moderating effects on student game-based programming learning. Overall, this study offered insight into younger adolescents’ intentions toward game-based programming learning.
... It was also found that instructors with higher educational degrees try to overcome assessment challenges through various alternate solutions (Vongkulluksn, Xie, & Bowman, 2018), and that the instructors' higher education inspired positive values towards assessment types that are innovative. Thus, instructors should develop awareness on promoting innovative approaches by adopting different assessment models (Ertmer et al., 2012). ...
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Within the framework of professional development, teachers adapt, develop, and complement their pedagogical competences and behavior, and they become an agent of change. In this regard, teachers' awareness of the components of pedagogical competence plays an important role. The current paper addressed the components of assessment strategies and teaching skills and investigated Iranian university instructors' awareness of these components with regards to their personal, professional, and educational backgrounds. In so doing, a 29-item questionnaire already established in terms of validity and reliability was administered to 72 university instructors practicing teaching in Guilan universities. Analysis of the results revealed that the instructors used different assessment strategies and employed various teaching skills with regard to their gender, teaching experience, fields of study, and university degrees. The results may be practically utilized by education authorities to provide instructors with appropriate trainings to augment the instructors' teaching and learners' learning in the end.
... Previous studies which have primarily focused on teachers' technological integration into pedagogical instructions found that technology access does not automatically equate to high efficiency of technology usage (Ertmer and Ottenbreit-Leftwich, 2010) and that teachers are still limited in facilitating students' technologybased learning (Buabeng-Andoh, 2012). Thereby, the role value on teachers' internalization of external barriers and externalization of personal beliefs for technology integration was highlighted (Vongkulluksn et al., 2018), and more importantly, "it is essential that we not only focus on what teachers could do with technologies inside the classroom but also explore how teachers could help maximize the potentials of technology for learning by enhancing the quantity and quality of learner self-directed use of technology for learning outside the classroom" (Lai, 2015, p. 80). The present study investigated the mediating roles of internal factors linking teachers' various supports to students' selfdirected language learning. ...
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This study explored the contributions of teacher supports toward students’ self-directed language learning beyond the classroom and investigated whether technology acceptance and technological self-efficacy could be the mediators between teacher supports and students’ self-directed language learning in a sample of Chinese undergraduate students. A total of 197 freshmen students in one university in Eastern China participated in the questionnaires concerning teacher supports, technology acceptance, technological self-efficacy and self-directed language learning. The study highlighted the results: (1) perceived usefulness mediated the relationship between teacher affective supports and students’ self-directed language learning as well as the relationship between teacher capacity supports and students’ self-directed language learning; (2) technological self-efficacy mediated the relationship between teacher affective supports and students’ self-directed language learning as well as the relationship between teacher behavior supports and students’ self-directed language learning; and (3) perceived easy of use had no noticeable mediating functions, but exerted an indirect influence on students’ self-directed language learning. These findings extended previous researches by considering both the external factors (i.e., teacher supports) and the internal factors (i.e., technology acceptance and technological self-efficacy) of influencing students’ self-directed language learning, thereby contributing to enhancing our understanding of the joint drive of the inherent and extrinsic power mechanisms. This study indicated the significance of elevating teachers’ awareness of the substantial supports in enhancing students’ self-directed language learning beyond the classroom and would inform that the future research on teachers’ compliance in relation to technology use be converted from institutional mandates into teachers’ conscientious behaviors.
... This is also supported by Reich (2020) who in his study argued that while technology use in schools has become ubiquitous, the use of technology in the teaching and learning processes has failed to disrupt how teachers teach and students learn as teachers continue to use traditional methods of teaching. While some studies show that limited staff and student motivation to use ICT in the teaching and learning process (Christopoulos et al., 2018;Scherer et al., 2019;Tondeur et al., 2017), the absence of a structured way of integrating technology in the teaching and learning process (Vongkulluksn et al., 2018 ), and a lack of funding and resources in schools (Francom, 2020;Nikolopoulou & Gialamas, 2015) are some of the factors affecting the integration of ICT in schools, more research is still needed for a wholesome identification of more factors. The need for more research on factors influencing the integration of ICT in secondary is also confirmed in the results of a study by OECD (2019), which found that slightly above half (57%) of secondary school teachers feel prepared to use ICT for teaching, around 59% of secondary school teachers let their students use ICT for learning, and also that about half (50%) need professional development and of these, 18% need urgent professional development in ICT. ...
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We are very happy to publish this issue of the International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research. The International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research is a peer-reviewed open-access journal committed to publishing high-quality articles in the field of education. Submissions may include full-length articles, case studies and innovative solutions to problems faced by students, educators and directors of educational organisations. To learn more about this journal, please visit the website http://www.ijlter.org. We are grateful to the editor-in-chief, members of the Editorial Board and the reviewers for accepting only high quality articles in this issue. We seize this opportunity to thank them for their great collaboration. The Editorial Board is composed of renowned people from across the world. Each paper is reviewed by at least two blind reviewers. We will endeavour to ensure the reputation and quality of this journal with this issue.
... Considering that the quantity and quality of technology uses in classrooms are mainly determined by teachers' instructional decisions (Vongkulluksn et al., 2018), teachers' knowledge and skills are critical for designing technology-enhanced learning. When lacking suitable knowledge and skills to make instructional decisions, teachers are likely to adopt ready-made curricular materials rather than develop their own (Cviko et al., 2014;Grossman & Thompson, 2008). ...
Article
Background/Context The rapid development of virtual reality (VR) technology increases expectations regarding the potentials of using VR in the classroom and requires teachers to engage in professional development. Although there are recent studies that explore how this new technology can facilitate learning in classroom settings, little research has explored what constraints and affordances emerge during VR curriculum design and implementation and how a teacher's knowledge and beliefs change during this process. Purpose/Objective/Research Question/Focus of Study The purpose of this study is to explore one exemplary teacher's curriculum design processes and changes in knowledge, beliefs, and practices during the design and implementation of VR lessons in an elementary classroom. Population/Participants/Subjects The participant of this study is one teacher who works in a private elementary school in a metropolitan area of South Korea. The participant is an exemplary teacher with a unique combination of experience and training in pedagogy and technology. Research Design We used an intrinsic case study approach to collect and analyze data around the development of the participant's reflective practice, beliefs, and knowledge. Data Collection and Analysis During two iterations of design and implementation of VR lessons, we collected qualitative data in the form of the participant's written reflections, video recordings of his classroom teaching, field notes of observations, and follow-up interviews after each observation. Data were open-coded based on the interconnected model of teacher professional growth (IMTPG) and the framework of technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPACK). Findings/Results We observed changes occurring in the participant's TPACK, his beliefs about students, and his dispositions toward the use of VR. Most of the changes in the design phase appeared to inspire the participant's development of TPACK and ended with curriculum design using newly developed knowledge. The participant's enactment brought changes in instructional outcomes for both himself and his students, which then either altered his practice while teaching or changed/reinforced his knowledge and beliefs. Conclusions/Recommendations Our findings support a nonlinear, ongoing, and iterative approach to teacher change, as emphasized by the IMTPG. We add to this line of research by offering a detailed description of one teacher's learning process and development of TPACK. More important, this study focused on an exemplary teacher's design and implementation of VR and explored how certain barriers or enablers affected his design decisions by changing his knowledge, beliefs, and instructional practices. The findings of this intrinsic case study allow us to offer advice for teachers interested in integrating VR into their instruction.
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The COVID-19 pandemic significantly shifted education from traditional to an online version, which was an emergent state for teachers and students. The substantive situation thus raises the importance of technology integration in education, and teachers are required to update their competencies, respectively. In this regard, the study assessed online teaching competencies of faculty members following, technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPACK) model. Closed-ended surveys were employed for quantitative analysis of randomly selected 256 faculty members from public universities in Karachi, Pakistan. Results indicated that teachers possessed adequate levels of knowledge across all the domains of TPACK. The highest competency was obtained by content knowledge (CK), while technological knowledge (TK) was reported at the lowest level. Furthermore, a significant difference was noted in terms of gender and teaching experience. Correspondingly, the study proposes that the TPACK model should be employed in the professional development programs to develop teachers’ TPACK for integrating information communication and technology in the pedagogical practices. The findings of the study present a constructive overview of teachers’ digital competencies and technology use in teaching and learning in the time of the COVID-19 and also play a significant role in the integration of technology in the post-pandemic time in higher education. The study also suggests relevant educational authorities and policymakers for assessing and enhancing the technological competencies of teachers for quality online education.
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Automated writing feedback supported by artificial intelligence (AI) techniques has attracted the attention of English as Foreign Language (EFL) researchers. However, there is insufficient evidence and inconsistent conclusions on the actual impacts of AI on students’ writing skills. In addition, in the field of EFL writing, there are few studies which have integrated appropriate teaching strategies to promote the effectiveness of EFL writing teaching and learning. Furthermore, it remains unclear how learners can effectively benefit from AI technology-based English writing. To solve this problem, this study proposed a reflective thinking promotion mechanism-based AI-supported English writing (RTP-AIEW) approach to deepen learners’ thinking and improve their EFL writing quality. To investigate the effectiveness of this learning approach, a quasi-experiment was conducted in two EFL writing classes in a university. One class (50 students) was the experimental group learning with the proposed RTP-AIEW approach, while the other class (53 students) was the control group learning with conventional AI-supported EFL writing. The results indicated that the proposed approach not only significantly improved the experimental group students’ English writing performance, but also improved their self-efficacy and self-regulated learning, and significantly reduced their cognitive load. In addition, students’ learning experience and perceptions are also discussed.
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The recent global pandemic has conveyed emergency remote teaching (ERT) specifically the blended approach, an indispensable alternative teaching and learning delivery in formal schools. In Brunei secondary schools, the blended learning approach formed the core ‘Continuity Learning Plan’ for instruction along with the mandated educational changes accruing to the social and economic challenges of the twenty-first century learning system. Its widespread adaptation underlies teachers’ transitional initiatives and practices which must have reshaped the structural climate and relational dynamics of conventional instruction. Espousing the continuous learning model, this paper envisages to investigate the adaptive-related practices of Bruneian secondary school teachers and learners employing blended learning. Qualitative research approach with semi-structured interview was adopted in the study with respondents comprising of 18 teachers and 13 students. Thematic coding and recursive analysis of data revealed seven (7) dimensions or centre points of blended learning and teaching practices, namely: technological, interactive and effectiveness, added value, feasibility, pedagogical, institutional support and evaluation of success. In general, results suggest the Hub-and- Spokes model that organic support, integrated implementation and professional readiness are germane to the adaption of a functional and manageable blended delivery approach.
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The success of the teachers’ trainers’ transfer of training can be affected by several factors like teaching self-efficacy, motivation to learn and transfer, and intention to transfer the gained skills and knowledge. This study seeks to analyze the structural relationships among the above-mentioned constructs by integrating the constructs of perceived usefulness and satisfaction of the ICT training programme. The analysis is conducted on quantitative data collected from 117 teacher educators participating in a national programme on “Teachers training on the use and application of digital technologies in the teaching practice” in Greece. Results of the partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) revealed that perceived usefulness and satisfaction of the training programme had a significant positive effect on the teachers’ self-efficacy and intention to transfer the gained ICT training knowledge and skills. Also, pre-training and post-training self-efficacy exerted a direct influence on the teachers’ intention to transfer, motivation to transfer, and motivation to learn. The potential contribution and practical implications in the field of adult education and teachers’ continuing professional development are discussed in the paper.
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This article presents institutional case studies of technology use in language and literacy instruction at two rural high schools based on almost two months of classroom observations as well as interviews with teachers, administrators, and students. The first school presented faced a number of funding issues and clearly lacked in terms of access—the teachers regularly expressed frustration with district leadership and lamented their ability to have students do more computer-based literacy work. The second school presented had a very different issue—through a series of grants, they had secured computers for every student in their English classes but teachers had varying level of training on how to incorporate them in learning and consequently, the computers were often used in reductive ways. This research provides a perspective that shows the limitations of large-scale comparisons, emphasizing how local contextual factors (such as school leadership and teacher training) can shape both access and use. It also shows how access is only one piece of the picture—without sufficient teacher training and support, available technology may help perpetuate reductive educational practices in language and literacy instruction .
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The teaching profession has become more demanding as a result of technology integration in teachinglearning- assessment processes. These changes are particularly challenging for teachers-mothers. This study aimed at understanding how technological changes that are integrated in the teaching profession shape the social roles of teachers-mothers. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with a diverse sample of thirty teachers-mothers. The analysis revealed main themes related to pedagogical aspects of technology integration, online professional development, and work-related e-communication. In addition, the categories of blurred boundaries, multichannel communication, and less free time were related to teachers-mothers’ social roles. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.
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Businesses affected by the pandemic have realized the importance of incorporating digital transformation into their operations. However, as a result of the market lockdown, they realized that they needed to digitalize their firms immediately and make greater attempts to enhance their economic situation by integrating a greater number of technological components. While there have been numerous studies conducted on the adoption of digital transformation in small–medium enterprises, there has been no research carried out on the implementation of digital transformation in the specific industry of driving schools. This paper investigates the significance of digital transformation, as well as the potential for its application in this industry’s business setting and the ways in which it can be utilized to improve innovation capabilities and performance. The data for this study came from 300 driving instructors in Greece and Cyprus. Multivariate regression analysis was used to analyze the data. The outcomes suggest that driving schools have a generally positive reaction to and acknowledgement of the increasing speed of digital transformation. The results also give driving school owners useful information that helps them show how important digital transformation is to their businesses. Using the findings of this study, driving schools will be able to improve their operational capabilities and accelerate their development in the post-COVID era.
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There is considerable variation in how providers of digital education describe what they do, their services, how students access services, and what is delivered, complicating efforts to accurately assess its impact. We examine program characteristics of digital tutoring providers using rich, longitudinal observational and interview data and then analyze student attendance patterns and effects of digital tutoring on low-income students’ reading and mathematics achievement. We find significant associations between formats, curriculum drivers, tutor locations, and other characteristics of digital providers and their effectiveness in increasing student achievement, as well as differential access by student characteristics, that warrant further investigation as digital providers’ roles in K–12 instruction continue to expand.
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On the basis of a new model of motivation, we examined the effects of 3 dimensions of teacher (n = 14) behavior (involvement, structure, and autonomy support) on 144 children's (Grades 3-5) behavioral and emotional engagement across a school year. Correlational and path analyses revealed that teacher involvement was central to children's experiences in the classroom and that teacher provision of both autonomy support and optimal structure predicted children's motivation across the school year. Reciprocal effects of student motivation on teacher behavior were also found. Students who showed higher initial behavioral engagement received subsequently more of all 3 teacher behaviors. These findings suggest that students who are behaviorally disengaged receive teacher responses that should further undermine their motivation. The importance of the student-teacher relationship, especially interpersonal involvement, in optimizing student motivation is highlighted.
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A fundamental reason for doing evaluation capacity building (ECB) is to improve program outcomes. Developing common measures of outcomes and the activities, processes, and factors that lead to these outcomes is an important step in moving the science and the practice of ECB forward. This article identifies a number of existing ECB measurement tools and maps their concepts onto a common framework. This mapping clarifies consensus as well as facilitates selection of instruments and indicators for researchers and practitioners. The framework is an updated version of the Integrated ECB Model (IECB) that was developed from the ECB literature and used in a research synthesis of ECB empirical literature by the author and colleagues. The convergence of concepts revealed by the mapping understates the convergence with other models and literature as the mapping is limited to instruments and does not include concepts from other frameworks or the broader literature. ECB readiness and causal sequencing of activities and outcomes are explored by the use of factor analysis using data from the research synthesis. The findings suggest that the organizational outcomes of ECB include doing and using evaluations, planning future evaluations, and evaluating as part of staff jobs. Mainstreaming indicators were routinizing evaluation, providing opportunities to learn about evaluation, creating new relationships with other organizations and planning future ECB efforts. The results confirm that building evaluation capacity can be distinguished from mainstreaming and suggest that other factors such as evaluative and general organizational capacity, culture, leadership and funding are ECB readiness factors that can enhance ECB outcomes.
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Research spanning 20 years is reviewed as it relates to the measurement of cognitive engagement using self-report scales. The author's research program is at the forefront of the review, although the review is couched within the broader context of the research on motivation and cognitive engagement that began in the early 1990s. The theoretical origins of self-report instruments are examined, along with the early measurement findings and struggles. Research in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics contexts are highlighted. The author concludes that self-report data have made significant and important contributions to the understanding of motivation and cognitive engagement. However, the evidence also suggests a need to develop and use multiple approaches to measuring engagement in academic work rather than rely only on self-report instruments. Some alternatives to self-report measures are suggested here and throughout this issue.
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Despite increases in computer access and technology training, technology is not being used to support the kinds of instruction believed to be most powerful. In this paper, we examine technology integration through the lens of the teacher as an agent of change: What are the necessary characteristics, or qualities, that enable teachers to leverage technology resources as meaningful pedagogical tools? To answer this question, we discuss the literature related to four variables of teacher change: knowledge, self-efficacy, pedagogical beliefs, and subject and school culture. Specifically, we propose that teachers’ mindsets must change to include the idea that “teaching is not effective without the appropriate use of information and communication technologies (ICT) resources to facilitate student learning.” Implications are discussed in terms of both teacher education and professional development programs.
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Given the prevalence of computers in education today, it is critical to understand teachers' perspectives regarding com-puter integration in their classrooms. The current study surveyed a random sample of a heterogeneous group of 185 ele-mentary and 204 secondary teachers in order to provide a comprehensive summary of teacher characteristics and variables that best discriminate between teachers who integrate computers and those who do not. Discriminant Function Analysis indicated seven variables for elementary teachers and six for secondary teachers (accounting for 74% and 68% of the var-iance, respectively) that discriminated between high and low integrators. Variables included positive teaching experiences with computers; teacher's comfort with computers; beliefs supporting the use of computers as an instructional tool; train-ing; motivation; support; and teaching efficacy. Implications for support of computer integration in the classroom are discussed.
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This study examines factors associated with the use of learning technologies by higher education faculty. In an online survey in a UK university, 114 faculty respondents completed a measure of Internet self-efficacy, and reported on their use of learning technologies along with barriers to their adoption. Principal components analysis suggested two main barriers to adoption: structural constraints within the University and perceived usefulness of the tools. Regression analyses indicated both these variables, along with Internet self-efficacy, were associated with use of online learning technology. These findings are more consistent with models of technology engagement that recognize facilitating or inhibiting conditions (unified theory of acceptance and use of technology; decomposed theory of planned behavior) than the classic technology acceptance model (TAM). Practical implications for higher education institutions are that while faculty training and digital literacy initiatives may have roles to play, structural factors (e.g., provision of resources and technical support) must also be addressed for optimal uptake of learning technologies.
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Technology integration is influenced by many factors related to the teacher and the school environment. While many studies have examined factors that influence teachers’ use of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) at the teacher level, a growing number of studies have suggested that it is beneficial to examine those factors using multilevel modeling. Multilevel analysis can separate the impact of teachers from the school environment and provide insight into the influence of those factors at each level. This study uses multilevel modeling to analyze data from 3,652 grade 1–9 teachers in 289 schools in Taiwan. The results of this multilevel analysis found both teacher-level and school-level factors contributing to the integration of ICT in the teaching process. Among teacher level factors, teachers’ beliefs and hours of training in the previous year predicted ICT integration proficiency well. Among school level factors, training hours and teachers’ perceived school support are the most important factors that impact ICT integration. School support is not only a significant factor at the school level but also a strong predictor at the teacher level. In addition, important school level variables included access to Internet connectivity, availability of projectors, and stability of computers. These results highlight the importance of individual teachers and the role schools play in ICT integration.
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Early studies indicated that teachers’ enacted beliefs, particularly in terms of classroom technology practices, often did not align with their espoused beliefs. Researchers concluded this was due, at least in part, to a variety of external barriers that prevented teachers from using technology in ways that aligned more closely with their beliefs. However, many of these barriers (access, support, etc.) have since been eliminated in the majority of schools. This multiple case-study research was designed to revisit the question, “How do the pedagogical beliefs and classroom technology practices of teachers, recognized for their technology uses, align?”
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This study investigates personal and setting characteristics, teacher attitudes, and current computer technology practices among 764 elementary and secondary teachers from both private and public school sectors in Quebec. Using expectancy- value theory, the Technology Implementation Questionnaire (TIQ) was developed; it consists of 33 belief items grouped under three broad motivational categories: perceived expectancy of success, perceived value of technology use, and perceived cost of technology use. In addition, teacher demographics, teachers' current uses of technology, and availability of resources were also surveyed. The study found that: (a) expectancy of success and perceived value were the most important issues in differentiating levels of computer use among teachers; (b) personal use of computers outside of teaching activities was the most significant predictor of teacher use of technology in the classroom; and (c) teachers' use of computer technologies was predominantly for "informative" (e.g., World Wide Web and CD-ROM) and "expressive" (e.g., word processing) purposes. Results are interpreted in light of the extent to which the expectancy-value model can explain the variation in teacher beliefs related to computer technology use. As a heuristic, the core of our model of technology use reduces to a simple teacher motivation "equation": (.39 ' Expectancy) + (.15 ' Value) - (.14 ' Cost) = Technology Use.
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This article combines procedures for single-level mediational analysis with multilevel modeling techniques in order to appropriately test mediational effects in clustered data. A simulation study compared the performance of these multilevel mediational models with that of single-level mediational models in clustered data with individual- or group-level initial independent variables, individual- or group-level mediators, and individual level outcomes. The standard errors of mediated effects from the multilevel solution were generally accurate, while those from the single-level procedure were downwardly biased, often by 20% or more. The multilevel advantage was greatest in those situations involving group-level variables, larger group sizes, and higher intraclass correlations in mediator and outcome variables. Multilevel mediational modeling methods were also applied to data from a preventive intervention designed to reduce intentions to use steroids among players on high school football teams. This example illustrates differences between single-level and multilevel mediational modeling in real-world clustered data and shows how the multilevel technique may lead to more accurate results. Mediational analysis is a method that can help researchers understand the mechanisms underlying the phenomena they study. The basic mediational framework involves a three variable system in which an initial independent variable affects a mediational variable, which, in turn, affects an outcome variable (Baron & Kenny, 1986). The aim of mediational analysis is to determine whether the relation between the initial variable and the outcome is due, wholly or in part, to the mediator. Mediational analysis is applicable across a wide range of experimental and non-experimental
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Creating effective learning environments with technology remains a challenge for teachers. Despite the tremendous push for educators to integrate technology into their class-rooms, many have yet to do so and struggle to find consis-tent success with technology-based instruction. The chal-lenges to effective technology integration have been well-documented in the literature. In this article we present a comprehensive review of the literature on the challenges associated with effective technology integration in the classroom and the ways in which they interact with one another. Based on this review we have developed a frame-work, the Individualized Inventory for Integrating Instruc-tional Innovations (i 5), to help teachers predict the likelihood of success of technology-based projects in the classroom and identify potential barriers that can hinder their technology integration efforts. Identifying potential barriers upfront can empower teachers to seek solutions early in the process, thereby increasing the likelihood of experiencing success with technology integration. Introducing a new technology into the classroom in order to transform teaching and learning has been a long-standing tradition in education.
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Although teachers today recognize the importance of integrating technology into their curricula, efforts are often limited by both external (first-order) and internal (second-order) barriers. Traditionally, technology training, for both preservice and inservice teachers, has focused on helping teachers overcome first-order barriers (e.g., acquiring technical skills needed to operate a computer). More recently, training programs have incorporated pedagogical models of technology use as one means of addressing second-order barriers. However, little discussion has occurred that clarifies the relationship between these different types of barriers or that delineates effective strategies for addressing different barriers. If pre- and inservice teachers are to become effective users of technology, they will need practical strategies for dealing with the different types of barriers they will face. In this paper, I discuss the relationship between first- and second-order barriers and then describe specific strategies for circumventing, overcoming, and eliminating the changing barriers teachers face as they work to achieve technology integration.
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Although research studies in education show that use of technology can help student learning, its use is generally affected by certain barriers. In this paper, we first identify the general barriers typically faced by K-12 schools, both in the United States as well as other countries, when integrating technology into the curriculum for instructional purposes, namely: (a) resources, (b) institution, (c) subject culture, (d) attitudes and beliefs, (e) knowledge and skills, and (f) assessment. We then describe the strategies to overcome such barriers: (a) having a shared vision and technology integration plan, (b) overcoming the scarcity of resources, (c) changing attitudes and beliefs, (d) conducting professional development, and (e) reconsidering assessments. Finally, we identify several current knowledge gaps pertaining to the barriers and strategies of technology integration, and offer pertinent recommendations for future research.
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The purpose of this study was to examine the direct and indirect effects of teachers’ individual characteristics and perceptions of environmental factors that influence their technology integration in the classroom. A research-based path model was developed to explain causal relationships between these factors and was tested based on data gathered from 1,382 Tennessee public school teachers. The results provided significant evidence that the developed model is useful in explaining factors affecting technology integration and the relationships between the factors. KeywordsTechnology integration-Computer use-Technology use-Computer use in education-Path model
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Procedures for examining whether treatment effects on an outcome are mediated and/or moderated have been well developed and are routinely applied. The mediation question focuses on the intervening mechanism that produces the treatment effect. The moderation question focuses on factors that affect the magnitude of the treatment effect. It is important to note that these two processes may be combined in informative ways, such that moderation is mediated or mediation is moderated. Although some prior literature has discussed these possibilities, their exact definitions and analytic procedures have not been completely articulated. The purpose of this article is to define precisely both mediated moderation and moderated mediation and provide analytic strategies for assessing each.
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The purpose of the current study is to investigate teachers' digital content evaluation (DCE) competency as a combined set of teachers' intellectual ability and affect-motivation in evaluating digital content. To this end, this study employed an exploratory sequential mixed-methods design to examine 102 in-service teachers’ experiences in a one-year DCE professional development program. Qualitative thematic analysis followed by quantitative K-means cluster analysis identified and validated four levels of teacher competency in DCE: familiarization, utilization, integration, and reorientation. In addition, this study also proposed design guidelines to scaffold DCE competency development tailored to the needs of teachers at various competency levels.
Article
In this study, researchers designed and implemented a 1-year professional development (PD) program that focused on supporting teachers in evaluating and selecting digital learning contents. Participants in this investigation included 109 teachers who consented to the study amongst a total of 171 teachers from five school districts across central Ohio. In addition to their participation in the PD program, they completed surveys, interviews, and self-reflections in this mixed-method study. The results revealed that teachers’ perceived TPACK increased over time throughout the PD program, suggesting that training teachers to evaluate digital contents can be an effective PD model to improve teachers’ capacity in learning technology integration. The PD program was especially effective for teachers with less prior experience in technology integration or related training. Mathematics teachers, in comparison to teachers from other disciplines, began with low TPACK; however, these initial differences gradually diminished over the course of the PD program. In terms of their motivation in digital content evaluation, teachers’ expectancy for success increased significantly while their task values remained medium high. The qualitative analyses provided additional insights and revealed design suggestions for success in future PDs.
Article
Over the past decade, the number of one-to-one laptop programs in schools has steadily increased. Despite the growth of such programs, there is little consensus about whether they contribute to improved educational outcomes. This article reviews 65 journal articles and 31 doctoral dissertations published from January 2001 to May 2015 to examine the effect of one-to-one laptop programs on teaching and learning in K–12 schools. A meta-analysis of 10 studies examines the impact of laptop programs on students’ academic achievement, finding significantly positive average effect sizes in English, writing, mathematics, and science. In addition, the article summarizes the impact of laptop programs on more general teaching and learning processes and perceptions as reported in these studies, again noting generally positive findings.
Article
The purpose of this mixed-methods study was to examine the current beliefs, practices and barriers concerning technology integration of Kindergarten through Grade Six teachers in the midwestern United States. The three data collection methods were online surveys with 152 teachers as well as interviews and observations with 8 teachers. The findings indicated that a majority of the teachers held constructivist pedagogical beliefs about technology integration. This study found that the teachers who held constructivist pedagogical beliefs about technology use had high self-efficacy beliefs about technology use, placed positive value on the use of technology, and had two or more practices of high-level learning in their lessons. Language arts was the subject that gained the most attention for technology integration. Four barriers were students’ lack of computer skills, teachers’ lack of training in technology, teachers’ lack of time to implement technology-integrated lessons, and teachers’ lack of technical support.
Article
Herein we argue that technology integration in education can be understood and characterized as a struggle to overcome external and internal barriers. External barriers include the ever-changing nature of technology, deficiency of hardware and software; and inadequate professional development, and ongoing technological support. Internal obstacles involve personal beliefs, perceptions and understanding associated with technology use which may result in personal distress, angst and a lack of user confidence.
Article
Although there is a growing body of literature on the characteristics of effective professional development, there is little direct evidence on the extent to which these characteristics influence teacher learning and practice. In particular, few studies exist to date that demonstrate the impact of technology-focused professional development on teacher learning and practice. Even fewer studies have examined teacher learning for more than a year to understand the sustainability and growth of professional development gains.
Article
A variety of barriers relating to resources, institutional and administrative policies, skills development and attitudes can hinder the effectiveness of technology professional development resulting in underutilized technology resources and lack of integration of those resources within instruction. Multiple methods were used to evaluate the effectiveness of a long-term professional development academy intended to address those barriers and promote increased use of technology in the academy participants’ instruction. Results revealed significant gains in participants’ self assessed technology skills and computer self efficacy, with little or no change to self assessed technology integration beliefs and practices despite interview data indicating participants felt their teaching had changed as a result of their academy participation. This article suggests the design of the academy was successful in addressing some but not all of its intended objectives. Suggestions for the design of long-term technology professional development are discussed.
Article
Analyses presented here are secondary data analyses of the Use, Support and Effect of Instructional Technology study aimed at identifying predictors of teacher-directed student use of technology (TDS) in elementary classrooms. Using data from a convenience sample of 1040 teachers nested within 81 schools in 21 Massachusetts' school districts, researchers developed a teacher-level structural equation modeling for TDS depicting relationships between and among factors associated with TDS. Researchers relied on diffusion and adoption theories as well as prior empirical evidence to specify the hypothetical model. Evidence presented here suggests that the strongest predictors of TDS are as follows: (1) teachers' experience with technology, (2) belief that technology is beneficial to meet instructional goals, (3) perceived importance of technology for teaching and that (4) experiencing obstacles with the integration of technology appears to be one deterrent to teachers using technology in the classroom. The most important finding reported here is that two of the most important factors in increasing TDS are teachers' beliefs about the benefits of technology and perceived importance of technology for teaching.
Article
This case study examines 18 elementary school teachers' perceptions of the barriers to technology integration (access, vision, professional development, time, and beliefs) and instructional practices with technology after two years of situated professional development. Months after transitioning from mentoring to teacher-led communities of practice, teachers continued to report positive perceptions of several barriers and were observed engaging in desirable instructional practices. Interviews suggest that the situated professional development activities helped create an environment that supported teachers' decisions to integrate technology. Implications for teacher professional development and technology integration are discussed in conjunction with the strengths and limitations of the study.
Article
This study employed qualitative and quantitative methodologies to investigate effective approaches to technology integration in teacher-preparation curriculum, incorporating credential coursework and field placements. The study emphasized collaborative efforts among colleges of education and K-12 districts, implementation of technological innovations within the context of the school reform, and the role of technology in cultivating students' higher-order learning faculties. The findings of the study revealed a peripheral role of technology in teacher preparation experience, insufficient students' exposure to technology integration, positive shift in student attitudes toward technology use, and the pivotal role of mentor teachers in technology integration at the field placement sites.
Article
This article examines the effects of transformational school leadership on the commitment of teachers to school reform, and the effort they are willing to devote to such reform. It does so by building on the knowledge from both educational and non-educational research into such effects. A model of such effects is tested using two approximately comparable sets of data collected from samples of Canadian and Dutch teachers. Structural equation modeling is applied to test the model within each data set. Results of the Canadian and Dutch studies are then compared. The findings show transformational leadership dimensions to affect both teachers’ commitment and extra effort. The effects of the dimension's vision building and intellectual stimulation appear to be significant in particular. Overall, the findings clearly indicate the importance of analyzing dimensions of transformational leadership for their separate effects on teacher commitment and extra effort within the context of educational reform.
Article
As the technology infrastructure of schools expands, a common concern has been the underutilization of computers and other technologies in the classroom. Teachers are often blamed for failing to integrate technology into their teaching, giving such reasons as lack of time, training, equipment, and support. However, it has been suggested that these are not the “real” reasons technology is underutilized; instead, it is argued that teachers’ core values about teaching and learning are the primary obstacles to successful technology integration (e.g., Cuban, 20018. Cuban , L. 2001 . Oversold and underused: Computers in the classroom , Cambridge, MA : Harvard University Press . View all references). Implications for professional development are addressed in relation to these barriers to classroom technology use and the developmental pattern of teachers’ technology integration.
Article
Increasing emphasis has been placed on the use of effect size reporting in the analysis of social science data. Nonetheless, the use of effect size reporting remains inconsistent, and interpretation of effect size estimates continues to be confused. Researchers are presented with numerous effect sizes estimate options, not all of which are appropriate for every research question. Clinicians also may have little guidance in the interpretation of effect sizes relevant for clinical practice. The current article provides a primer of effect size estimates for the social sciences. Common effect sizes estimates, their use, and interpretations are presented as a guide for researchers. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Chapter
this chapter uses insights from socio-cultural theory to develop a new analysis of the process of teachers’ pedagogical adoption of ICT. It refutes the common assumption that failure to embed ICT in pedagogy is the result of teachers’ resistance to change, and argues the need for a wider analytic frame that takes into account complex cultural factors and the regulatory frameworks and policies of national education systems. Humans learn to use new tools by, first, attempting to find a ‘fit’ with existing social practices and over time, through experimentation, developing new social practices that take advantage of their affordances. This process is always enabled or constrained by organisational structures, social contexts and established mechanisms of control, such as national curricula and assessment regimes. The chapter provides examples of transformative pedagogies with ICT and draws attention to the common factors which have enabled their success.
Article
Although dissatisfaction with the limitations associated with tests for statistical significance has been growing for several decades, applied researchers have continued to rely almost exclusively on these indicators of effect when reporting their findings. To encourage an increased use of alternative measures of effect, the present paper discusses several measures of effect size that might be used in group comparison studies involving univariate and/or multivariate models. For the methods discussed, formulas are presented and data from an experimental study are used to demonstrate the application and interpretation of these indices. The paper concludes with some cautionary notes on the limitations associated with these measures of effect size.
Article
This article provides researchers with a guide to properly construe and conduct analyses of conditional indirect effects, commonly known as moderated mediation effects. We disentangle conflicting definitions of moderated mediation and describe approaches for estimating and testing a variety of hypotheses involving conditional indirect effects. We introduce standard errors for hypothesis testing and construction of confidence intervals in large samples but advocate that researchers use bootstrapping whenever possible. We also describe methods for probing significant conditional indirect effects by employing direct extensions of the simple slopes method and Johnson-Neyman technique for probing significant interactions. Finally, we provide an SPSS macro to facilitate the implementation of the recommended asymptotic and bootstrapping methods. We illustrate the application of these methods with an example drawn from the Michigan Study of Adolescent Life Transitions, showing that the indirect effect of intrinsic student interest on mathematics performance through teacher perceptions of talent is moderated by student math self-concept.
Teachers' use of educational technology in US public schools
  • L Gray
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Gray, L., Thomas, N., & Lewis, L. (2010). Teachers' use of educational technology in US public schools: 2009. Washington, DC: National Center for Education Statistics.
Technology integration in K-12 science classrooms: An analysis of barriers and implications
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The integration of technology in the 21st century classroom: Teachers' attitudes and pedagogical beliefs toward emerging technologies
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