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Studies the Social Media on Corruption Issues through Content Analysis

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The article presents the results of content analysis of content in 2014 when reporting on issues of corruption and how to counter it in five social networks: "Vkontakte", "Facebook", "Classmates”, "Twitter", "Live Journal" in Republic of Tatarstan of the Russian Federation. Different social networks have different purposes, but each contains content that addresses the issues of corruption. There is a positive dynamics of growth of number of communities on corruption in social networks, which indicates the actuality of the problem in civil society. The aim of the article is to highlight the effectiveness of the fight against corruption or question on how to counter it, the issues of anti-corruption activities in social networks. The results of the study are fully confirmed 3 hypothesis of the study: social network is underutilized as a tool of influence on the formation of anticorruption propaganda; in social networks regularly appear in the data on the results of opinion polls about their attitudes to corruption and the effectiveness of the response; in social networks insufficiently lit questions to assess the effectiveness of the authorities in combating corruption.
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ISSN 0798 1015
HOME Revista ESPACIOS !ÍNDICES !A LOS AUTORES !
Vol. 38 (Nº 49) Year 2017. Page 28
Studies the Social Media on Corruption Issues
through Content Analysis
Estudia los medios de comunicación social sobre cuestiones de corrupción
a través del análisis de contenido
Irina FROLOVA 1; Irina ANTONOVA 2; Landysh KHAMITOVA 3; Leisan ZAKIROVA 4; Lutsia CHUKMAROVA 5
Received: 30/09/2017 • Approved: 05/10/2017
Content
1. Introduction
2. Social Network
3. Conclusion
References
ABSTRACT:
The article presents the results of content analysis of content in
2014 when reporting on issues of corruption and how to counter
it in five social networks: "Vkontakte", "Facebook", "Classmates”,
"Twitter", "Live Journal" in Republic of Tatarstan of the Russian
Federation. Different social networks have different purposes,
but each contains content that addresses the issues of
corruption. There is a positive dynamics of growth of number of
communities on corruption in social networks, which indicates
the actuality of the problem in civil society. The aim of the article
is to highlight the effectiveness of the fight against corruption or
question on how to counter it, the issues of anti-corruption
activities in social networks. The results of the study are fully
confirmed 3 hypothesis of the study: social network is
underutilized as a tool of influence on the formation of anti-
corruption propaganda; in social networks regularly appear in
the data on the results of opinion polls about their attitudes to
corruption and the effectiveness of the response; in social
networks insufficiently lit questions to assess the effectiveness of
the authorities in combating corruption.
Keywords: the effectiveness of anti-corruption activities; fight
against corruption; social association; social media content; the
promotion in social networks.
RESUMEN:
El artículo presenta los resultados del análisis de contenido de los
contenidos en el año 2014 cuando se informa sobre temas de
corrupción y cómo contrarrestarlo en cinco redes sociales:
"Vkontakte", "Facebook", "Compañeros de clase”, 'Twitter', 'Live
Journal' en la República de Tatarstán de la Federación rusa. las
distintas redes sociales tienen diferentes propósitos, pero cada
uno contiene contenido que aborda las cuestiones de corrupción.
Hay una dinámica positiva de crecimiento del número de
comunidades en materia de corrupción en las redes sociales, lo
que indica la realidad del problema en La sociedad civil El
objetivo del artículo es poner de relieve la eficacia de la lucha
contra la corrupción o la cuestión de cómo hacer frente a ella, las
cuestiones de las actividades de lucha contra la corrupción en las
redes sociales.Los resultados del estudio están plenamente
confirmados 3 hipótesis del estudio : La red social está
subutilizada como herramienta de influencia en la formación de
propaganda anticorrupción, en las redes sociales aparecen
regularmente en los datos de los resultados de las encuestas de
opinión sobre Sus actitudes ante la corrupción y la eficacia de la
respuesta; En las redes sociales preguntas insuficientemente
iluminadas para evaluar la eficacia de las autoridades en la lucha
contra la corrupción.
Palabras clave: la eficacia de las actividades contra la
corrupción; Lucha contra la corrupción; Asociación social;
Contenido de medios sociales; La promoción en las redes
sociales.
1. Introduction
In the current economic and political situation in Russia, the development and active dissemination of
corruption negatively affects the authority of state and local government, hampers economic development and
reduces the efficiency of public administration (Vlasenko, 2015, pp. 167-173).
Social networks are the ideological power of communication, which not only provides facts, but also offers a
way to understand and give meaning to those facts, and reveals the mechanisms of development of a
phenomenon (Simon, & Eitzen, 2002; Daya, 2013; Karpov, 2016, pp. 3487-3496).
One of the main methods for studying the content of communication is its quantitative analysis, or content
analysis, whose task is to measure quantitative characteristics of the model reflect the corruption processes in
social networks, fixing the differences in emphasis of various kinds of corruption events, determining the
overall trends in the coverage of events.
By the results of the research we can quantify material on corruption for subsequent Association with specific
statistical figures of law enforcement.
Obtaining reliable data on corruption or any facts of wrongful conduct of someone is a difficult task
("Transparency" – anti-corruption centre, 2016; Aaken, 2005, pp. 407-446). The results of empirical studies
often use indirect evidence of corruption. In this regard, the interaction of all authorities, law enforcement
agencies and the media, including social networking, anti-corruption should be the basis for the formation of
anti-corruption system in the public administration.
The object of the research: 5 social networks: "Vkontakte", "Facebook", "Classmates", "Twitter", "Live
Journal".
Subject of research – is the discussions in social networks in 2014, dealing with issues of corruption and anti-
corruption activities in the Republic of Tatarstan.
Objectives of the study:
1. To review the literature on the research topic.
2. To conduct a content analysis of content in social networks on corruption, anti-corruption behavior and the
effectiveness of anti-corruption activities in the Republic of Tatarstan, carry out the interpretation of the study
results.
3. To formulate conclusions and develop recommendations to improve the implementation of anti-corruption
policy in the Republic of Tatarstan and the organization of anti-corruption propaganda through social
networks.
Hypothesis of the research:
- the issues of corruption and its combating are widely covered on social networks in the Republic of
Tatarstan;
- the social networks are insufficiently lit questions to assess the effectiveness of the authorities in combating
corruption;
- the social network is underutilized as a tool of influence on the formation of anti-corruption propaganda;
- the data on the results of opinion polls about their attitudes to corruption and the effectiveness of measures
to counter it are regularly appeared in social networks.
In the process of the study scientific and methodological justification using of instruments of influence on the
public in the formation of anti-corruption propaganda through the social network is given.
The article presents the scientific and methodological rationale for the use of Content analysis results of social
media in the framework of anti-corruption propaganda of the world community. The results of the study have
practical significance for the development of the toolkit formation of public opinion and the construction of
social reality of the world order.
The research urgency is caused by the fact that in modern society, social networks and society itself are in
constant interaction.
2. Social network
2.1. Views on development of social network
The concept of "social network" is appeared in 1954 and nothing to do with the Internet, of course, had not,
and to study this phenomenon scientists began in the 30-ies of the last century (Ellison, & Boyd, 2013). The
concept was introduced by sociologist James Barnes: "social network" is a social structure consisting of groups
of nodes, which are social objects (people or organizations) and connections between them (social
relationships) If to speak a simple language it is a group of familiar people, where man is a center, and its
familiar branches. Between all members of the network is bilateral or unilateral. For example, it may be a
group of classmates in which a Jack is the center, and bill and Catherine his friends (branches).
The first social network with the use of computer technology became the technology of electronic mail in
1971, which was used by military in ARPA Net network (Daya, 2013).
Further, in 1988, a Finnish student Bright Oikarinen was invented technology of "IRC" (eng. Internet Relay
Chat — Internet relay chat), which allowed us to communicate in real time (Werry, 1996, pp. 47-63).
A landmark event was the invention of the Internet, which went public in 1991, thanks to the British scientist
Tim Berners-Lee.
In 1995, Randy Conrad was created Classmates.com — the first social network in the modern sense. The
concept proved to be very popular, and this year begins the rapid development of social networks on the
Internet. Today this network still remains one of the most popular in the world and has more than 50 million
users (Marcum, 2014).
In 2004, Facebook is appeared that for several years, becoming the world's most popular social network. It
uses all the same mechanism of communication, a slightly different plane, which leads to a revolution in this
field. The number of active users in mid-2011 — more than 700 million (Young, 2014, pp. 7-14).
N.Semenov wrote in his work: this is just the tip of the iceberg on social networks is already possible to write
entire encyclopedias. The network has deeply penetrated into our lives and continues to gain popularity; their
influence on people is still underestimated. Now mainly in the network common types are developed, but in
the near future new projects will continue to develop, themes, and functionality. As in any rapidly growing
segment, there are a number of tangible problems, but they are all doable. Soon the social network on the
Internet pretty much change the world, they has become a powerful tool of power (Semenov, n.d.).
The main difficulty of the sociological understanding of corruption and corrupt behavior is that it is not always
the violator of the norms is considered as deviant (bribetaker) (Alemann, 2007; Alemann, 2006, p. 13;
Bannenberg, 2014, pp. 695-776).
A special place among the studies of corrupt behavior is a socio-psychological work aimed at studying the
perception of corruption by the population, its evaluation of the mass consciousness, the study of
psychological factors of corruption (Bikeev, & Kabanov, 2015, pp. 5-11; Bikeev, 2013; pp. 245-249;
Bundeslagebilder Korruption, 2016).
In foreign studies J. Lammers studies the effect of "moral myopia" in which the spread of corruption in society
reduces the feeling of guilt and a risk to spoil reputation (Lammers et al., 2015, pp. 15-19).
D. Simon, and D. Eitzen considers corruption one of the forms of elite deviance, and social deviations are
implemented through the deviant behavior of individuals and social groups (Simon, & Eitzen, 2002).
On this basis, the study of corruption as a form of deviant behavior can be useful to identify its root causes,
social consequences and methods of minimizing its spread.
In our country the study of aspects of corrupt is started recently, because under the planned economy were
virtually no mechanisms of development of corruption.
2.2 Representation of the Impact of Social Networks on the Fight against
Corruption
Different social networks have different purposes, but each contains content that addresses the issues of
corruption.
For each social network, we obtained the following results.
1. The results of the research content in the social network "Vkontakte"
The specificity of content analysis in social networks is that during the day of the recording, comments can be
removed, the number of communities and people in them change. For example, as of March 10, 2015 number
of communities on corruption in social network "Vkontakte" was registered 756, 24 March, there were 769.
500 communities registered in Russia.
In a social network "Vkontakte" in Russia there were 150 communities with a title which includes the word
"bribe".
For the unit of account were adopted "corruption", "fight against corruption", "bribery", "and extortion" (see
Table 1).
Table 1. Characteristics of social network "Vkontakte" on 10.03. 2015.
Unit account Number of
groups /from
Russia
Number of communities Number of
web pages
Total/Russia, Kazan N. Chelny
Corruption 611/498 756/500 6 3 143
The fight
against
corruption
70/51 96/52 1 0 25
Bribe 200/150 214/150 2 1 15
Levies 62/46 73/48 2 0 10
Total: 943/745 1139/750 11 4193
Search queries allow you to choose any of the community types of corruption, including groups for countries
and cities. Separately, you can view the number of web pages and site content.
Quantitative characteristics of the biggest communities on corruption in social networks "Vkontakte" are
presented in Table 2.
Table 2. Quantitative characteristics of the biggest communities on corruption in social network "Vkontakte" on 10.03. 2015.
Indicators
The war of
corruption-
Alexei
Navalny"
(search
category -
corruption)
The Fund of
struggle
against
corruption -
Petersburg
(search
category -
the fight
against
corruption)
BRIBES
(Where,
What, how
Much)
(search
category -
bribes)
Extortions in
schools and
kindergartens,
NEWS
SCHOOLS
(search
category -
levies) Total
Number of
community members
on the topic of
corruption
348080 6053 14909 10481 379523
The number of
subscribers of the
largest community
(% of all participants)
259169
(74, 45%)
1876
(31%)
5542
(37,2%)
8239
(78,6%)
274826
The number of
records the largest
community of
corruption
7409 436 356 4006 12207
It should be noted that the total number of communities on corruption with number of participants more than
1000 people is 21, this amounts to 1.84 percent of all communities in the corruption in social networks
"Vkontakte".
The large community of the war of corruption - Alexei Navalny", which has 258 710 participants, which is
74,45% of subscribers across all communities of corruption. So, in the community openly discussed the way
of power. In addition, the group is openly oppositional to the current government; it regularly shows the
results of sociological surveys on corruption against the officials
The communities in whose name includes the word "bribe", - 214, including 150 communities in Russia
(70,1%), 3 – the Republic of Tatarstan (1.4 per cent).
Community "Bribes" openly covers issues in wrestling corruption, including in the Republic of Tatarstan.
Community unit emphasizes the positive results of engaging society in the fight against corruption (for
example, "Tatarstan for anti-corruption bloggers award"), as well as the punishment for bribery, corruption,
etc.
In Kazan the group of "Bribe" was 2 community, of which the largest is the "Anti-DPS Kazan .We are against
bribes!", where 1917 participants.
Search by category "corruption of Tatarstan" the social network Vkontakte" has shown that in this social
network coverage of issues of corruption is very weak. So, just for the Republic of Tatarstan was registered on
3 community the total number of participants of 459 people and has 545 records. Basically records are factual
judgments about corruption: "Detained by the MUP of Kazan on suspicion in extortion of 120 thousand,"
"against the traffic police can use the term corrupt memory".
The thematic focus of the communities in the social network "Vkontakte" are presented in Table 3.
Table 3. Thematic focus of publications on 15.03.2015.
Topics communities
In Russia In RT Number of
participants, the
largest community
Corruption in higher education 12 9 - 77
Corruption in education 6 4 1 10
Corruption in business 6 5 - 497
The corruption in the government 18 11 -497
Anti-corruption 38 28 -1120
Corruption in the court 2 1 - 180
Corruption in law enforcement 3 2 - 46
Corruption of officials 5 3 - 86
Extortion in schools,
kindergartens
16 14 18239
Separate community on corruption in housing, social security, sports, healthcare etc. not shown.
Search query "corruption of power" identified 18 communities, including 11 in Russia (61,1%).
By studying the content in the community "RO LLC "Center of corruption counteraction in public authorities" in
the Republic of Bashkortostan", it was revealed that the creators of the communities do not always monitor
the content on the page. For example, some of the records are promotional in nature, how to legally avoid the
military service.
In Russia social network "Vkontakte" are 28 communities, including in such cities as Tula, Moscow, Lipetsk,
Kurgan, Krasnoyarsk, etc. However, for example, large cities of the Republic of Tatarstan (Kazan, Naberezhnye
Chelny) are not represented.
In a social network "Vkontakte" highlights organized corruption, which can be viewed on the tab "Meetings".
In 2013-2014 the social network was given information about 23 different events, for example, a rally against
corruption (Kursk), "We are against corruption"(Kazan).
It should be noted that these communities, which purposefully covered questions the effectiveness of anti-
corruption or questions on how to counter it, the issues of anti-corruption activities in the social network
"Vkontakte" is not represented.
News coverage on corruption presented 431937 records, including Ukraine, Kazakhstan, USA, Russia, Europe.
Coverage of issues of corruption in the Republic of Tatarstan presented 1813 records.
In addition to the critical notes, the social network is actively informing about changes in the law, anti-
corruption efforts, as evidenced by the headings "New in legislation on combating corruption", the 5th
Republican youth forum-formation of the youth against corruption", "Anticipate","....investigation against
officials of the mayoralty of Naberezhnye Chelny...".
Some of the materials in a social network «Vkontakte» have the character of statements of fact (e.g.,
"Requisitions in schools and kindergartens," "the state Duma did not support the anti corruption initiative of
the Republic of Tatarstan", "Tatarstan will receive 7.5 million rubles for the work on the evaluation of the
effectiveness of anticorruption policy..."
- Quite often we found the content that negatively affects the image of the Republican authorities. This is
evidenced by such negative judgments like:"....but where Tatarstan is sure to be corruption".
- Search query "Extortion" - has identified 73 communities, 48 of them-in the Russian Federation 62 group of
10 web pages.
- The largest community "Requisitions in schools and kindergartens, NEWS SCHOOLS" discusses the issues of
levies in the Republic of Tatarstan and has 8239 subscribers.
Regularly in the group to ask questions, calling on various authorities and companies openly inform the public
on questions of costs at the expense of budgetary funds.
In a social network "Vkontakte" in the tab "Videos" at the request "Extortion in the schools," presents 56
videos, including "Extortion in the schools of the Republic of Tatarstan" (2015).
Existing content video contains content 2015 - 9 videos (16%), materials 2014, 11 videos (19,6%), from
them - 6 at RT.
1. Russian Community "Sobol" is - A. Polishchuk: "Requisitions in schools and kindergartens teach our children
to lie".
2. Extortions in schools and kindergartens. On 22.09.2014/Tatarstan without corruption!
3. Charges in school/ Program TSB. TV security service.
Thus, in a social network "Vkontakte" on 15 March 2015 in Russia, there were 150 communities with a title
which includes the word "bribe", 500 - with the word "corruption", 48 - with the word "extortion" and 52"fight
against corruption".
The large community of "Painting - the war of corruption - Alexei Navalny" has 258 710 participants, which is
74,45% of subscribers across all communities of corruption. It quite openly discusses the authorities, and
judgments often are negative.
It should be noted that the total number of communities on corruption with number of participants more than
1000 people is 21, which is 1,84% of all communities of corruption in social networks "Vkontakte".
Not presented to the community, which purposefully covered questions of efficiency of fight against corruption
and questions on how to counter it, the issues of anti-corruption activities.
News coverage on corruption presented 431937 records, including Ukraine, Kazakhstan, USA, Russia, and
Europe. Of these, the discussion on corruption in the Republic of Tatarstan presented to 1813(0, 42%).
Coverage of issues of corruption (search query-"corruption") in the Republic of Tatarstan is presented very
poorly, was only 3 community total number of participants of 459 people and has 545 posts having mostly
factual judgments about corruption.
A separate community, discussing issues requisitions in schools and kindergartens. The large community of
"Requisitions in schools and kindergartens, news schools" presented in the Republic of Tatarstan as a hotline
exactions of the Republic of Tatarstan the total number of participants 8239 people highlighting the issues of
corruption in kindergartens and schools is interactive. This resource is not only informative, but also contains
elements of feedback with the population. The community is popular with residents of different cities of the
Republic of Tatarstan.
Content of social network "Vkontakte" on corruption mainly publications in the form of a statement of facts.
Quite often found content that negatively affects the image of not only Russian, but also national authorities.
2. The results of the research content in the social network Facebook
Unlike the social network "Vkontakte", materials on "Facebook" harder quantitative calculation.
As of March 10, 2015 number of communities on corruption in social network "Facebook" all it was 83 (Table
4).
Table 4. The characteristics of the social network "Facebook" on 10.03. 2015.
Unit account
Number of
groups /from
Russia
Number of communities
Number of
web pagesTotal/Russia, Kazan N. Chelny
Corruption 27 63 - - 7
The fight against 8 8 - - 5
corruption
Bribe 2 11 - - 2
Levies - 1 1 - -
Total: 37 83 1 - 14
The social network "Facebook" the most covered issues on corruption in Kazakhstan, Ukraine.
A search query of "Corruption" identified 63 community, including "Corruption. Just the facts" (closed),
"Corruption in Putin's Russia" (open), "Corruption and human rights" (open).
The search query "the fight against corruption" is identified 8 communities. So, the same society "Fight
against corruption" is an open group and is content to protect business from corruption (Table 5).
Table 5. Quantitative characteristics of the biggest communities
on corruption in social network "Facebook" on 10.03. 2015.
Indicators
search
category -
corruption
search
category - the
fight against
corruption
search
Category -
bribe
search
Category-
levies total total
Number of
community
members on the
topic of corruption
23548 3475 971 145 28139
The number of
subscribers of the
largest community
(% of all
participants)
10411
( 44 %)
1037
( 30%)
771
( 79%)
145
(100%)
12364
The most popular communities in the information field of Facebook are "Corruption and lawlessness in
Russia", "stop Bribes (Khmelnitsky)", "Stop corruption". Quite often in this network are laid out materials to
other Internet resources, for example, youtube.com.
The social network was 2 groups on anti-corruption with a total number of man - 61.
Coverage of issues of corruption mainly is of a General nature and affects all aspects of society. Publications
about corruption of officials are very weak. Often we laid out materials to other Internet resources, for
example, youtube.com.
A material about corruption in the Republic of Tatarstan is represented by single on the facts of extortion in
kindergartens and schools.
3. The results of the research content in the social network "Classmates"
The interface of the social network "Schoolmates" also has its own specifics. As of March 10, 2015 number of
communities on corruption in the social network "Schoolmates" it was 146, on 24 March there were 150.
Table 6. The characteristics of the social network "Schoolmates" on 10.03. 2015.
The unit of account Number of groups
Number of participants
discussing the issue
Corruption 146 628773
The fight against corruption 26 382
Bribe 6 46
Levies 9271
Total: 187 629472
In the "Classmates" there were the 16 communities of more than 1,000 people. There are closed groups
(Table 6).
This is the most numerous group of "Corruption and lawlessness in the world! Russia today!” which has
468528 participants. The records in the group are more politicized and almost no coverage of issues relating
to corruption. In this group of 2483 records presents more results of online surveys 1748. Only 6 records
were really dedicated to the issues of corruption, including the "140 million in the cellar - stash Russian
official", "About kickbacks”.
179 subscribers have a group of "Fight against corruption", but it is not viable. In this group, for the year of
2014 is recorded only one record.
In the group "anti-corruption media" registered 19 participants. Most of all it creates a positive image of the
authorities on prevention and combating corruption.
The analysis of headlines ("the police are tightening control over the additional income of employees....", "To
fight corruption in the courts will be a special Commission", "...Detained the chief of regional Department of
the MIA...", "the head of the "Committee on fight against corruption" Anatoly Golubev passed check on the lie
detector" etc.) indicates a positive view of government in the fight against corruption.
Group on anti-corruption is only one of the 17 participants. Search query "extortion" outlined in a social
network "Schoolmates" 9 groups with a total of 271 participants. So, in the "Illegal extortions in schools and
kindergartens of Rostov" for 2014 presented total 3 records in other record groups for 2014 are not available.
Many groups are not relevant in 2015.
Table 7: Quantitative characteristics of the biggest communities
on corruption a social network "Schoolmates" on 10.03. 2015.
Indicators
search
category -
corruption
search
category - the
fight against
corruption
search
Category -
bribe
search
Category-
levies total total
Number of
community
members on the
topic of corruption
628773 382 46 271 629472
The number of
subscribers of the
largest community
(% of all
participants)
468528
"Corruption
and
lawlessness
in the world!
Russia
today!"
( 75%)
179
"The fight
against
corruption"
( 47%)
30
Universal
movement"Bribe
STOP"
( 65%)
128
Illegal-wide
requisitions in
schools and
kindergartens
of Rostov
468865
The number of
records the largest
community of
corruption
93 6 Closed user
group
3102
Thus, in a social network "Classlmates" is not sufficiently covered the issues of corruption, since the network
has a different purpose.
However, the number of community members on the topic of corruption is 629472. Communities have 468865
subscribers.
The advantage of social network "Classlmates" is registered experience of the group "anti-corruption media",
which covers issues of effectiveness of anti-corruption or anti-corruption activities, and presents a positive
image of power.
4. The results of the research content in the social network Twitter
Twitter is a site of "social interaction in real time", a place for exchange of information with the development
of events, and means of interacting with other people in real time.
A tweet is an individual message in Twitter, the length of which is 140 characters or less (Table 8).
Table 8. Quantitative characteristics of social network "Twitter" 2014.
The unit of account
The number of
news In Tatarstan
the Share of
news on RT
Corruption 463 51,08%
The fight against corruption 85 11,2%
Bribe 113 10,88%
Levies 84 23 27,4%
Total: 745 30 4,03%
Twitter is a social news network, which presents various news agencies, Internet resources, reposts from
other sites, etc.
Often, the network seems to be a negative image of the government.
A mention in the news about corruption in Tajikistan was only one.
News about corruption in reference to the city of Kazan in 2014 was not published. 6 news were recorded in
2012, 2013 and 2015.
The search query "the Fight against corruption in Tatarstan" has given 1 mention. On request "Bribe
Tatarstan" was true 1 mention.
- "Minister of education and science of Tatarstan: 62 appeals by parents against money extortion in
kindergartens were recorded in 2013."
- "Now for school levies are the responsibility of the parents of Tatarstan".
Content analysis of the news on Twitter shows that 95.7 per cent of news related to extortion in the Republic
of Tatarstan, relate to schools and kindergartens.
On Twitter there is a separate tab "Video" (Table 9).
Table 9. A quantitative characterization of videos on the topic
of "corruption" the social network "Twitter" in 2014.
The unit of account Number In RT
The number of movies about corruption 261 1
A number of videos about the corruption of
officials
7 -
The number of video recording "Corruption and
Putin"
49 -
Number of videos "anti-corruption" 35 -
The number of videos the "Trick" 72 -
Number of video "Extortion" 16 -
Twitter is also seen with the orientation of the publications about corruption in various spheres of activity:
sports, medical procurement, etc., and also in General to civil society.
A video is repeated several times during the year.
Thus, Twitter is a social news network, which presents various news agencies, Internet resources, reposts
from other sites. Traces the orientation of the publications about corruption in various fields. A significant
proportion of the content includes coverage of issues of corruption with the formation of a negative image of
the incumbent authorities. So, share videos posted on Twitter that adversely affect the image of the President
of the Russian Federation, is in 2014 to 18.8%.
Content analysis of the news on Twitter shows that 95.7 per cent of news related to extortion in the Republic
of Tatarstan, relate to schools and kindergartens.
5. The results of the research content in the social network "Live journal"
Live Journal blog platform for conducting online diaries (blogs), and a separate personal blog that is hosted on
this platform. Feature of "learn" is that it provides the ability to publish and comment on other people's
records, create a team blog ("community"), add to friends of other users and monitor their records to "tape
friends".
"Living history", according to his statistics, has a large attendance, in fact, functioning in the role of popular
social networks. Their "live journals" there are many famous people in Russia, as well as parties, public
movements and organizations.
In Russia, Live Journal is the vast majority of the blogosphere (Table 10).
Table 10. The characteristics of the social network "Live journal" on 15.03.2015.
The unit of account
People and
communities
Number of
mentions
Number of
entries
Number of
comments
Corruption 62 3113818 2641699 464713
The fight against
corruption
7613365 555787 57137
Bribe 2 1518275 1201537 315885
Levies 113000 43982 27761
Total: 71 5245458 4399023 837735
Thus, as in other social networks, Live Journal has its own community on corruption, many of which are not
relevant. Issues are covered mainly in the format of online news less discussions.
Researchers study the economic impact of corruption, thanks to numerous international surveys in this area,
as well as research in the field of theoretical and practical measures on struggle against economic corruption.
So, for example, Friedrich Schneider for the first time examines the relationship of the shadow economy and
corruption (Schneider, 2007). Johann Graf Lambsdorff devotes his study to the impact of corruption on
numerous macroeconomic determinants, such as growth, exports, investment (Lambsdorf, 2015, pp. 253-
263; Lambsdorff, 2005, pp. 233-248; Schmidt, 2007, pp. 202-232). Among the major researchers of
corruption, we can identify the Bjorn Frank (Hofmann, & Pfaff, 2008, pp. 9-39), and Wilfried Furmanny
(Huntington, 1968, p. 488).
The scientific study of corruption in the field of policy and management currently holds a prominent position in
the field of scientific research. Professor Ulrich von Alemann from the University of Henry Gein (Dusseldorf) in
cooperation with partner universities in Rome and Athens in 2007 conducted empirical research concerning
EU-25. It examines the corruption of the structure and existing measures to prevent corruption. The study
aimed at comparison of various measures to combat corruption, evaluating their effectiveness and the
development of specific recommendations for improving them (Aymaliev, & Kosals, 2016, pp. 98-122).
It is also noted that, more and more segments of the population begin to participate in the political discourse
with the advent of social networking. Especially the young generation is actively participating in these Internet
discussions, thereby forming their own civic position. Therefore, the quality of the content has a strong
influence on the attitudes of young people.
The emergence of thematic groups on anti-corruption can be used by state authorities for rapid response to
facts of corruption phenomena and reactions to them.
3. Conclusion
The results of the discourse analysis of social networks we can draw the following conclusions: the biggest
part of the audience has a "Live journal" and "Twitter", however, the most advanced in terms of
communication on issues of corruption are a social network "Vkontakte" and "Classmates".
The results of the study have an applied nature and can be the basis for the development of a programme to
improve the implementation of anti-corruption policy in the Republic of Tatarstan and the Strategy of
anticorruption policy of the Republic of Tatarstan.
In terms of reduction of values in modern Russian society corrupt behavior is becoming more and more
widespread. There are three important properties exhibited by our mass consciousness in connection with
corruption, which are directly related to mass psychology.
First, a relatively tolerant attitude to corruption as widespread ("steal", "take all," etc.), ineradicable and
inevitable, "the minimum level of evil", not worthy of serious condemnation.
Second, the condemnation expressed in our mass consciousness are not themselves acts of corruption, but
only exorbitant bribes, especially if they are "disproportionate" the position of corrupt officials.
Third, as in many other situations, manifests a system of double standards: "I and my environment – other".
Their own corrupt behavior, as well as similar behavior of loved ones, perceived as a necessary response to
objective circumstances (“some wheels (or palms) need to be greased”), not associated with corruption and
does not receive negative emotional evaluations, while similar behavior of others is seen as corrupt and
expressing their negative personality.
With the aim of improving the organization of anti-corruption propaganda through social networks was
proposed:
1. Use social media as a way of obtaining initial information about the facts of corruption. You need to create a
social resource that would collect such information and statistically processed (for example, in a field of more
calls). This will help to identify problem areas and take appropriate decisions.
2. Create community in social networks on anti-corruption.
3. When working with social networks and communities to consider the number of participants and
subscribers of the community.
4. To create a social networking group or community "anti-corruption monitoring", "anti-corruption".
5. Learn from the experience in covering the issues of corruption group "anti-corruption media" in social
network "Classmates".
References
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frolova.i@yahoo.com
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4. Social Sciences and Humanities, Branch of Kazan (Volga Region) Federal University in Naberezhnye Chelny, Naberezhnye Chelny, Russia
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... Their analysis also controlled for other factors which were employed in the current analysis, such as GDP per capita, press freedom, and political stability. In a discourse analysis, Frolova et al. (2017) conclude that mass consciousness of people through social networks attributes to the reduction of corrupt behaviors. It is believed and empirically found that people find their civic voices and can engage in civil political discourse using social media, but corruption reduction programs and attitudes are also culturally influenced. ...
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Does German law satisfy the requirements of the UN Convention against Corruption? A comparative study on political corruption with a special focus on the legal situation in Germany
  • A Aaken
Aaken, A. (2005). Does German law satisfy the requirements of the UN Convention against Corruption? A comparative study on political corruption with a special focus on the legal situation in Germany. Journal of International Public Law and International Law, 65 (2), 407-446.
Protestants to power. The overview
  • U Alemann
Alemann, U. (2006). Protestants to power. The overview, p. 13.
Corruption is a matter of trust
  • U Alemann
Alemann, U. (2007). Corruption is a matter of trust. University in the City. Heinrich-Heine-Institute, Düsseldorf. [Electronic resource]. Mode of access: http://estadus.info/static/pdf/von-Alemann_Korruption.pdf
Corruption. Handbook of economic and fiscal criminal law
  • B Bannenberg
Bannenberg, B. (2014). Corruption. Handbook of economic and fiscal criminal law. Vol. 4. Munich, pp. 695-776.