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Participation in organized sports is promoted as a means of increasing physical activity levels and reducing chronic disease risk in adults. Hard martial arts practice (i.e. using body contact techniques), has gained in popularity over time. This review explores the evidence for health benefits of “hard” martial arts practice within the adult population. A systematic electronic database search was conducted, and quality assessments applied the Effective Public Health Practice Project tool. Twenty-eight studies met the inclusion criteria, examining balance, cognitive function, muscular skeletal status, psychological, cardiovascular fitness, and metabolic effects. The majority of studies reported positive effects resulting from hard martial arts practice, showing some improvement and maintenance of balance, cognitive function and psychological health. Benefits may be obtained regardless of the age of practice commencement. However, quality of the evidence is affected by methodological weaknesses across the studies. “Hard” martial arts seem to have potential to improve balance and cognitive functions that decline with age, which can lead to poorer health outcomes among the elderly (e.g. cognitive decline, falls and fractures). Benefits should be further investigated with improved intervention studies, representative samples and longer follow-up periods in order to establish associations with morbidity and mortality in the long term.
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... Among PA strategies based on unconventional disciplines, the martial arts and combat sports have also shown significant improvements in HRQoL in healthy older people who practise kendo (Mendonça et al., 2017), as well as in people with Parkinson's disease treated with tai-chi (Song et al., 2017) and cancer patients undergoing kyusho jitsu sessions (Strunk et al., 2018). Although martial arts and combat sports have shown health benefits in different population groups (Bu et al., 2010;Origua Rios et al., 2018;Moore et al., 2020), interventions with Olympic combat sports (OCS) are less known, probably for being considered risky activities (Bromley et al., 2018). However, a recent systematic review reported improvements in physical-functional, physiological, and psychoemotional health in older people , but so far, no specific work has been published that synthesises the effects of OCS on HRQoL in middle-aged and older people. ...
... The main result of our review indicates that interventions based on OCS produce beneficial changes and an improvement trend with a small and moderate ES in HRQoL in both male and female, healthy participants, participants with Parkinson's disease, and participants with breast cancer. This result reinforces the scientific literature that has reported a positive impact of martial arts and combat sports on the health status in different population groups (Bu et al., 2010;Origua Rios et al., 2018;Moore et al., 2020;Valdés-Badilla et al., 2021). ...
... This is relevant since PA workshops based on multi-component training and healthy dance in older people implemented by a government institution reported adherence of 54.6% after 16 weeks of participation (Valdés-Badilla et al., 2020). OCS may be PA strategies with high adherence (average >80%), which could transform them into an opportunity to achieve greater outreach and participation in middle-aged and older people, without postponing the benefits for their health (Bu et al., 2010;Origua Rios et al., 2018;Valdés-Badilla et al., 2021). ...
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Olympic combat sports are unconventional physical activity strategies to train middle-aged and older people with and without health problems. This systematic review aimed to assess the available body of published peer-reviewed articles related to the effects of Olympic combat sports interventions (boxing, fencing, judo, karate, taekwondo, wrestling) on health-related quality of life in adults aged 45 and older. The search was carried out in five generic databases until July 2021 and the protocol was registered in PROSPERO (code: CRD42021244161). The PRISMA guidelines were followed and the Downs and Black checklist was used to assessed the methodological quality of the studies. After reviewing 1,151 records, only seven studies met the inclusion criteria, adding 212 participants (43.4% female) with a mean age of 63.7 years. Six studies (two with middle-aged participants and four with older people) provided data to calculate the effect size (ES) in the Olympic combat sports groups (No research that used taekwondo or wrestling as an intervention modality was found). Three studies reported beneficial changes with a small ES for the total score ( d < 0.40) of the health-related quality of life. Two studies reported a beneficial change with a small ES ( d = 0.49) and strong ES ( d = 4.45) for physical health. One study reported improvements with a small ES for emotional ( d = 0.23) and functional ( d = 0.26) well-being. In conclusion, interventions based on Olympic combat sports produce beneficial effects with a small and moderate ES on health-related quality of life in male and female aged 45 and older who are healthy participants, participants with Parkinson's disease, and participants with breast cancer. Systematic Review Registration: https://www.crd.york.ac.uk/prospero/ , PROSPERO: CRD42021244161.
... Such a scenario could provide the opportunity to promote PA that requires a limited number of participants in reduced spaces for its practice, such as Olympic combat sports (OCS). In this context, the OCS (boxing, fencing, judo, karate, taekwondo, and wrestling) are PA strategies that allow the development of sports practice individually or in pairs and confined spaces through low-impact dynamic actions with moderate to vigorous intensities using the upper and lower limbs through attack and defense movements, choreographies or specific forms of the disciplines and that can be practiced without contact [19,20]. Likewise, the OCS includes education about falls and exercises to face them [21] within their basic primary contents and achieve an adherence greater than 80% in older adults who practice OCS [19]. ...
... To the best of our knowledge, no review has attempted to summarize the currently available literature regarding the potential effects of OCS on balance, fall risk, or falls in older adults. Recent systematic reviews have reported improvements in physical-functional, physiological, and psychoemotional health in older adults who participated in interventions with OCS [19] and a better postural balance in adults who practiced hard martial arts such as taekwondo, judo, karate, soo bahkdo, and ving tsun compared with groups that participated in dancing, football, running, walking, swimming and cycling, or did not practice PA [20]. However, their results are not conclusive due to the diversity of data collection instruments reported by the studies [19] or because half of the studies analyzed had a cross-sectional design [20], among other factors. ...
... Recent systematic reviews have reported improvements in physical-functional, physiological, and psychoemotional health in older adults who participated in interventions with OCS [19] and a better postural balance in adults who practiced hard martial arts such as taekwondo, judo, karate, soo bahkdo, and ving tsun compared with groups that participated in dancing, football, running, walking, swimming and cycling, or did not practice PA [20]. However, their results are not conclusive due to the diversity of data collection instruments reported by the studies [19] or because half of the studies analyzed had a cross-sectional design [20], among other factors. In this aspect, a systematic review with meta-analysis would allow the sample size of different studies to be aggregated and can provide not only high-quality evidence but also new insights for practitioners that can help them to make better-informed, evidence-based decisions regarding implementation from OCS [22]. ...
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This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to assess the available body of published peer-reviewed articles related to the effects of Olympic combat sports (OCS), compared with ac-tive/passive controls, on balance, fall risk, or falls in older adults. The TESTEX and GRADE scales assessed the methodological quality and certainty of evidence. The protocol was registered in PROSPERO (code: CRD42020204034). From 1496 records, eight studies were included, involving 322 older adults (64% female; mean age = 71.1 years). The TESTEX scale revealed all studies with a score ≥60% (moderate-high quality). The GRADE scale indicated all studies with at least some concerns, up to a high risk of bias (i.e., was rated very low). Meta-analyses were planned, although the reduced number of studies precluded its incorporation in the final manuscript. Only two from six studies that assessed balance found improvements after OCS compared to controls. No differences were found between OCS vs. control groups for fall risk or falls. The available evidence does not. allow a definitive recommendation for or against OCS interventions as an effective strategy to im-prove balance and reduce the fall risk or falls in older adults. Therefore, more high-quality studies are required to draw definitive conclusions
... If we take into account the increasingly intense pace of life that society adopts, the health problems that emerge are numerous, and stress is one of the leaders on the list (Tapley, 2007;Fuller and Lloyd, 2020). To deal with these problems, there appears to be a growing social consensus that the practice of physical activities, including martial arts, is an extremely pertinent option (Rios et al., 2018). Martial arts are traditionally practised as an alternative to dealing with violence, often as a form of self-defence (McCaughey, 1997;McCaughey, 1998;Hollander, 2004;Matthews and Channon, 2016) or as a way of finding spiritual and bodily harmony and serenity. ...
... We want to point out that a very recurrent and dichotomous view of body and mind exists between martial artists of different modalities (Rios et al., 2018;Ongpoy et al., 2017;Tadesse, 2017;Burt and Butler, 2011). Perhaps we can suppose that in some cases it is a philosophical heritage with a dualistic orientation. ...
... Anyway, I noticed that there was a consensus about the use of this term fitness, that is, everyone considered that seeking fitness is appropriate. In fact, after carrying out a systematic review of the health benefits of adults who practice hard martial arts, Rios et al. (2018) highlighted the reports of positive effects for physical and mental health. Initially I understood that karateka referred only to these aspects when using the term. ...
... Additionally, a systematic review that includes interventions based on kung-fu, wushu, karate, taekwondo, muay-thai, kickboxing, jujitsu, judo, and kenpo, among others, intended for people over 18 years old, reported positive effects-derived from regular martial arts and combat sports practice-on balance, cognitive function, and mental health. However, the authors propose that the quality of the evidence is affected by methodological deficiencies caused-among other factors-by the fact that half of the studies were cross-sectional [20]. Apparently, martial arts and combat sports are PA strategies that meet the requirements of muscle strength, cardiorespiratory capacity, flexibility, agility, and postural balance that older adults need [18][19][20], as the specific activities of martial arts and combat sports involve attack and defense movements where the upper and lower extremities are used, in addition to choreographies or forms (sequences of arms and legs movements that simulate an imaginary combat) that allow performing dynamic low-impact actions at moderate to vigorous intensities [21]. ...
... However, the authors propose that the quality of the evidence is affected by methodological deficiencies caused-among other factors-by the fact that half of the studies were cross-sectional [20]. Apparently, martial arts and combat sports are PA strategies that meet the requirements of muscle strength, cardiorespiratory capacity, flexibility, agility, and postural balance that older adults need [18][19][20], as the specific activities of martial arts and combat sports involve attack and defense movements where the upper and lower extremities are used, in addition to choreographies or forms (sequences of arms and legs movements that simulate an imaginary combat) that allow performing dynamic low-impact actions at moderate to vigorous intensities [21]. Therefore, knowing the possible benefits of combat sports with a competitive orientation-such as Olympic modalities-on older adults' health status from a biomedical perspective through high-quality studies (e.g., randomised-controlled trials) becomes relevant because of their status as dangerous activities [22]. ...
... Karate group (n = 30) They included stances such as forward stances, back stances, and straddle-leg stances to train leg and trunk musculature and balance skills; also included were several arm techniques in standing positions and forward and backward walking (downward-block), lunge punches, reverse punches, and upper blocks to improve arm-leg coordination, and a special karate form. 20 2 60 NR Fitness group (n = 30) ...
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The aim of this systematic review was to analyse the studies centered on the effects of Olympic combat sports (OCS [i.e., boxing, fencing, judo, karate, taekwondo, wrestling]) on older adults' physical-functional, physiological, and psychoemotional health status. The review comprised randomised-controlled trials with OCS interventions, including older adults (>60 years), and measures of physical-functional, physiological, and/or psychoemotional health. The studies were searched through SCOPUS, PubMed/MEDLINE, Web of Science, PsycINFO, and EBSCO da-tabases until January 5, 2021. The PRISMA-P and TESTEX scales were used to assess the quality of the selected studies. The protocol was registered in PROSPERO (code: CRD42020204034). Twelve OCS intervention studies were found (scored ≥60% for methodological quality), comprising 392 females and 343 males (mean age: 69.6 years), participating in boxing, judo, karate, and taekwondo. The qualitative analysis revealed that compared to control, OCS training improved muscle strength, cardiorespiratory capacity, agility, balance, movement, attention, memory, mental health, anxiety, and stress tolerance. Meta-analysis was available only for the chair stand test, and an improvement was noted after OCS training compared to control. In conclusion, OCS interventions improves older adults' physical-functional, physiological, and psychoemotional health. Our systematic review confirms that OCS training has high adherence (greater than 80%) in older adults.
... Thus far, it has been widely proven that training in martial arts improves postural control in patients with neurological disorders [3], the visually impaired [4], and healthy adults alike [5]. Changes in postural control were also observed as a result of long-term combat sports training in judo [6], karate [7], taekwondo [8], or wrestling athletes [9]. ...
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Background: Due to the high postural control demands of sport ju-jitsu, it is likely that long-term sport ju-jitsu training may induce sport-specific adaptations in postural control, especially in positions directly related to combat. The aim of the study was to assess the differences in postural control between elite sport ju-jitsu athletes and untrained controls in non-ecological and ecological conditions and to investigate the relative contribution of spinal and supraspinal mechanisms to postural control in expert athletes. Methods: The study was conducted on eleven male elite ju-jitsu athletes and ten non-athletes. The data was collected with the use of a force plate under two conditions: quiet standing and ju-jitsu combat stance. Apart from the standard analysis of the spatial-temporal parameters of center of foot pressure, non-linear measures were used, namely rambling-trembling and sample entropy. The non-parametric Mann-Whitney U test was used to compare both groups. Results: The main findings of the study showed that in quiet standing, elite ju-jitsu athletes and non-athletes had comparable postural control in both the anterior-posterior and mediolateral planes. In contrast, in the combat stance, elite athletes had lower values of postural sway and rambling component (range and rms) and higher values of sample entropy in comparison to the non-athletes (p < 0.05). No differences were found in the trembling component of sway between groups in the combat stance (p < 0.05). Conclusions: Smaller postural sway and its rambling component in sport ju-jitsu athletes may indicate the more precise control of center of foot pressure and improved ability in estimating its position. The sample entropy results confirmed that the displacement of center of foot pressure for sport ju-jitsu athletes was more irregular, which demonstrates greater automatization in postural control. The results also confirm the importance of ecological validity in investigating postural adaptations associated with sports expertise.
... 1,[25][26][27][28] The other martial arts disciplines are now being incorporated into exercise programs for their health benefits, including increasing the older adults' balance control. 16,17,29,30 However, the information on what, where, and how these martial arts are being used around the world to improve balance in older adults has not yet been comprehensively reviewed. Hence, the objective of this scoping review is to describe the extent, range, and nature of literature on martial arts, aside from Tai chi, to improve both the static and dynamic balance control of older adults. ...
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Introduction: Martial arts, other than Tai chi, are now being integrated into exercise programs to improve the balance control of older adults. This scoping review aims to describe the extent, range, and nature of available literature on martial arts use to improve balance control in older adults. Methods and Analysis: This scoping review will adhere to the steps described in the Arksey and O’Malley framework. Studies on martial arts use, aside from Tai chi, in improving balance in older adults are eligible. Only experimental studies written in English will be included. Literature search on published articles from inception to February 2021 will be conducted in ScienceDirect, PubMed, Scopus, CINAHL, Medline, and ProQuest. Grey literature search will be implemented in Google Scholar, Pro-Quest Dissertations and Theses Open, University of Santo Tomas Library. Hand-searching for additional articles from reference lists of included studies will also be performed. Data on author and year of publication, country, study design, target population, type of martial art, exercise protocol, balance outcome measures used, and main findings will be extracted from the included studies. Ethics and Dissemination: This protocol describes the rigorous process that will be implemented to map the breadth of existing literature on martial arts use in improving the balance control of older adults. Ethical approval is not required because only information from publicly accessible sources will be collected. Review findings will be disseminated through publications and presentations in local and international conferences and shared with relevant agencies and societies. Scoping review registration: This protocol was registered in Open Science Framework (OSF): https://osf.io/vez68.
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The paper deals with martial arts in its musical and sound-aesthetic dimensions as well as in the interaction with digital interfaces that focus on translating ritualized movement sequences of Karate into sounds. The aesthetic practice of Karate is analyzed primarily under three key aspects. First, I take a look at the Sound of Karate and discover music in the martial arts. Second, I am investigating embodiment, which plays a central role in both the playing of instruments and the martial arts. And third, I explore the question to what extent Karate can form a suitable form of collaboration with digital music interfaces because of its embodiment and sound aesthetics. For this purpose, first experimental arrangements based on motion-capturing-devices and controllers have been created. However, this article will not present the detailed functionality of this music-making-thing, but rather the suitability of martial arts as a unique approach to generate and embody electronic music without – it must be said already here, in order not to raise false expectations – reproducing the sounds of classical martial arts films.
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Introduction: Studies point to an increasing rate of population aging in the world, with it, a condition called frailty is becoming increasingly prevalent due, especially to a sedentary lifestyle. With this, investigating the effect of different exercise approaches such as high-intensity interval training (HIIT) and continuous moderate-intensity training (MICT) on patterns associated with frailty is fundamental for an increasingly aging and fragile population. Objective: To evaluate and compare the effectiveness of two EUROPEAN ACADEMIC RESEARCH-Vol. IX, Issue 10 / January 2022 6190 protocols of HIIT and MICT on the quality of walk, respiratory fitness, power of lower limbs, risk of falls of frailty elderly. Methodology: Was selected a group of one-hundred and twelve subjects with a mean age of 64.81 + 2.71 years diagnosed with Alzheimer's Disease. After, they were divided in five groups after the intervention period. Statistical analyses were performed by treating the pre-test to post-test using the Kruskal-Wallis test with DUNN'S Post Test with 5% significance, and. Results: The HIIT-HV was best than all others, the HIIT-LV was best than MICT-HV and MICT-LV, no differences between MICT-HV and MICT-LV were noted. Conclusions: it seems that the HIIT or MICT exercise-based program increases the quality of gait, strength of lower limbs, and decrease the risk of falls and dementia symptoms of frailty elderly, however, only the HIIT approach increases the respiratory fitness, with advantage to high intensity and high volume as expected.
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Background: The testing of athletes in ecological conditions is based on the concept that sport-specific adaptations in postural control are observed mostly in positions or tasks that are related to the practice of a specific movement. Due to the high postural control demands of ju-jitsu, it is likely that long-term ju-jitsu training may influence the process of maintaining a stable posture, especially in positions directly related to combat. The purpose of this study was to examine the postural sway characteristics of elite ju-jitsu athletes in ecological and non-ecological conditions with an approach not previously used in martial arts. Methods: The study was conducted on eleven male elite ju-jitsu athletes and ten non-athletes. The data was collected with the use of a force plate under two conditions: quiet standing and ju-jitsu combat stance. Apart from the standard analysis of the spatial-temporal parameters of COP, sensitive methods in COP data processing were used, namely rambling-trembling and sample entropy. The non-parametric U Mann-Whitney test was used to compare both positions. Results: The main findings of the study showed that in quiet standing, elite ju-jitsu athletes and non-athletes had comparable postural control in both the anterior-posterior and mediolateral planes. In contrast, elite athletes had lower values of postural sway and higher values of sample entropy in comparison to the non-trainees in the combat stance (p<0.05). The rambling-trembling decomposition of the COP data did not exhibit additional differences between groups beyond the standard analysis. Conclusions: Our results confirmed the importance of a sport-specific environment in investigating the subtle differences in the postural regulation of elite athletes. The sample entropy results indicated more irregular characteristics of postural sway in the elite ju-jitsu athletes, representing more automated postural control.
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Las artes marciales brindan múltiples beneficios para quienes las practican regularmente, en especial para la salud física y mental. Sin embargo, la COVID-19 ha limitado el desarrollo de actividades presenciales que congreguen un número considerable de personas, pudiendo ser las tecnologías de información y comunicación (TICs), una alternativa. El presente estudio tuvo por objetivo conocer las TICs utilizadas por instructores de marciales durante la cuarentena por COVID-19 en Panamá. Para ello, se elaboró una encuesta estructurada, dirigida a instructores con tercer dan (Sandan), o su equivalente, en adelante; a través de Formularios de Google. La población objetivo fue un grupo de 60 instructores de artes marciales de Panamá; de los cuales, a un 80% de confianza y 10% de error, se obtuvo una muestra aleatoria representativa de 26 instructores. Se les brindó un periodo de siete días para completar la encuesta. De acuerdo con los resultados, antes de COVID-19, el 26,9% afirmó contar con más de 40 alumnos; pero, luego de establecerse la cuarentena obligatoria, el 53,8% cuenta con 10 alumnos o menos y sólo el 3,8% continúa con más de 40 alumnos. Las principales redes sociales empleadas fueron Whatsapp (100%), seguida por Facebook (73,1%) e Instagram (61,5%). La principal plataforma empleada para clases virtuales fue Zoom con 76,9%, aunque 23,1% de los maestros indicó que no ofrecen clases virtuales. El 53,8% consideró la experiencia con clases virtuales buena, pero el 84,6% señaló como principal limitante la conexión a internet.
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Aim: the purpose of this study was to examine the effect of kickboxing training on physical fitness. Methods: 30 subjects were randomized into a kickboxing- group (n=15) and control group (n=15). Each group trained approximately 1-hour per day, three-times per a week during five weeks. Musclepower (upper-body: bench-press-test, medicineball- test; lower-body: squat-jump and countermovement- jump-test), flexibility, speed and agility, aerobic (progressive maximal exercise test), anaerobic fitness (Wingate test) and body composition were assessed before and after the training period. Results: the kickboxing group showed significant improvement (p < 0.05) in upper-body muscle power, aerobic power, anaerobic fitness, flexibility, speed and agility after training whereas body composition, squat jump and counter movement jump (height, power and velocity components) did not change for both groups. Conclusion: kickboxing-practice was effective to change many physical variables. Thus, this activity can be useful for enhancing physical fitness, but complementary activities and/or nutritional interventions should be necessary
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Objectives: Kung-Fu and Tai Chi along with other martial arts are gaining popularity but studies examining the benefits of martial arts on physical fitness, vascular health, nutrition, and psychological wellness are limited. Aging is associated with declines in these health components. The objectives of this study were to examine whether Tai Chi and Kung-Fu training would maintain physical fitness, vascular health, and psychological wellness components on older versus younger practitioners. Methods: Seventeen subjects were recruited and divided into Young (age <40 years, n=9) and Old (age 40 years and above, n=8). Participants reported twice for health screens, vascular and nutrition assessment, and fitness tests. Mean differences were compared between groups for all tests using Student's t-tests. Results: Age, months of practice, systolic blood pressure, and cardiovascular augmentation index were significantly greater in Old versus Young (p=0.001, p=0.007, p=0.049, and p=0.011, respectively). Psychologically, old practitioners experienced greater sleep interference (p=0.035) and overall pain (p=0.036). No other differences existed for any variable. Conclusion: Our study indicates that the practice of Tai Chi and Kung-Fu maintains physical fitness in older compared to younger practitioners. However, age associated changes in cardiovascular stiffness, systolic blood pressure, and pain were not prevented.
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Although the martial arts industry is rapidly evolving into a mature and highly competitive marketplace, only a few studies have been conducted to understand why people participate in martial arts. The purpose of this study is to examine motivation factors that influence an individual's participation in martial arts to provide leaders of the industry with meaningful managerial implications. The researchers collected data from the 2004 Battle of Columbus Martial Arts World Games IV, one of the most popular martial arts events in the US. The results of a series of MANOVA tests revealed that these martial arts participants (N = 307) are highly motivated by growth-related motivation (e.g. value development and actualisation). In addition, the findings indicate that motivation of martial arts practitioners varies across types of martial arts disciplines, competition orientation and past experiences. Given these results, implications for future research and practice are discussed.
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Cognitive performance includes the processes of attention, memory, processing speed, and executive functioning, which typically declines with aging. Previous research has demonstrated that aerobic and resistance exercise improves cognitive performance immediately following exercise. However, there is limited research examining the effect that a cognitively complex exercise such as martial art training has on these cognitive processes. Our study compared the acute effects of 2 types of martial art training to aerobic exercise on cognitive performance in middle-aged adults. We utilized a repeated measures design with the order of the 3 exercise conditions randomly assigned and counterbalanced. Ten recreational middle-aged martial artists (mean age = 53.5 ± 8.6 years) participated in 3 treatment conditions: A typical martial art class, an atypical martial art class, and a one-hour walk at a self-selected speed. Cognitive performance was assessed by the Stroop Color and Word test. While all 3 exercise conditions improved attention and processing speed, only the 2 martial art conditions improved the highest order of cognitive performance, executive function. The effect of the 2 martial art conditions on executive function was not different. The improvement in executive function may be due to the increased cortical demand required by the more complex, coordinated motor tasks of martial art exercise compared to the more repetitive actions of walking.
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The unprecedented growth in the number of older adults in our society is accompanied by the exponential increase in the number of elderly people who will suffer cognitive decline and dementia in the next decades. This will create an enormous cost for governments, families and individuals. Brain plasticity and its role in brain adaptation to the process of aging is influenced by other changes as a result of co-morbidities, environmental factors, personality traits (psychosocial variables) and genetic and epigenetic factors. This review summarizes recent findings obtained mostly from interventional studies that aim to prevent and/or delay age-related cognitive decline in healthy adults. There are a multitude of such studies. In this paper, we focused our review on physical activity, computerized cognitive training and social enhancement interventions on improving cognition, physical health, independent living and wellbeing of older adults. The methodological limitations of some of these studies, and the need for new multi-domain synergistic interventions, based on current advances in neuroscience and social-brain theories, are discussed. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
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[Purpose] The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of Ving Tsun (VT) Chinese martial art training on radial bone strength, upper- and lower-limb muscular strength, shoulder joint mobility, balance performance, and self-efficacy in elderly participants. [Subjects and Methods] Twelve seniors voluntarily joined the VT training group, and twenty-seven seniors voluntarily joined the control group. The VT group received VT training for three months, while the control group received no training. The bone strength of the distal radius was assessed using an ultrasound bone sonometer. Muscular strength in the limbs was evaluated using a Jamar handgrip dynamometer and the five times sit-to-stand test. Shoulder joint mobility was examined using a goniometer. Balance performance and self-efficacy were evaluated using the Berg Balance Scale and the Chinese version of the Activities-specific Balance Confidence Scale, respectively. [Results] The results revealed a nonsignificant group-by-time interaction effect, group effect, and time effect for all outcome variables. However, general trends of maintenance or improvement in all outcome parameters were observed to a greater extent in the VT group than in the control group. [Conclusion] VT training might be a potential fall-prevention exercise that can be used to maintain general physique, balance, and confidence in the elderly population. A further randomized controlled trial is needed to confirm this postulation.
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Few studies have examined how different proportions of moderate and vigorous physical activity affect health outcomes. To examine whether the proportion of total moderate to vigorous activity (MVPA) that is achieved through vigorous activity is associated with all-cause mortality independently of the total amount of MVPA. We performed a prospective cohort study with activity data linked to all-cause mortality data from February 1, 2006, through June 15, 2014, in 204 542 adults aged 45 through 75 years from the 45 and Up population-based cohort study from New South Wales, Australia (mean [SD] follow-up, 6.52 [1.23] years). Associations between different contributions of vigorous activity to total MVPA and mortality were examined using Cox proportional hazards models, adjusted for total MVPA and sociodemographic and health covariates. Different proportions of total MVPA as vigorous activity. Physical activity was measured with the Active Australia Survey. All-cause mortality during the follow-up period. During 1 444 927 person-years of follow-up, 7435 deaths were registered. Compared with those who reported no MVPA (crude death rate, 8.34%), the adjusted hazard ratios for all-cause mortality were 0.66 (95% CI, 0.61-0.71; crude death rate, 4.81%), 0.53 (95% CI, 0.48-0.57; crude death rate, 3.17%), and 0.46 (95% CI, 0.43-0.49; crude death rate, 2.64%) for reporting 10 through 149, 150 through 299, and 300 min/wk or more of activity, respectively. Among those who reported any MVPA, the proportion of vigorous activity revealed an inverse dose-response relationship with all-cause mortality: compared with those reporting no vigorous activity (crude death rate, 3.84%) the fully adjusted hazard ratio was 0.91 (95% CI, 0.84-0.98; crude death rate, 2.35%) in those who reported some vigorous activity (but <30% of total activity) and 0.87 (95% CI, 0.81-0.93; crude death rate, 2.08%) among those who reported 30% or more of activity as vigorous. These associations were consistent in men and women, across categories of body mass index and volume of MVPA, and in those with and without existing cardiovascular disease or diabetes mellitus. Among people reporting any activity, there was an inverse dose-response relationship between proportion of vigorous activity and mortality. Our findings suggest that vigorous activities should be endorsed in clinical and public health activity guidelines to maximize the population benefits of physical activity.
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The purpose of this study was to determine if a martial arts training technique results in cardiovascular responses similar to walking at approximately 70% of heart-rate intensity on a treadmill. Ten adult subjects (6 males and 4 females; mean age and body weight are 21.8 yr and 68.3 kg) volunteered to participate. Cardiac output (Q) and related measurements were analyzed to determine the effect of a punch-kick technique on the central (heart rate, HR; stroke volume, SV) and peripheral (arteriovenous oxygen difference, a-vO2 diff) components of VO2, using a CO2 rebreathing technique and the Beckman Metabolic Cart, respectively. The results were analyzed using a t-test for dependent measures. There were no significant (p>0.05) differences in VO2, Q, HR, and SV between the two exercise sessions. The results showed that a-vO2 diff was significantly higher during the treadmill exercise, although the slightly higher response has no practical value. These findings indicate that both types of exercise produce similar cardiovascular responses and, therefore, provide some support for martial arts being an effective stimulus for cardiovascular conditioning.
Article
Aim: Aim of the study was to investigate in middle-aged healthy volunteers the feasibility, safety, and subjective experience of ageadapted Taekwondo training of one hour a week during one year. Methods: Single arm intervention study with each participant serving as his or her own control. Study population: 24 healthy volunteers, 40-71 years of age. As a measure of program feasibility, we counted study dropouts and program non-compliers, and registered the reasons for withdrawal. To describe safety we measured and listed all training related injuries. Subjective assessment of training effects by participants was carried out by means of a questionnaire. Results: Five participants withdrew from the training program, but all 24 had baseline and final measurements; three withdrew because of the program content and the complexity of the Taekwondo exercises. We offered 60 sessions and allowed additional training at the trainers' Taekwondo club. The 19 participants who completed the study followed a median of 39 training sessions (range: 25-67). There were five (non-serious) training related injuries, which equals 5.7 per 1000 athlete exposures (AE) (confidence interval: 4-8/1000). Subjective benefits in the 19 study completers were on: physical fitness (9), mental fitness (5), self-confidence (6), and mood (4). Eighteen participants adhered to the program because it was experienced as fun even though two of these reported persistent minor ailments as a consequence of training. Conclusion: Long-term age-adapted Taekwondo training is feasible in middle-aged, healthy persons. It can be safely executed, whereas it is experienced as fun and subjectively judged beneficial by most. Age-adjusted Taekwondo should be listed among the sports from which middle-aged people can choose to increase their physical exercise.