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Implementation of Code of Conduct as a Positive Discipline Management Strategy in Bulawayo Metropolitan Province Secondary Schools

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Abstract

The paper examines how secondary schools implement the code of conduct to maintain positivediscipline. It adopted a qualitative approach and employed a case study design. Four secondary schools andparticipants who comprised one Education Officer, four school heads; twenty members of the disciplinary committee, forty prefects and four School Development Committee chairpersons were purposively selected. Data werecollected using semi-structured interviews, focus group interviews and document analysis and were analysedthematically. The paper established that school personnel were involved in crafting the code of conduct andlearners had limited involvement; schools experienced challenges in implementing the code of conduct. It concludedthat there were pockets of good practices in implementing the code of conduct. The paper recommends that theMinistry of Primary and Secondary Education should come up with a policy which abolishes use of reactivestrategies to deal with learners who breached the code of conduct.

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... Regardless of the efforts made by MOPSE, some dissatisfaction has been heard from various stakeholders proclaiming that the safety of learners was not certain in schools as they were repeatedly subjected to punitive discipline strategies [2,4,23,24]. In view of the concerns raised informally by a number of stakeholders and media, there is no clear evidence as to how schools use teaching social skills as a proactive strategy to manage the behaviour of learners. ...
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The study examined how secondary schools use proactive teaching social skills strategy to maintain discipline among learners in Bulawayo Metropolitan Province. The study was ingrained in interpretive paradigm, adopted qualitative approach and employed a case study design. Purposive sampling technique was used to select four secondary schools and participants who comprised two education officers, four school heads; four school counsellors, twenty members of the disciplinary committee, forty prefects and four school development committee chairpersons. Data were collected using semi-structured interviews and focus group interviews, and were analysed thematically. The study established that learners were taught social skills during guidance and counselling lessons and club sessions which were part of the co-curricular programmes offered in schools. It was found that the topics taught during the teaching of social skills included conduct, relationships, community involvement; decision-making skills, communication skills, drug and substance abuse, career guidance, stress management, honesty and integrity, conflict resolution, assertiveness, self-awareness and health issues, among others. The study also revealed that some learners were engaged in community activities to reach out to underprivileged members of the society. The results further indicated that the teaching social skills strategy was effective because it taught learners to be responsible for their behaviour and contributed to the reduction of unbecoming behaviour cases in schools. Nevertheless, the teaching social skills strategy faced constraints mainly from some teachers' and parents' negative attitudes towards social skills activities. The study concluded that the use of proactive teaching social skills strategy yielded positive results as schools exposed learners to multiple activities that contributed to the modification of learner behaviour which created a safe teaching and learning environment. The study recommended that schools should intensify the training programmes for teachers and parents to positively influence their attitudes towards the teaching of social skills in order to reinforce positive behaviour among learners.
... Despite the guiding principles discoursed above, apprehensions and whinges were raised by members of the civic society, parents and learners through various forms of media asserting that learners felt insecure at school as they were continually exposed to reactive discipline practices (Sibanda, 2013, the Zimbabwean newspaper reporter, Mlalazi, Rembe & Shumba, 2016b). Considering the issues raised informally by concerned stakeholders and media, it is not clear what factors constrain schools in using positive discipline practices. ...
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The study assessed factors constraining use of positive discipline practices in Mzilikazi District Secondary Schools. Qualitative approach and case study design were employed. Purposively selected participants from four secondary schools comprised four school heads; twenty members of the disciplinary committee, four school counsellors, forty prefects and four School Development Committee chairpersons. Data analysed thematically were collected using face to face semi-structured interviews and focus group interviews. Results revealed that lack of role models, ineffective communication, not rewarding positive behaviour, ineffective monitoring and inadequate financial resources constrained use of positive discipline practices in selected schools. The study concluded that factors that constrained use of positive discipline practices in schools mainly emanated from teachers, learners, parents and the members of the community. It is recommended that schools should initiate training programmes for teachers and parents to positively influence their discipline practices in enhancing use of positive discipline practices.
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The purpose of the study was to identify alternative corrective measures used by teachers to manage students’ behavior problems in secondary schools. The study was informed by Assertive Discipline Model and Thorndike’s Behavior Modification Theory. Mixed methods research approach was used and with it, concurrent triangulation design was adopted. Target population of the study was composed of 308 teachers from a total number of 34 schools that had 34 Heads of Guidance and Counseling, 34 Deputy Principals and 240 classroom teachers. Krejcie & Morgan sample size determination table and stratified random sampling technique was used to sample 28 Deputy Principals from a total number of 34 deputy principals, 28 Heads of Guidance and Counseling from a total number of 34 and 152 teachers from a total of 240. Pilot study was done in three schools that didn’t participate in the actual study to determine reliability of the instruments and split half method was used to ascertain a reliability coefficient of 0.871. Face validity of the instruments was ascertained by pilot testing the questionnaires and also by seeking expert judgment by university lecturers. Data was collected using questionnaires, in-depth interviews and document analysis guides. Quantitative data was analyzed using basic descriptive statistics and inferential statistics. Qualitative data from interviews were analyzed using thematic analysis. The study findings revealed that alternative corrective measures like guidance and counseling, manual work, temporary withdrawal from class, withdrawal of privileges and suspension were used in managing student behavior problems. However, it was established that use of rules and detention were not preferred as alternative methods of managing student behavior problems. DOI: 10.5901/mjss.2016.v7n1p527
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Positive behavior support (PBS) and functional behavioral assessment (FBA) are two significant concepts of the 1997 amendments to the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act. These two concepts are not new, but they are important for improving the quality of efforts to educate children and youth with disabilities. The purposes of this article are to describe (a) the context in which PBS and FBA are needed and (b) definitions and features of PBS and FBA. An important message is that positive behavioral interventions and supports involve the whole school, and successful implementation emphasizes the identification, adoption, and sustained use of effective policies, systems, data-based decision making, and practices. Systems-level challenges are also discussed.
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Qualitative case study methodology provides tools for researchers to study complex phenomena within their contexts. When the approach is applied correctly, it becomes a valuable method for health science research to develop theory, evaluate programs, and develop interventions. The purpose of this paper is to guide the novice researcher in identifying the key elements for designing and implementing qualitative case study research projects. An overview of the types of case study designs is provided along with general recommendations for writing the research questions, developing propositions, determining the "case" under study, binding the case and a discussion of data sources and triangulation. To facilitate application of these principles, clear examples of research questions, study propositions and the different types of case study designs are provided.
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Although case study methods remain a controversial approach to data collection, they are widely recognised in many social science studies especially when in-depth explanations of a social behaviour are sought after. This article, therefore, discusses several aspects of casestudies as a research method. These include the design and categories of case studies and how their robustness can be achieved. It also explores on the advantages and disadvantages of case study as a research method.
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The paper examined how secondary schools implemented a guidance and counseling strategy to maintain positive discipline. It adopted a qualitative approach and employed a case study design. Purposive sampling was used to select four secondary schools and participants that comprised two education officers, four school heads, four school counselors, twenty members of the disciplinary committee, forty prefects and four School Development Committee chairpersons. Data was collected using semi-structured interviews and focus group interviews, and analyzed thematically. The study established that guidance and counseling services were offered through lessons and counseling sessions, schools referred serious cases to experts for professional counseling, and secondary schools experienced challenges in implementing guidance and counseling. The paper concluded that pockets of good practices were evident in the implementation of the guidance and counseling. It recommends that the Ministry of Primary and Secondary Education should create a substantive post of a non-teaching school counselor in every school.
Article
The purpose of this research paper is to demonstrate that guidance and counselling strategies play a central role in school efforts to improve learners’ levels of conformity with the code of conduct. A cross sectional parallel sample survey design was used. A total of 366 respondents comprising of 226 teachers and 140 prefects, in secondary schools in Gulu Municipality, selected through simple random and expert sampling were studied. Two pre-tested and validated questionnaires were used to collect the data. Three hypotheses were formulated to guide the study and were tested using descriptive statistics and Chi square tests. The study revealed that individual guidance and counselling strategy was commonly used and that learners’ level of conformity with the code of conduct is moderate. The results further revealed that learners’ level of conformity with the code of conduct does not significantly depend on the guidance and counselling strategy used. Based on these findings, the researchers recommend that school administrators should adopt the use of both individual and group counselling strategies and that Ministry of Education and Sports (MoES) should conduct in-service training for all teachers on techniques of guidance and counselling. The study proposes areas for further research including investigating the effectiveness of guidance and counselling services, and the moderating effects of sex, qualification, experience, and school resources on the relationship between the variables.
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The influence of communication on student discipline in secondary schools is an issue of continued debate in Kenya. This study was necessitated by the growing concern by education stakeholders in Kenya over the rising reports of student indiscipline in secondary schools. The study utilized qualitative approach with questionnaires, interviews and documentation as instruments of collecting data. Purposive sampling was used to identify Naivasha district as the location of the study. Stratified and simple random sampling was used to identify 8 secondary schools and 200 respondents from these schools. 20 students and 4 teachers in each sampled school were given the self administered questionnaires while all the 8 head teachers were interviewed. The data collected was analyzed descriptively. The findings of this study shows that the level of discipline in secondary schools in Kenya is very low, schools administration rarely discussed implementation of rules and regulations to students hence there are poor channels of communication. Ineffective communication results in conflict, chaos, misunderstanding and lack of confidence in school administration. Factors such as individual communication skills promoted effective communication whereas barriers to interpersonal communication hindered effective communication. This study recommends that the school administration should initiate dialogue when dealing with students to discuss discipline matters, rules and regulations. Regular meetings and morning assemblies should be used as main channels of communication. Schools should avoid ineffective channels of communication which result in conflict, chaos, misunderstanding and lack of confidence in school administration. Guidance and counselling were seen to be effective ways of communication to overcome barriers of communication.
Article
Contenido: Parte I.Cuestiones conceptuales en la investigación cualitativa: Naturaleza de la investigación cualitativa; Temas estratégicos en la investigación cualitativa; Diversidad en la investigación cualitativa: orientaciones teóricas; Aplicaciones cualitativas particulares. Parte II. Diseños cualitativos y recolección de datos: Estudios de diseños cualitativos; Estrategias de trabajo de campo y métodos de observación; Entrevistas cualitativas. Parte III. Análisis, interpretación e informe: Análisis cualitativo e interpretación; Incrementar la calidad y la credibilidad del análisis cualitativo.
Article
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