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Structural equation modeling with LISREL, PRELIS, and SIMPLIS: Basic concepts, applications, and programming

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... Although I have now written five of these introductory books on the application of SEM pertinent to particular programs (Byrne, 1989(Byrne, , 1994c(Byrne, , 1998(Byrne, , 2001(Byrne, , 2006, I must say that each provides its own unique learning experience. Without question, such a project demands seemingly endless time and is certainly not without its frustrations. ...
... Typically, either maximum likelihood (ML) or normal theory generalized least squares (GLS) estimation is used; both demand that the data be continuous and multivariate normal. This chapter focuses on the issue of multivariate nonnormality; readers interested in the issue of noncontinuous variables are referred to Bollen (1989a); Byrne (1998) ;Coenders, Satorra, and Saris (1997); and West, Finch, and Curran (1995). ...
... The third procedure for imputing values may be termed patternmatching imputation. Although application of this approach is less common than the others noted above, it is included here because the SEM statistical package within which it is embedded is so widely used (LISREL 8;Jöreskog & Sörbom, 1996a). 1 With pattern-matching imputation, a missing variable is replaced with an observed score from another case in the data for which the response pattern across all variables is similar (Byrne, 1998). One limitation of this procedure is that, in the event that no matching case is determined, no imputation is performed. ...
Book
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As with the first edition of this book, my overall goal is to provide readers with a nonmathematical introduction to basic concepts associated with structural equation modeling (SEM), and to illustrate basic applications of SEM using the AMOS program. All applications in this volume are based on AMOS 17, the most up-to-date version of the program at the time this book went to press. During the production process, however, I was advised by J. Arbuckle (personal communication, May 2, 2009) that although a testing of Beta Version 18 had been initiated, the only changes to the program involved (a) the appearance of path diagrams, which are now in color by default, and (b) the rearrangement of a few dialog boxes. The text and statistical operations remain unchanged. Although it is inevitable that newer versions of the program will emerge at some later date, the basic principles covered in this second edition of the book remain fully intact.
... normed χ 2 = 1.882, TLI = 0.970, IFI = 0.978, CFI = 0.978, and RM-SEA = 0.067) were comprised with the adequate level (Byrne, 1998(Byrne, , 2013. All the (standardized) factor loadings were greater than 0.800. ...
... df = 26, p < .001, normed χ 2 = 3.83, CFI = 0.958, IFI = 0.958, TLI = 0.941, and RMSEA = 0.106) were comprised with acceptable level (Byrne, 1998(Byrne, , 2013. Specifically, the values of CFI, IFI, and TLI exceeded the suggested threshold (Byrne, 1998), but the RMSEA value was higher than the threshold (Byrne, 2013). ...
... normed χ 2 = 3.83, CFI = 0.958, IFI = 0.958, TLI = 0.941, and RMSEA = 0.106) were comprised with acceptable level (Byrne, 1998(Byrne, , 2013. Specifically, the values of CFI, IFI, and TLI exceeded the suggested threshold (Byrne, 1998), but the RMSEA value was higher than the threshold (Byrne, 2013). All the (standardized) factor loadings were greater than 0.800. ...
Article
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Previous studies have reported insignificant, weak, or small-sized effects of perceptions of tourism-related risks and crises on tourist behavioral outcomes. In this article, we delicately posited perceived risk as a necessary-but-not-sufficient cause for the intention to travel. Without low perceived risk, there is no high travel intention. However, high perceived risk does not guarantee high travel intention. To test both average and necessity effects, we utilized SEM and necessary condition analysis (NCA), respectively. From the two separate studies in the context of North Korea tourism, we demonstrated that perceived risks have a necessity effect on travel intention whereas their average effects are either insignificant or small-sized. This article suggests repositioning the role of perceived risk as a “necessary condition” for travel decision-making and introduces a new methodology, NCA, that helps to build parsimonious theories in the tourism field.
... The method of chi-square statistic tests the hypothesis that the model is compatible with the covariance structure of the observed variables (Özdamar, 2002). In this study, the chi-square/degree of freedom value was below 5. Based on this, the third model was suitable for the observed structure (Byrne, 1998). After exploratory factor analysis, a 3-factor structure was determined. ...
... Based on Table 6, models were described as follows: Model A: free factor correlations, factor loadings, and error variances; Model B: free factor correlations and error variances, fixed factor loadings; Model C: fixed factor correlations and factor loadings, free error variants; Model D: fixed factor correlations, factor loadings, and error variances. Measurement invariance between the groups was determined by comparing formal and more limited models and examining the difference values of ∆CFI compliance coefficients (Byrne, 1998;Hooper et al., 2008). Since formal invariance was provided here, it was found that the measured structures were the same between the groups, and they answered the scale items from the same perspective. ...
Article
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Early childhood is the most crucial period of learning gender-related behaviors. Parents, educators, and environmental conditions have a considerable impact on children during this period. This study aims to examine parents' behaviors in the process of their children's gender socialization in terms of demographic variables. The study was conducted within the quantitative method and employed a survey pattern with 302 parents (223 mothers, 79 fathers) with children ages 0-8. Every participant in the sample was assumed to have completed the measurement tool appropriately. The study was limited to 3 months in the Famagusta and Nicosia districts. As a part of the study, Blakemore and Hill's Child Gender Socialization Scale was translated and adapted into Turkish and used as the data collection tool. The adaptation was achieved through four stages with the permission of the scale's owners. With the scale, a demographic information form prepared by researchers supplemented the data analysis. The Mann-Whitney U test, Kruskal-Wallis test, and Wilcoxon signed-rank test were used to determine the changes according to independent variables in the main test scores. The findings of this study suggested that parents' behaviors toward gender socialization changed regarding their education status, age, and gender of children. Parents with higher education, 3-57 month-old children, and ones with a daughter tended to use gender socialization behaviors much more than any other group. With a mixed-method approach, gender socialization behaviors should be investigated in different educational contexts. Also, teachers' skills and their support for parents in gender socialization behaviors may be subjected to future research.
... Consequently, Item 20 (Optimism), i.e. "If something can go wrong for me work-wise, it will" was having a poor factor loading of 0.218; therefore, it was removed as well. As it is evident from Table 1 the fit indices were found to be in the acceptable category (Byrne, 1998;MacCallum et al., 1996). Moreover, the Chi-square difference between model 1 and model 2 was 276.27 (p < 0.01), between model 2 and model 3 was 113.36 (p < 0.01), and finally between models 3 and 4 was found to be 85.12 (p < 0.01). ...
... As can be seen in Table 3, all the model fit indices were in the acceptable range, as prescribed by the researchers (Byrne, 1998;MacCallum et al., 1996). Table 4 further reveals that all the items have loaded more strongly on the second-order construct of PsyCap as compared to the first-order dimensions of self-efficacy, hope, resilience, and optimism. ...
Article
The present research aims to (i) assess the suitability of psychological capital (PsyCap) in a non-Western world, i.e. Indian context, and (ii) to expand the PsyCap domain by testing suitability of flow as the next construct of PsyCap. Two independent quantitative studies were conducted to meet the above-stated aims. There were 906 and 302 participants in Studies 1 and 2, respectively. Standardized scales were used in both studies. Confirmatory factor analysis, confirmatory bifactor analysis, correlation, and hierarchical regression analysis were used. Study 1 results showed that PCQ-24 is valid in the Indian context only after the deletion of three negative items. PsyCap has been established as a second-order construct. PsyCap and flow were found to be closely associated with each other in Study 2. They were related to CWB as well. Flow predicted CWB over and above PsyCap. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to empirically establish that PsyCap is valid in India on a relatively larger sample, and it is indeed a second-order construct. Theoretical and empirical evidence was provided to support flow as the new PsyCap construct.
... The measurement model analysis was set to understand the interrelationships (Netemeyer et al., 2003). The 32 measurement items were modeled and confirmatory factor analytics (CFA) was administered employing the maximum likelihood assessment to ascertain the model fit (Byrne, 2013). The results shown a decent model fit for the measurement model: CMIN/DF = 2.617; CFI = 0.918; IFI = 0.919; TLI = 0.904; RMSEA = 0.066 (see Table 2 for average variance extracted (AVE) and composite reliability (CR) values). ...
... The model fit was determined through fit indices. The CMIN/DF = 2.638; CFI = 0.915; IFI = 0.915; TLI = 0.903; RMSEA = 0.067, values shown a good fit for structural model (Byrne, 2013). The relationships between the constructs were ascertained by utilizing the standardized β-values, t-values, and the conforming significance level (see Table 4). ...
... y el CFI y TLI mayores que .90 (Byrne, 1998;Yang-Wallentin et al., 2010;Brown, 2015). En el modelo de mediación propuesto, ya en el análisis de mediación, se considera la presencia de una mediación total cuando el efecto directo (c') y p > 0.05 es menor al efecto total (c); mientras que cuando es p < 0.5, la mediación es parcial. ...
... Sobre los resultados de esta sección hay que señalar que no existen estudios previos con que se puedan contrastar estos hallazgos por lo que se deben tomar con cautela. Sin embargo, el análisis de ajuste de la propuesta a través de SEM señala que el modelo en mención (ver Figura 1) goza de un ajuste adecuado a nivel factorial (Byrne, 1998;Yang-Wallentin et al., 2010;Brown, 2015), lo cual hace de este estudio pionero en el análisis de interacción de terceras variables en análisis causales y revela el efecto que puede provocar la IE aun cuando no es directa con la AA. Además, cabe señalar que, debido a la situación de pandemia, es probable que los resultados encontrados puedan diferir debido a que las condiciones actuales de enseñanza no son las habituales y los efectos psicológicos (Caycho-Rodríguez et al., 2021) pueden ser distintos. ...
... Bilginin ise beceriye ve son adımda işlevsel yeterliliğe dönüşmesi, aslında bilginin kendi katmanları arasında gözlemlenebilir bir beceriye dönüşmesi olarak tanımlanabilir. Teorik eğitim ile algılanan bildirimsel ve prosedürel bilgi, örtük bilgiye dönüştüğünde işlevsel yeterlilik süreci tamamlanmış olur (Cheetham ve Chivers, 1996, 1998. Bilginin uygulama ile somutlaşması sonucu beceri tutuma dönüşür ve kişi davranış geliştirir. ...
... büyük olduğunda (Hu & Bentler, 1999) ve IFI .90'dan büyük olduğunda (Byrne, 1998) modelin uyumu kabul edilebilir olarak değerlendirilmektedir. ...
Conference Paper
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Rehberlik ve Araştırma Merkezi Yöneticilerinin Kullandıkları Güç Kaynağı
... The "Comparative Fit Index (CFI)" verifies the fitness of the model through evaluating the difference between the hypothesized model and the construct data. When the values of CFI and NFI are exceeding 0.90, it means that the model is well in fit [204]. ...
... After analysing multiple sub-models and testing the proposed hypothesized model, there is need of Re-specification in the model. Byrne [204] suggested that researcher can re-specify and re-estimate the existing model in case of insignificant with the overall fit. He also instructed to neglect the paths not included in the original proposed model and construct re-specified model on prevailing theoretical considerations. ...
Thesis
Arab patients have reported an increasing number in Indian hospitals, highlighting the importance of Arab patients to the Indian medical tourism sector and the Indian economic development as well. However, there are a very limited number of studies concerning the perceptions of Arab patients, as reflected by the existing research gap in literature. Hence, this study has made an attempt to fill up this gap. The current study aims to examine Arab patients’ perceptions of Service Quality Dimensions, Hospital Charges, Patient’s Choice of Hospital and Patient’s Satisfaction in Indian private hospitals, as one of the best medical tourism destinations in the world. In order to do that, an extensive literature review relevant to the healthcare services has been made. It has been found that these are four key variables, as concepts relevant to the improvement of the performance and competitive advantage of hospitals. Thus, these four variables were combined into the proposed conceptual framework of this study. To examine the relations among these variables, the research questions and hypotheses were framed and tested. The demographic variables of Arab patients have been statistically analyzed to identify the difference among these variables with respect to the hypothetical variables. A suitable methodology, including research design, proper statistical techniques such as ANOVA, t-Test, and SEM analysis (the software package SPSS version 20 and AMOS version 20) were employed to analyze the collected data and examine the research hypotheses. The measurement and structural of the proposed model were well validated. Hospital Charges were the mediating variable in the proposed model and it was found that Hospital Charges influenced Patient’s Satisfaction only. The role played by Service Quality Dimensions seems to hold much greater importance in comparison to Hospital Charges in terms of influencing Patient’s Choice of Hospitals and Patient’s Satisfaction.
... The goodness-of-fit metrics that were used for the evaluation were the following: CMIN/degrees of freedom (χ2/df), goodness of fit index (GFI), adjusted goodness-of-fit index (AGFI), normed fit index (NFI), Tucker-Lewis index (TLI), comparative fit index (CFI), and the root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA) (Kline, 2005;Hooper et al., 2008;Hu & Bentler, 1999;Byrne, 1998) (Table 4). The results in Table 4 show that the modified measurement assessment indices satisfied the minimum requirements for model fit, thereby demonstrating overall model fit (Hu & Bentler, 1999;Kline, 2005;Reisinger & Mavondo, 2007). ...
Book
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We are very happy to publish this issue of the International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research. The International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research is a peer-reviewed open-access journal committed to publishing high-quality articles in the field of education. Submissions may include full-length articles, case studies and innovative solutions to problems faced by students, educators and directors of educational organisations. To learn more about this journal, please visit the website http://www.ijlter.org. We are grateful to the editor-in-chief, members of the Editorial Board and the reviewers for accepting only high quality articles in this issue. We seize this opportunity to thank them for their great collaboration. The Editorial Board is composed of renowned people from across the world. Each paper is reviewed by at least two blind reviewers. We will endeavour to ensure the reputation and quality of this journal with this issue.
... This p-value indicated that this model is a good fit model. The root mean-square of approximation (RMSEA) is a statistic that shows how well a model with unknown however well-chosen parameter estimates matches the populations' covariance matrix25 . In recent years, RMSEA has established itself as one of the most useful fitness metrics26 . ...
Article
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Despite volunteers being essential to the success of the Olympic Games, research on Olympic volunteers’ perceptions of Olympic values remains negligible. This study was aimed to investigate this phenomenon with the Tokyo 2020 Olympic Games volunteers. The researchers conducted a questionnaire survey related Olympic value perceptions and endorsement of Japan hosting the Tokyo 2020 Olympic games on 538 volunteers during the Games. The results identified that the value dimension of friendship had a significant influence on females’ endorsement of Japan hosting the Tokyo 2020 Olympic Games, and the value dimension of excellence reduced both females’ and males’ favorable endorsement. The findings and recommendations have ramifications for the future organizing committees of Olympic and Paralympic Games in terms of games delivery and Olympic volunteer legacy.
... The aim of SEM analysis was to find out whether these predetermined relationship patterns were confirmed by the data (Şimşek, 2007). SEM studies are often utilized to probe highly specific hypotheses (Byrne, 1998). To test the model and its hypotheses empirically we constructed, and specifically, used the characteristics and outputs (e.g., goodness of fit) of covariance-based SEM (CB-SEM) as the CB-SEM is appropriate for research aims to confirm (or reject) a constructed model and its underlying hypotheses (Hair et al., 2021;Matthews et al., 2017). ...
Article
A bulk of research has shown strong relationships between metacognition, creative thinking, autonomy support, and self‐efficacy among teachers. However, we could not find research with a large sample of teachers exploring the mediating effects of creative thinking and metacognition on the relationship between autonomy support and self‐efficacy. A need for a novel structural equation model (Covariance‐based) underlying psychological rationality of said relationships was deemed actual. To that end, firstly the effects of teachers' autonomy support (opportunity and decision‐making) on teachers' creative thinking, metacognition, and self‐efficacy were tested. Then, the mediating effects of metacognition and creative thinking on the relationship between teachers' autonomy support and teachers' self‐efficacy were explored. A simple random‐sampling method was utilized to gather 787 teachers' data. The results revealed that decision‐making and autonomy opportunity predicted creative thinking, metacognition, and self‐efficacy positively and meaningfully. Subsequently, creative thinking as well as metacognition had mediating effects on the effects of autonomy opportunity and decision‐making on self‐efficacy. In closing, for boosting teachers' skills in autonomy support and self‐efficacy, attention should be given to fostering their creative thinking as well as metacognition. The study provides implications and suggestions for research on school psychology and improvement. • Teachers' autonomy support positively predicted metacognition, creative thinking, and self‐efficacy while self‐efficacy was positively predicted by metacognition and creative thinking. • The data supported that creative thinking, as well as metacognition, played a mediating role in the relationship between teachers' autonomy support, and self‐efficacy. • For boosting teachers' skills in autonomy and self‐efficacy, attention should be given to fostering their creative thinking as well as metacognition. Teachers' autonomy support positively predicted metacognition, creative thinking, and self‐efficacy while self‐efficacy was positively predicted by metacognition and creative thinking. The data supported that creative thinking, as well as metacognition, played a mediating role in the relationship between teachers' autonomy support, and self‐efficacy. For boosting teachers' skills in autonomy and self‐efficacy, attention should be given to fostering their creative thinking as well as metacognition.
... Values range from zero to 1.0 with well-fitting models obtaining values less than .05 (Byrne, 1998), however values as high as 0.08 are deemed acceptable (Hu & Bentler, 1999). ...
Article
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In Uganda and other countries, many academic research projects are carried out in various disciplines e.g., health, social, behavioral sciences, etc., especially for an academic award. Data gathering to measure the attributes of the study is sometimes carried out by applying instruments with incomplete scale development although a large amount of technical literature on scale theory and development exists. Experts in psychometrics advise researchers to use existing and validated instruments suited for an attribute or construct for measurement in one’s research project to obtain reliable and valid data or undertake the comprehensive and scientifically rigorous process of developing an instrument to use for one’s research project. This observational and documentary study has addressed the knowledge and practical gaps in scale development while carrying out scientific inquiry informed by the fundamental concepts in psychometrics theory which is often not a part of graduate training in Uganda’s institutions of higher learning.
... The standardized root mean square residual (SRMR) is the only indicator available to assess the relevance of the PLS path model (Hu and Bentler, 1998). The standard value of SRMR is <0.05 (Byrne, 1998) or 0.06, or a little higher (Henseler et al., 2014), while the hypothetical model in this study has an SRMR = 0.049, meeting the criteria. ...
Article
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The purpose of this study was 2-fold: to validate the Private Kindergarten Teachers' Intention of Remaining (PKTIR) Questionnaire and the Factors of Teachers' Intention of Remaining (FTIR) Questionnaire, and to comparative study to explore the effects of organizational and individual psychological factors in China. A total of 22 experts were recruited to modify and validate both questionnaires. The results showed that both questionnaires had instruments that are reliable and valid. Then, a total of 582 kindergarten teachers were recruited to explore the comparison between the effects of organizational and individual psychological factors. The results from the structural equation model suggested that the influence of individual psychological factors on kindergarten teachers' intention of remaining was greater compared to the organizational factors. Second, among all the factors, the most explanatory are work connections, sense of work gained from it, satisfaction with the salary, and work discard. To our knowledge, this is the first comparative study to explore the effects of organizational and individual psychological factors in China.
... For the unidimensionality, a measure must have a CFI at 0.90 or higher (Byrne, 2013;Isaac et al., 2006) or a CFI value at 0.95 or higher (Hu & Bentler, 1999). Gaskin and Lim (2016) recommend a combination of CFI greater than 0.95 and an SRMR value less than 0.06 to establish unidimensionality. ...
Article
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Despite the investments made by mining companies and other regulatory bodies in improving workplace safety in the mines, the mine site continues to record undesirable safety outcomes, making it imperative to explore systems that could deal directly or indirectly with transforming employee behaviour. As a result, this study examined how a high-performance work system (HPWS) could impact mineworkers’ safety performance through the mediating role of workforce agility. The study also examined the moderating capacity of safety locus of control (SLOC) on the impact of workforce agility on safety performance. Using 597 valid responses through self-reported questionnaires and analysing the data quantitatively, we found that HPWS significantly influenced the safety performance components- safety compliance and participation- and the workforce agility dimensions- proactivity, adaptability, and resilience. The results also showed that proactivity, adaptability, and resilience significantly influenced safety compliance and participation. Results from the mediation analysis revealed a partial mediation effect of proactivity, adaptability, and resilience in the relationship between HPWS and the two components of safety performance. From the moderation analysis, SLOC had no significant moderating effect on proactivity and the safety performance components. Also, the results showed that SLOC could not moderate the relationship between adaptability and safety compliance but had a significant moderating effect on adaptability and safety participation relationships. Moreover, SLOC significantly moderated the relationships between resilience and all two dimensions of safety performance. This current study is relevant as it espouses the mechanisms through which HPWS, workforce agility, SLOC, and safety performance relate in one model.
... The Tucker-Lewis Index (TLI, > 0.90), comparative fit index (CFI, > 0.90), Akaike Information Criterion (AIC), Bayesian Information Criterion (BIC), root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA, < 0.06) (90% C.I.), and standardized root mean square residual (SRMR, < 0.08) were calculated to analyze data-model fit of CFA (Byrne, 2013;Hu & Bentler, 1999). Comparison of the first-order and second-order models was performed using a target coefficient (Marsh et al., 1985). ...
Article
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The Smartphone Addiction Scale (SAS) is one of commonly used measurement tools to assess smartphone addiction. However, studies concerning the psychometric properties, invariance, and network structure of the SAS as well as profiles of smartphone addiction are rare in China. Therefore, the psychometric properties of the SAS, its invariance and network structure, and a latent profile analysis were investigated among Chinese university students in the present study. A sample of 2531 participants from Chinese universities (1003 males [39.6%], mean age = 20.4 years [SD = 1.3 years]) completed the Smart-phone Addiction Scale (SAS), the Internet Addiction Diagnostic Questionnaire (IADQ), and the Problematic Cellular Phone Use Questionnaire (PCPU-Q). A total of 17 items were selected from the original SAS using item analysis and exploratory factor analysis. Psy-chometric properties and measurement invariance showed good validity and reliability for the revised Chinese Smartphone Addiction Scale (SAS-RC). In item-level and facet-level networks, "withdrawal" and "daily-life disturbance" had the stronger edge intensity. There were no significant differences in either network structure or global strength between males and females through the item-level and facet-level network comparison tests (NCTs). Three profiles of smartphone use (normal smartphone use, high-risk smartphone use, and smart-phone addiction) were identified among Chinese university students. The SAS-RC demonstrates good psychometric properties and invariance and is suitable to use among Chinese university students. "Withdrawal" (i.e., psychological dependence) and "daily-life distur-bance" appear to play contributory roles as core symptom of smartphone addiction. The three profiles also provide new insight into smartphone use and addiction among Chinese university students.
... show good fit (Hu & Bentler, 1999); RMSEA and SRMR values smaller than .08 are acceptable, while values smaller than .05 indicate a good fit (Byrne, 1998). Supporting the unidimensionality of LIE, the data fit the one-factor model well, χ 2 (14) = 18.98, ns; CFI = .99; ...
Article
Numerous organizational scandals have implicated leaders in encouraging employees to advance organizational objectives through unethical means. However, leadership research has not examined leaders' encouragement of unethical behaviors. We define leader immorality encouragement (LIE) as an employee's perception that their leader encourages unethical behaviors on behalf of the organization. Across four studies, we found, as hypothesized, that (1) LIE promotes employees' unethical behavior carried out with the intention to aid the organization (unethical pro-organizational behavior); (2) this relationship is mediated by employees' moral disengagement and the expectation of rewards; (3) LIE, via moral disengagement , enhances employees' self-serving unethical behavior; and (4) the relationship between LIE and unethical behavior is stronger when the leader has a higher quality exchange relationship with the employee and is perceived by the employee as having higher organizational status. Our set of findings contributes to an understanding of
... Both the CR and Cronbach's alpha values for the instruments were acceptable (ranging from 0.67 to 0.93 for CR and 0.74 to 0.96 for Cronbach's alpha). We followed the test for invariance across groups recommended by Byrne (1998). First, we ran the CFA for two groups simultaneously and allowed all parameters to be free. ...
Article
This research investigates brand engagement in self-concept (BESC) and its manifestation on how customers gather, give, and exchange information about a set of brands integral to their self-concept. Despite the importance of word-of-mouth, research has yet to adequately address how customers communicate and exchange their advocacy for these brands across the target actors in their communication ecosystem and modality. We draw on the social network paradigm and social risk and self-enhancement theories and propose a conceptual model tested by data from 471 respondents. Our results suggest that customers are more likely to express the brands related to their self-schema through word-of-mouth equally to both close and distant groups. Specifically, we find that the impact of BESC on close group word-of-mouth is stronger in offline modes, while the effect of BESC on distant group word-of-mouth is stronger in online modes. Strategic marketing implications for offline and online word-of-mouth communication are discussed.
... This multivariate statistical procedure aims to determine how well the survey items measure the climate constructs. This procedure is appropriate to use when researchers hold prior knowledge of the underlying latent structure of an instrument (Benson, 1998;Byrne, 1998;Hoyle & Panter, 1993). CFA was appropriate as it was preceded by exploratory factor analysis (EFA), which yielded the same factor structure across two consecutive years (2006 and 2007) and CFA for teachers, students, and parents (Monrad et al., 2008) with additional independent samples (survey data collected in 2008, 2009, and 2010). ...
Book
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Structural equation modeling (SEM) is a general, cross-sectional statistical modeling technique. The chapters in this book propose a Bayesian approach based on SEM; an examination of predictors and outcomes related to school climate using latent class analysis and the testing of specific effects and contrasts in three types of mediation models followed by a discussion on the common types of mediation models and their different types of effects.
... Finally, CFI is an approximate t index that assesses model t while controlling for sample size and model size (Fan et al., 1999). Here, CFI values greater than 0.95 were used to indicate an acceptable t (Byrne, 2013;MacCallum et al., 1996). ...
... The root mean square error (RMSEA) has been suggested to show an acceptable fit below 0.08 (31), or more conservatively below 0.06 (30). The standardized root mean residual (SRMR), indicates good fit if values are below 0.08 (30), or below 0.05 if using more conservative thresholds (32,33). The expected cross-validation index (ECVI), becomes useful when comparing nested models, where better fit is indicated with lower values (34). ...
Article
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Background Proxy ratings of young children’s curiosity has the potential to be useful for research in Sweden. One such proxy rating is the parent-rating Interest/Deprivation Young Children scale. This scale has previously only been validated in Dutch samples, where it differentiated curiosity dimensions of interest (joyful exploration) and deprivation (reduction of aversive feelings of not knowing). Objective The objective of this study was to investigate internal and construct validity of the Swedish version of the Interest/Deprivation Young Children scale. Method A translation of the Interest/Deprivation Young Children scale was conducted and then administered to 266 parents in Sweden, who rated their children (4-6-years old) on 10 items, with 5 items each for subscales of interest and deprivation dimensions of epistemic curiosity. Responses were analyzed using confirmatory factor analysis. Results Results indicate acceptable internal reliability for deprivation-curiosity items (α = 0.78) and for interest-curiosity items (α = 0.79). For the combined scale score alpha was found good (α = 0.84). However, confirmatory factor analysis failed to differentiate interest and deprivation dimensions of curiosity. Conclusions Item revisions are suggested which could be implemented for further investigations. Also, the possibility of using the I/D-YC total score as a more general measure of child curiosity is argued for. An open question is how other dimensions of curiosity might be more viable for proxy ratings of child curiosity.
... RMSEA values lower than 0.05 indicate close fit, values between 0.05 and 0.08 indicate acceptable fit, values between 0.08 and 0.10 indicate mediocre fit, and values greater than 0.10 indicate poor fit [39]. SRMR values range from 0 to 1.0, with well-fitting models obtaining values smaller than 0.05 [40]; however, values as high as 0.08 are deemed acceptable [41]. Next, the models were compared using both a qualitative evaluation of the fit indices and the ∆CFI criterion. ...
Article
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Studies pertaining to muscle dysmorphia (MD) have concentrated the most on males. However, a new body ideal for women is emerging: a very toned, athletic body with flat, smooth muscles. The emphasis on the level of muscularity represents a contribution to the growth of MD symptoms in women. The aim of this study was to evaluate the factorial structure and psychometric properties of the muscle dysmorphic disorder inventory (MDDI) in two samples of physically active Italian women. One-hundred and sixty-five women practicing non-competing bodybuilding/powerlifting and 353 women practicing physical exercise completed the MDDI and measures of features associated with MD. Findings of the confirmatory factor analysis showed a three-factor structure with acceptable fit and invariant across groups. Omega coefficients revealed adequate internal consistency for all the scales and for the total score of the MDDI. Furthermore, convergent and divergent validity as well as retest reliability emerged to be good. MDDI represents a reliable measure of MD symptoms in physically active Italian women.
... RMSEA = 0.054, 90% CI [0.050, 0.058]; SRMR = 0.044. Nevertheless, support for the assumption of metric invariance suggests that the U.S and Chinese respondents did not have different interpretations of the survey items(Byrne, 1998). To test the general applicability of the model, we analyzed the pooled sample. ...
Article
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This study examines how online vaccine information seeking is related to vaccination intention in the United States and China during the initial stage of their coronavirus disease 2019 vaccination programs. Analysis of the pooled sample showed a positive relationship between online vaccine information seeking and vaccination intention. There was also a negative indirect effect via perceived information overload, vaccine risk perception, and negative affective response. Multigroup analysis revealed differences between the United States and China. This study highlights the bright and dark sides of online health information during a global pandemic and has practical implications for communication campaigns to promote health-related behaviors.
... It can be clearly seen based on the fit index of Table 2 that the second-order confirmatory factor model of the scale matches the scale's data very well. χ 2 /df < 3, RMSEA < 0.08, IFI > 0.9, TLI > 0.9, CFI > 0.9, indicating that the scale has good validity (Byrne, 2013). ...
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... Brown (201 5) suggested using statistically significant z score at p < 0.05 which correspond to an absolute critical value of 1.96 rounded up to 2.00. Byrne (2014) suggested a larger cutoff value of 2.58 based on the alpha level of P < 0.01. The rationale is sample size (n) influences the size of standardized residuals and larger N contributes to larger standardized residuals. ...
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... SRMR provides the approximate model fit criteria (Henseler et al., 2016). A value of 0 for the SRMR would indicate a perfect fit and, generally, an SRMR value less than 0.05 indicates an acceptable fit (Byrne, 2013). From the above tables it can be concluded that, since the SRMR values for the saturated and estimated model are 0.0383 and 0.0388 respectively, the model has an acceptable fit. ...
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... Once the number of factors (and items) was established, a follow-up EFA was performed on the retaining items to obtain the maximum likelihood estimated from the factor loadings and several goodness-of-fit indices were extracted. Indices for good/close fit were set to at least 0.9 for the Tucker Lewis Index (TLI) of factoring reliability [54,55], and less than 0.05 for the Root Mean Square Error of Approximation (RMSEA) and Standardized Root Mean Squared Residual (SRMR; [55,56]). RMSEA values between 0.05 and 0.08 were considered to be 'acceptable' [55,57]. ...
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In this research, it was mainly aimed to develop an acceptance model for processes, namely the process acceptance model (PAM). For this purpose, a questionnaire, comprising 3-part and 81-question, was developed to collect quantitative and qualitative data from people having relationships with certain process-focused models and/or standards (CMMI, ISO 15504, ISO 9001, ISO 27001, AQAP-160, AQAP-2110, and/or AS 9100). To revise and refine the questionnaire, expert reviews were ensured, and a pilot study was conducted with 60 usable responses. After reviews, refinements and piloting, the questionnaire was deployed to collect data and in-total 368 usable responses were collected from the people. Here, collected data were screened concerning incorrectly entered data, missing data, outliers and normality, and reliability and validity of the questionnaire were ensured. Partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS SEM) was applied to develop the PAM. In this context, exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were applied, and the initial model was estimated and evaluated. The initial model was modified as required by PLS SEM, and confirmatory factor analysis was repeated, and the modified final model was estimated and evaluated. Consequently, the PAM, with 18 factors and their statistically significant relationships, was developed. Furthermore, descriptive statistics and t-tests were applied to discover some interesting, meaningful, and important points to be taken into account regarding the acceptance of processes. Moreover, collected quantitative data were analyzed, and three additional factors were discovered regarding the acceptance of processes. Besides, a checklist to test and/or promote the acceptance of processes was established.
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Background: In order to prevent the spread of the Covid-19 virus, a temporary interruption of teaching and educational activities in classrooms occurred. Most schools and faculties were forced to switch from traditional to online teaching. Purpose: This research aims to examine the key factors influencing students' intention to use e-learning, as well as predictors of student satisfaction with online teaching during the Covid-19 pandemic. Study design/methodology/approach: The analysis includes 312 students on the territory of the Republic of Serbia who use e-learning. Reliability analysis, confirmatory factor analysis and structural equations modeling are applied in the paper. Findings/conclusions: It is found that course design significantly affects perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use and quality of e-learning, and perceived usefulness and quality of e-learning are the main drivers of student satisfaction. Then, perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use and satisfaction with online teaching are important predictors of the attitude towards the use of e-learning, and attitude is an important driver of the intention to use e-learning. The results of the research and the implications derived from them can be helpful to educational institutions in creating, introducing and implementing e-learning, as well as increasing student satisfaction with online teaching during the pandemic. Limitations/future research: The limitation of the research stems from the selection of the sample (students). In addition, the research was conducted on the territory of Serbia, so the results cannot be generalized. Third, the possible bias of the respondents in giving answers can lead to wrong conclusions. The recommendation for future research is to examine the attitudes of professors who use e-learning, in addition to students. Another recommendation is to do a segment analysis (by gender, year of study) in order to develop specific strategies for each segment. Another suggestion is to compare students' opinions on e-learning and traditional ways of learning.
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This book presents a basic introduction to structural equation modeling (SEM). Readers will find that we have kept to our tradition of keeping examples rudimentary and easy to follow. The reader is provided with a review of correlation and covariance, followed by multiple regression, path, and factor analyses in order to better understand the building blocks of SEM. The book describes a basic structural equation model followed by the presentation of several different types of structural equation models. Our approach in the text is both conceptual and application oriented. Each chapter covers basic concepts, principles, and practice and then utilizes SEM software to provide meaningful examples. Each chapter also features an outline, key concepts, a summary, numerous examples from a variety of disciplines, tables, and figures, including path diagrams, to assist with conceptual understanding. Chapters with examples follow the conceptual sequence of SEM steps known as model specification, identification, estimation, testing, and modification.
Thesis
Održivi marketing definiran primjenom uravnoteženog pristupa koji uključuje i integrira ekonomske, ekološke i društvene ciljeve istovremeno zadovoljavajući potrebe svih dionika, uvažavajući pri tom potrebe budućih naraštaja, predstavlja fokus istraživanja ovoga doktorskog rada. Kako je utvrđen nedostatak istraživanja koja ispituju održivi marketing u kontekstu visokog obrazovanja, definirani temeljni ciljevi ovoga rada su: istražiti i oblikovati sustavan i sveobuhvatan kritički prikaz postojećih teorijskih spoznaja iz područja održivog marketinga, razviti i testirati konceptualni model za mjerenje povezanosti konstrukta održivi marketing visokog učilišta određen trima dimenzijama: promicanjem i obrazovanjem za održivi razvoj, aktivnostima održivog marketinga te doprinosima implementacije, s uspješnošću poslovanja visokog učilišta sagledanu kroz: kvalitetu usluge i uspješnost postizanja višestrukih ciljeva te testirati postavljene hipoteze rada. Provedeno je primarno kvantitativno empirijsko istraživanje metodom ispitivanja pomoću online upitnika na uzorku od 1.663 studenata te 380 ostalih dionika visokog obrazovanja. Utvrđene su statistički značajne razlike u prosječnim ocjenama čestica mjernog konstrukta održivi marketing između studenata i ostalih dionika visokog obrazovanja. Za promatrane uzorke kreirana su dva strukturna modela, potvrđena je njihova pouzdanost i valjanost te je potvrđena multidimenzionalna struktura konstrukta održivi marketing. Primjenom metode parcijalnih najmanjih kvadrata modeliranja strukturnim jednadžbama (PLS-SEM) evaluirana su oba strukturna modela i testirani su pretpostavljeni odnosi među konstruktima. Rezultati istraživanja potvrđuju pozitivan utjecaj održivog marketinga na uspješnost poslovanja visokog učilišta, sagledanu kroz kvalitetu usluge i uspješnost postizanja višestrukih postavljenih ciljeva. Znanstveni doprinos rada proizlazi iz proširenja znanstvenih spoznaja o primjeni koncepta održivog marketinga i njegove povezanosti s uspješnošću poslovanja u kontekstu visokog obrazovanja te kreiranja novog mjernog instrumenta za procjenu razine implementacije održivog marketinga visokog učilišta.
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Sustainable marketing, which emerged as the third development phase of green marketing, evolved from the economics of sustainable development. It is defined as a simultaneous balanced approach that incorporates and integrates economic, environmental and social goals, while meeting the needs of all stakeholders and respecting the needs of future generations. Such an approach is considered an obligation, rather than an option, and it represents the focus of this doctoral research. In our post-industrial society, highly-educated human resources and knowledge are the most valuable resources and the key prerequisites for the economic development, prosperity and well-being of each individual and of the society as a whole. Therefore, the traditional role of higher education and its institutions has become more important, and this in turn determines great challenges as these institutions are considered the essence of intellectual, cultural, social and technological development of the community (Meštrović, 2017), the fundamental lever and spitirus movens for sustainable development of the society as a whole. Existing research in the field of sustainable marketing is predominantly focused on for-profit sector, while a further extensive and comprehensive literature review identified the lack of research addressing sustainable marketing in the context of public sector, including the higher education sector and public higher education institutions. In order to fill the identified research gap and following the relevant research recommendations, the basic objectives of this dissertation were defined as follows: (1) to investigate and design a systematic and comprehensive critical account of the existing theoretical knowledge in the field of sustainable marketing, (2) to develop and test a conceptual model aimed at measuring the impact of sustainable marketing in higher education, defined by three dimensions: promotion and education for sustainable development, sustainable marketing activities and implementation benefits, on higher education performance, assessed by service quality and success in achieving the multiple objectives of higher education institution, and (3) to test the proposed hypotheses. To achieve the empirical aims of the study, a two-stage approach was adopted. The extensive literature review was followed by exploratory primary research suitable to explore the attitudes and perceptions of key stakeholders on sustainable marketing and its application in higher education institutions using a developed measurement instrument to capture attitudes and perceptions towards manifest forms of sustainable marketing in higher education. The research was conducted using a pre-tested online questionnaire on a purposive sample of experts, where 104 valid and complete responses from selected stakeholders related to higher education were received. A qualitative analysis was conducted using the Hotjar online numerical coding and content analysis application (Hotjar Ltd., 2014-2019) to gain insight into perceptions and understanding of the concept and the meaning of sustainable marketing by higher education stakeholders. The quantitative analysis of the collected data was then applied using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS 23.0) programme to determine dimensionality, validity and reliability of the measurement instrument. Subsequently, the Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) using Principal Components Analysis (PCA) with Varimax rotation was applied to determine the manifest variables of the construct (Mejovšek, 2013), aiming to distinguish its fundamental factors since the factor structure was not already known from previous studies. The multidimensional structure of the proposed measurement instrument of sustainable marketing in higher education (Meštrović et al., 2021) and the unidimensional structure of the developed measurement instrument for the multiple objectives of higher education institutions were determined, to be used in the main study. Following the pilot testing, the main primary quantitative empirical research was conducted as in prior exploratory research, using an anonymous Google Forms online questionnaire between May 10 and May 30, 2019. Using a convenience sample in addition to a snowball sampling to access a wider range and number of higher education stakeholders, a total number of 12.317 respondents approached the questionnaire. Since all survey questions were mandatory, the number of completed questionnaires without missing values reached 2.189, and after the data cleaning, 146 questionnaires were excluded due to the inconsistencies in responses, illogical responses and responses with often extreme or same answers through a series of posed questions. Finally, a total number of 2.043 respondents, consisting of 1.663 (81,40 %) students and 380 (18,60 %) other higher education stakeholders as per the screening question, resulted in a response rate of 16,59 %, which was found to be adequate as similar studies have yielded an average response rate of 15 % (Malhotra & Birks, 2000; Ivy, 2008). The sample was described using descriptive statistical analysis, which was also used to evaluate the constructs’ items’ mean scores and coefficients of kurtosis and skewness. The results of the descriptive statistical analysis demonstrate that respondents in both samples (i.e. students and other stakeholders) rated all dimensions of sustainable marketing in higher education institution (i.e. promotion and education for sustainable development, sustainable marketing activities and implementation benefits) with relatively high average scores. Students evaluated the performance of higher education institution's by evaluating the perceived service quality (𝑥̅ = 4,43) and other higher education stakeholders by rating the perceived success in achieving the multiple objectives of higher education institution (𝑥̅ = 4,86). To explore the research question if there are differences in mean scores between the two observed samples, the Mann-Whitney U-test for independent samples was used to determine the presence of statistically significant differences in the mean scores of the variables of the sustainable marketing in higher education construct. The obtained results show that only 17,65 % or 6 out of the total 34 variables of sustainable marketing in higher education construct are not statistically and significantly different in the mean scores between students and other higher education stakeholders, thus confirming the hypothesis H2 There are statistically significant differences in the mean scores of the sustainable marketing in higher education measurement construct’s items between students and other higher education stakeholders. The Confirmative Factor Analysis (CFA) was conducted as recommended by Hair et al. (2010) to confirm the factor structures of the underlying latent variables proposed by EFA. The three-dimensional structure of the Sustainable Marketing in Higher Education construct was confirmed and yielded satisfactory results (χ² = 23286,275, df = 1048,000, p = 0,000, CFI = 0,902, NFI = 0,801, TLI = 0,830, SRMR = 0,079). The CFA results of the adapted Service Quality instrument did not show a satisfactory fit as a multidimensional construct developed in previous research (Štimac & Leko Šimić, 2012; Barilović et al., 2013; Leko Šimić & Štimac, 2013), but yielded acceptable measures as the unidimensional construct (χ² = 5869,980, df = 90,000, p = 0,000, CFI = 0,917, NFI = 0,916, TLI = 0,862, SRMR = 0,039), as well as the unidimensional construct Achievement of Multiple Objectives of Higher Education Institution (χ² = 1068,611, df = 89,000 p = 0,000, CFI = 0,907, NFI = 0,804, TLI = 0,813, SRMR = 0,061). The obtained CFA results defined the framework for model development. Lastly, two structural models were developed for both observed samples. Partial least squares structural equation modelling (PLS-SEM) was used to evaluate both structural models and to test the proposed relationships between their constructs. The reliability and validity of both models were confirmed, as was hypothesis H1, which states that Sustainable Marketing in Higher Education is the multidimensional higher-order construct. Finally, the research findings confirmed the statistically significant positive impact of sustainable marketing in higher education on the performance of the higher education institution as assessed by service quality and success in achieving the multiple objectives of the higher education institution, thus confirming the hypotheses H3 There is statistically significant direct positive impact of sustainable marketing on higher education institution's performance, perceived as service quality (ß = 0,406, t-value = 22,335, p = 0,000), and H4 There is statistically significant direct positive impact of sustainable marketing on higher education institution's performance, perceived as success in achieving the multiple objectives of the higher education institution (ß = 0,141, t-value = 6,412, p = 0,000). Despite the fact that the proposed measurement model stems from an extensive literature review, any limitations related to the nature of quantitative research, data collection method, measurement instrument design and the respondents' sample should be considered and taken into account in order to draw the appropriate conclusions. It should be noted that the scope and the data quality of the exploratory research aimed to develop measurement instruments are solely determined by the perceptions of experts and leaders of institutions and business entities. Thus, any future research would benefit from a qualitative approach aimed at obtaining a broader range of data and capturing the aspects, components, and factors of sustainable marketing that were not considered in this research. Since the possibility of respondent bias could be eliminated both by a research involving a wider range of higher education stakeholders and the use of relevant objective higher education performance indicators, this consideration should be taken into account in further research, as well as the possibility that the problem should be addressed in a different context, namely through a longitudinal research. Despite the aforementioned limitations, the findings of this research expand the knowledge base and provide a conceptual, empirical and applied contribution to the field of sustainable marketing in the context of the higher education non-profit sector.
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