ChapterPDF Available

Pharmacological Aspects of Terminalia belerica



Terminalia belerica Roxb. is member of family combretaceace, growing widely throughout the Indian subcontinent, Bangladesh, Nepal, Sri-Lanka and South East Asia. It is used in several traditional medicines to cure various diseases. Glucoside, tannins, gallic acid, ellagicacid, ethylgalate, gallylglucose, chebulanic acid are mainly believed to be responsible for its wide therapeutic actions. It is known to possess medicinal activities such as analgesic, antioxidant, hepatoprotective, antibacterial, anticancer and immune-modulatory activities. In this chapter information concerning pharmacological attributes of T. belerica has been summarized.
52Mol. Biol. and Pharm. of Beneficial Plants ISBN 978-93-85995-56-9
Pharmacological Aspects..................Terminalia belerica Gupta et al, 2017
Pharmacological Aspects of
Terminalia belerica
Ashutosh Gupta, Ramesh Kumar,
*Shashank Kumar and Abhay K. Pandey
Department of Biochemistry, University of Allahabad, Allahabad-211002, India
*Centre for Biochemistry and Microbial Sciences, Central University of Punjab,
Bathinda-151001, Punjab, India
Terminalia belerica Roxb. is member of family combretaceace, growing widely
throughout the Indian subcontinent, Bangladesh, Nepal, Sri-Lanka and South East
Asia. It is used in several traditional medicines to cure various diseases. Glucoside,
tannins, gallic acid, ellagicacid, ethylgalate, gallylglucose, chebulanic acid are mainly
believed to be responsible for its wide therapeutic actions. It is known to possess
medicinal activities such as analgesic, antioxidant, hepatoprotective, antibacterial,
anticancer and immune-modulatory activities. In this chapter information concerning
pharmacological attributes of T. belerica has been summarized.
Key words: Terminalia belerica, Phytoconstituent, Pharmacology, Traditional system
of medicine.
Plants produce wide range of bioactive compounds and constitute a
rich source of medicines. The ancient Ayurvedic, Unani and Siddha systems
of medicine is based on the healing ability of plants. In different regions of
the world, plant derived medicinal systems remain important in the treatment
of various diseases. Ayurvedic remedy is quite commonly practiced in India
with an estimated 85 % of Indians still using crude plant preparations for the
treatment of a wide variety of diseases and ailments (Kamboj, 2000). Many
of the prescription drugs currently promoted for a wide variety of ailments
Book: Molecular Biology and Pharmacognosy of Beneficial Plants
ISBN: 978-93-85995-56-9
Editors: Prof. Abbas Ali Mahdi, Murtaza Abid,
Dr. M.M. Abid Ali Khan, Dr. M.I. Ansari and
Dr. Raaz K. Maheshwari
Publisher: Lenin Media Private Limited, Delhi, India
©All rights reserved
Year of Publication 2017
53Mol. Biol. and Pharm. of Beneficial Plants ISBN 978-93-85995-56-9
Pharmacological Aspects..................Terminalia belerica Gupta et al, 2017
were originally isolated from plants and/or are semi-synthetic analogues of
plant derived chemicals. It has been estimated that approximately 25 % of all
prescription drugs currently in use are of plant origin (Walsh, 2003; Newman
and Cragg, 2007). Furthermore, approximately 75% of new anticancer drugs
used between 1981 and 2006 were derived from plant compounds (Newman
and Cragg, 2007).
Terminalia belerica Roxb. (Family Combretaceae) is a large deciduous tree
with broadly elliptic leaves clustered at the ends of branches (Meena et al.,
2010). It is wildly distributed throughout the world especially Indian
subcontinent, Srilanka, Pakistan, Nepal and South East Asia. T. belerica is
used in traditional medicine due to the wide spectrum of pharmacological
activities associated with the biologically active secondary metabolites present
in this plant. Variety of phytochemicals are isolated from various parts of
the plant which include alkaloid, coumarin, flavones, steroids, lignans, tannins,
glycosides, terpenoid, saponin etc.(Abraham et al., 2014).
Family Name: Combretaceae
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Magnoliophyta
Class: Magnoliopsida
Order: Myrtales
Family: Combretaceae
Genus: Terminalia
Species: belerica
54Mol. Biol. and Pharm. of Beneficial Plants ISBN 978-93-85995-56-9
Pharmacological Aspects..................Terminalia belerica Gupta et al, 2017
T. belerica is also referred to as Beleric Myrobalan in English, Bibhitaki in
Sanskrit, and locally known as Bahera in India. It has been used for centuries
in the Ayurveda, a holistic system of medicine originating from India. It is a
large (10-20 meter) deciduous tree with characteristic thick brownish gray
bark and is found throughout the Indian forests and plains. The stems are
straight, frequently buttressed when large. Leaves are alternate, broadly elliptic,
clustered towards at the ends of branches when young but glabrous on
maturity and the nerves are prominent on both surfaces. Flowers are greenish-
yellow, borne in axillary, spender spikes longer than the petioles and having
offensive odor. Fruit a drupe about 2.5 cm long, globose or narrowed at the
base, silky-brownish-velvety. (Karthikeyan et al., 2012; Das et al., 2012)
Its principle phytoconstituents are beta-sitosterol, gallic acid, ellagic acid,
ethyl gallate, galloyl glucose, chebulagic acid. Four lignans including
termilignan, thannilignan, hydroxy-3', 4'-(methylenedioxy) flavan, and
anolignan-B have been found (Singh, 2006). Fruit contains terpenoids (belleric
acid and chebulagic acid), saponin (bellericoside and bellericanin) (Meena et
al., 2010; Sharma, 2012) and tannins (23.60%-37.36%), which are composed of
chebulinic acid, chebulagic acid, 1, 3, 6-trigalloylglucose and 1,2,3,4, 6-
pentagalloylglucose, corilagin, andglucogallin etc. (Saxena, et al., 2013;
Gangadhar et al., 2011). Seed contains alkaloids, coumarin, flavone, glycosides
(D-glucose, fructose, sucrose, galactose and mannose) (Parle et al., 2014).
Bark contains beta-sitosterol, tannins, ellagic acid, gallic acid and catechol.
Traditional Uses
T. belerica fruits exhibit medicinal activity. These are used as laxative,
astringent, anthelmintic and antipyretic. Fruits are useful in treatment of hepatitis,
bronchitis, asthma, dyspepsia, piles, diarrhoea, coughs, hoarseness of voice, eye
diseases, scorpion-sting and also used as a hair tonic (Singh et al., 2011; Rastogi
and Mehrotra, 2004). Decoction of the green fruit is used for cough. Pulp of the
fruit is useful in dysenteric-diarrhoea, dropsy, piles and leprosy. Half ripe fruit
is used as purgative. Kernel of the fruit is narcotic. Inhabitants of Khagrachari
in Bangladesh use fruits in menstrual disorder. Seed oil is used in rheumatism.
Gum of the bark is demulcent and purgative. The triterpenoid present in the
fruits possess significant antimicrobial activity. Kernel oil has purgative action
and its prolonged use is well tolerated in mice (Ghani, 2003).
Antioxidant activity
Oxidative stress arises from an imbalance in the formation and
metabolisms of reactive oxygen species (ROS). It is associated with many
55Mol. Biol. and Pharm. of Beneficial Plants ISBN 978-93-85995-56-9
Pharmacological Aspects..................Terminalia belerica Gupta et al, 2017
pathophysiological conditions in humans. Antioxidants are molecules that
inhibit or reduce free radical reactions and finally prevent cellular damage
(Young and Woodside, 2001). Antioxidant supplements help in reducing the
oxidative damage at cellular level. Depending on phytochemical constitution,
antioxidant defense mechanisms vary. Both forms of antioxidants (enzymatic
and non-enzymatic) are present in the intracellular and extracellular
environments. T. belerica has been reported to possess potent antioxidant
action (Fahmy et al., 2015).
A comparative study on radical scavenging activity of ethanolic and
aqueous extract of T. belerica fruit suggested that aqueous extract has
comparatively better scavenging action against superoxide anion, nitric oxide
and ABTS radicals. Aqueous extract also exhibited effective reducing power
and FRAP values, but the total antioxidant capacity values of aqueous extract
are lower than ethanolic extract (Pfundstein et al., 2010). In other study,
acetone and other fractions of T. belerica also showed radical scavenging
action in DPPH free-radical scavenging and â-carotene bleaching assay along
with reducing power capacity. These activities were correlated closely with
their phenolic content. Ethyl acetate (EA) fraction was found more effective
than crude acetone extract in all antioxidant assays, except chelating power
which was highest in water fraction. The antioxidant potential was compared
with known antioxidant butylated hydroxyl toluene (BHT) and correlated
with total phenolic and flavonoid content in crude extract and fraction (Guleria
et al., 2010). An HPTLC analysis of the EA fraction further showed that it
contains gallic acid, ferulic acid and ascorbic acid as major compounds. The
results suggested that the principal antioxidant molecules in crude extract/
fractions of T. belerica fruit are non-flavonoid polyphenolic compounds
(Nampoothiri et al., 2011).
Hepatoprotective activity
The liver is a vital organ of vertebrates and some other animals (Abdel
et al., 2010). It has a wide range of functions, including detoxification of
various metabolites, protein synthesis, and the production of bile necessary
for digestion. Hepatotoxicity refers to inability of liver to detoxify the toxic
compounds. One of the most sensitive and dramatic indicators of hepatocyte
injury is the release of intracellular enzymes, such as transaminases and serum
alkaline phosphatase in the circulation during hepatic abnormalities. The
elevated activities of these enzymes are indicative of cellular leakage and
loss of the functional integrity of the cell membrane in liver (Rajesh and
Latha, 2004). The hepatoprotective activity of T. belerica fruit extract and its
bioactive compounds have been revealed against CCl4 induced liver injury
in rats. The toxicity of CCl4 depends upon the cleavage of C-Cl bond to
56Mol. Biol. and Pharm. of Beneficial Plants ISBN 978-93-85995-56-9
Pharmacological Aspects..................Terminalia belerica Gupta et al, 2017
generate a trichloromethyldioxy free radical (CCl3O2). This cleavage occurs
in the endoplasmic reticulum and is mediated by the cytochrome P-450, a
mixed function oxidase system. The product of the cleavage binds irreversibly
to hepatic proteins and lipids (Pingale, 2011). Different dose of plant extract
(200-800 mg/kg body weight) and gallic acid (50-200 mg/kg body weight)
showed dose dependent recovery of biochemical parameters (SGOPT, SGPT,
lipid peroxidation and glutathione) (Shukla et al., 2006). Ethyl acetate extract
significantly improved hepatic necrosis, which coincided with simultaneous
reduced expression of oxidative stress biomarkers, 4-hydroxynonenal (4-
HNE) and 3-nitrotyrosine (3-NT), and restored P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) expression
(Rashed et al., 2014). Furthermore methanolic extract provides protection
against iron induced liver injury. Additional iron deposition in the liver
catalyses the production of ROS which in turn initiate oxidative damage of
protein and nucleic acids leading to several diseases. Methanolic extract of
T. belerica fruit has both reducing power as well as iron chelating activity
and thereby reduces the toxic level of iron in iron overload mice and
hence protects liver from oxidative stress and fibrosis. Its administration
significantly lowered serum enzyme and serum ferritin levels, which act as a
indicators of severe iron overload (Hazra et al., 2012)
Antimicrobial activity
Infectious diseases have become the major concern for public health
issues because of the emergence of drug resistant strains with less
susceptibility to antibiotics. T. belerica has shown potent action against
infectious agents in vitro. Fruit extract contains phenol, tannins, alkaloid
and flavonoids. Alkaloid could be responsible for inhibiting the microorganism
by impairing the enzymes involved in energy production, interfering with
the integrity of cell membrane and structural component synthesis. Tannins
in the fruit extract of T. belerica could be implicated in preventing the
development of microorganisms by precipitating the microbial protein and
making nutritional proteins unavailable for them (Hung and Chung, 2003).
Tannins have been found to form irreversible complexes with proline rich
proteins resulting in the inhibition of cell protein synthesis (Hagerman and
Butler, 1981). Coagulase is major virulence factor of S. aureus which converts
the host plasma fibrinogen to fibrin, forming blood clots. T. belerica extract
inhibit the activity of this enzyme when S. aureus grown in the presence of T.
belerica extract. The lower MIC values of crude and methanol extracts against
S. aureus suggested the efficacy of T. belerica phytoconstituents (Elizabeth,
2005). T. belerica aqueous fruit extract has shown activity against numerous
pathogenic bacteria viz., Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella
pneumonia, Shigella flexneri, and Salmonella typhi (Devi et al., 2014). In a study
conducted by Saraphanchotiwitthaya et al. (2008), stem and leaf extracts of
57Mol. Biol. and Pharm. of Beneficial Plants ISBN 978-93-85995-56-9
Pharmacological Aspects..................Terminalia belerica Gupta et al, 2017
T. belerica also showed antibacterial activity against many Gram positive and
Gram negative bacteria including Corynebacterium rubrum, Staphylococcus
epidermidis, K. pneumonie, E. coli and S. typhimurium. None of these studies
identified the antibacterial components. However, studies have demonstrated
that antibacterial activity was associated with the polar extracts (Aneja and
Joshi, 2009; Aneja et al., 2012).
Antidiabetic activity
Diabetes refers to a group of metabolic disorders that result in increased
blood glucose level, either because the pancreas does not produce enough
functional insulin (type 1 diabetes), or because cells do not respond to the
insulin which is produced (type 2 diabetes) (Jacqueline et al., 1997). Excessive
amount of glucose reaching mitochondria lead to an overdrive of the electron
transport chain, resulting in overproduction of superoxide anions normally
scavenged by mitochondrial SOD enzyme. When the later fails, oxidative
stress develops and it was proposed that this mechanism is responsible for
the activation of all major diabetic complications involving glycation, and
sorbitol pathways etc. (Nishikawa et al., 2000). T. belerica also shows
antidiabetic activity. Administration of different doses of hexane, ethyl
acetate and methanolic fruit extracts of T. belerica for two months in
Streptozotocin induced diabetic rats expressively improved the plasma insulin,
C-peptide, glucose tolerance levels, body weight andserum total protein.
Moreover plant extract also reduced the cholesterol, urea, uric acid and
creatinine levels in serum in diabetic rats (Latha and Daisy, 2010). It has
been reported thatcontinuous administration of 75% T. belerica methanolic
extract blocks hyperglycaemia in diabetic rats via its antioxidant activity
(Sabu and Kuttan, 2009). Remarkable decreases in free radicals, and increased
glutathione, superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase and
glutathione reductase activities, were observed in diabetic rats following T.
belerica extract treatment. T. belerica fruit aqueous extract stimulated insulin
secretion from a pancreatic â-cell line to a similar extent to glibenclamide
(Kasabri et al., 2010). The aqueous extract also showed insulin derivative
activity, improving glucose uptake into 3T3-L1 adipocytes and declining
starch absorption and protein glycation.
Angiogenic activity
Angiogenesis represents an excellent therapeutic target for the treatment
of cardiovascular diseases. It is a potent physiological process that underlies
the natural manner in which our bodies respond to a decrease of blood
supply to vital organs, namely the production of new collateral vessels to
overcome the ischemic state. T. belerica leaf ethanolic extract has shown
angiogenic activity in mice using in vivo sponge implantation assay. Gelatin
58Mol. Biol. and Pharm. of Beneficial Plants ISBN 978-93-85995-56-9
Pharmacological Aspects..................Terminalia belerica Gupta et al, 2017
sponge with or without ethanolic extract of T. belerica leaf was
subcutaneously injected into Swiss albino mice and 14 days later, the implanted
sponges in mice was excised and histologically examined. Gelatin sponges
alone were pale in their color indicating no or less blood vessel formation
while sponges mixed with leaf ethanolic extract appeared dark-red in color.
The stained section showed that sponge containing ethanolic extract had
produced more vessels in gels than sponges alone. The new vessels were
abundantly filled with intact RBCs, which indicated the formation of a
functional vasculature inside the sponges, and blood circulation in newly
formed vessels by angiogenesis, induced by ethanolic extract of T. belerica
leaf. The extract also caused marked enhancement in hemoglobin content.
These results revealed profound angiogenic potential in T. belerica ethanolic
leaf extract (Prabhu et al., 2012).
Antithrombotic and thrombolytic activity
Atherothrombotic diseases such as myocardial or cerebral infarctions
are serious consequences of the thrombus formed in blood vessels. A
blood clot (thrombus) formed in the circulatory system due to failure
of haemostasis causes vascular blockage. Thrombolytic agents are used to
dissolve the previously formed clots in the blood vessels. (Prasad et al., 2007).
There are reports suggesting thrombolytic and antithrombotic activity in T.
belerica fruits possess. However in vivo clot dissolving properties and active
component of T. belerica for clot lysis are yet to be discovered. Ansari and
coworkers (2012) used an in vitro model to check the clot lysis and
antithrombotic effect of alcoholic and aqueous extracts of T. belerica fruits.
They used streptokinase as a positive control. The study revealed that extracts
delayed the clot formation in dose dependent manner. Maximum delay (>90
min) in clot formation was observed at an extract concentration of 0.20 mg/
dl which is comparable to the activity shown by streptokinase. However for
thrombolytic activity, the clot dissolution time was reported to be about 60
min at 1.0 mg/dl concentration of both the extracts.
Wound healing activity
Wound healing is a complex phenomenon which includes a number
of processes such as migration and proliferation of both epithelial and
connective tissues, formation of extracellular matrix proteins, alteration of
connective tissue, parenchymal components, collagen synthesis and acquisition
of wound strength. Saha et al. (2011) have reported the wound healing
potential of T. belerica extract in rabbit model. Extract paste (500mg/animal)
was applied to skin incision from the dorsal area just behind the shoulders
of rabbit. Significant increase in the levels of hydroxyproline, DNA and uronic
acid contents and improvement on maturation, wound contraction and
59Mol. Biol. and Pharm. of Beneficial Plants ISBN 978-93-85995-56-9
Pharmacological Aspects..................Terminalia belerica Gupta et al, 2017
epithelialization was observed between 4 to 12 days. The study suggested
that the herbal paste prepared from T. chebula and T. belerica enhanced
fibroblast function, improved production of glycosaminoglycan and
deposition of collagen which is required for wound healing and may be
useful as an adjuvant in wound healing process.
Anticancer activity
Proto-oncogenes and tumour suppressor genes are responsible for
encoding proteins that regulate cell division/cell cycle, as well as for the
repair of damaged DNA and programmed cell death by apoptosis. Mutations
within these genes have been implicated in the onset of cancer (Hanahan
and Weinberg, 2000). These cells fail to recognize signals that restrict cell
division, resulting in uncontrolled cell growth. In tumour genesis, multiple
genes may be altered and transmitted to daughter cells, which subsequently
escape normal growth restraints and form a tumour that may be benign or
malignant. T. belerica extracts have shown growth inhibitory activity,
with a certain degree of selectivity against the lung (A549) and liver
(HepG2) cancer cell lines. Combination of T. belerica with cisplatin or
doxorubicin also demonstrated synergistic effects in inhibiting growth of
A549 and HepG2 cells (Pinmai et al., 2008). Further study by Laila and Amal
(2014) have shown higher cytotoxic response of 70% methanolic extract
(IC50=19.35 ìg/ml) against the HepG-2 cell line followed by ethyl acetate
(IC50=24.5 ìg/ml) and butanol fractions (IC50=28.6 ìg/ml). Other workers have
also reported cytotoxicity of extracts against nine human cancer cell lines,
including cancers of colon (HCT-16 and Colo-205), lung (A549), breast (T47D
and MCF-7), prostate (PC-3), and leukemia (THP-1, HL-60 and K562) by
using SRB and MTT assays. The study revealed that the T. belerica extract
inhibited the cell proliferation of above mentioned cancer cell lines in a
concentration dependent manner. DNA content analysis by flow cytometry
indicated that the extract was responsible for blocking G0/G1 phase of the
cell cycle and thereby inhibited cell viability of leukemia (HL-60 and K562)
cells (Kawthar et al., 2015). These findings suggested that T. belerica extracts
have potent anticancer activity.
Antispasmodic and bronchodilatory activity
T. belerica fruit crude extract promotes relaxation of spontaneous
contractions in isolated rabbit jejunum. It also reverses the carbachol and K+-
induced contractions in a pattern similar to that of dicyclomine. Crude extract
shifts the Ca2+ concentration-response curves to right, like nifedipine and
dicyclomine. In vivo study in rodents revealed that crude extract of T. belerica
also possessed protective effect against castor oil-induced diarrhea and
carbachol-mediated bronchoconstriction. In guinea-pig trachea, crude extract
60Mol. Biol. and Pharm. of Beneficial Plants ISBN 978-93-85995-56-9
Pharmacological Aspects..................Terminalia belerica Gupta et al, 2017
relaxed the carbachol-induced contractions, shifted carbachol-curves to right
and inhibited the contractions of K+. Anticholinergic effect was distributed
both in organic and aqueous extracts, while calcium channel blocking was
present in the aqueous extract (Gilani et al., 2008).
Immunomodulatory activity
A chemical agent that modifies the immune response or the functioning
of the immune system is referred as immunomodulator. It is well known
that macrophages play a significant role in the defense mechanism against
host infection and killing tumor cells. T. belerica fruit extracts possess
immunomodulatory activity which is proved by phagocytic and lymphocyte
proliferation activity of fruit methanolic extract on the mouse. Methanolic
extract has been reported to stimulate the production of superoxide anions
and acid phosphatase and hence promotes macrophage phagocytosis. In
lymphocyte proliferation assay, the extract with phytohemagglutinin exhibited
maximal activation. With concanavalin A, lipopolysaccharide and pokeweed
mitogen, similar activation of lymphocyte proliferation was observed.
However, at low concentrations, T. belerica extract with concanavalin A and
pokeweed mitogen caused suppressant activity (Saraphanchotiwitthaya et
al., 2008). Acetone extract of T. belerica has been shown to enhance the B- and
T-cells proliferation along with increased IL-10 secretion whereas it reduced
the production of IFN-ã and IL-2 (Saraphanchotiwitthaya and Ingkaninan,
Antihypertensive activity
The aqueous-methanolic extract of T. belerica fruit caused a dose-dependent
reduction in the arterial blood pressure of rats. The extract was tested in
two different types of vascular tissues. In isolated guinea-pig atria, extract
inhibited the force and rate of atrial contractions. Whereas, in rabbit thoracic
aorta, crude extract relaxed the phenylephrine and K+ induced contractions
as well as suppressed the phenylephrine control peaks in the Ca2+ free
medium, similar to that caused by verapamil (Khan and Gilani, 2008).
This chapter has summarized the therapeutic potential of T. belerica. The
vast study done on the plant proved that it has important phytoconstituents
like, bellericanin, ellagic acid, gallic acid, termilignan, thannilignan, flavone
and anolignan B, tannins, ellargic acid, ethyl gallate, galloyl glucose and
chebulaginic acid, phenyllemblin, â- sitosterol. T. belerica has pharmacological
attributes such as antioxidant, anticancer, antidiabetic, wound healing,
antibacterial, anti-inflammatory and hepatoprotective potential. Presence of
various phytochemicals finds correlation with the medicinal activities.
61Mol. Biol. and Pharm. of Beneficial Plants ISBN 978-93-85995-56-9
Pharmacological Aspects..................Terminalia belerica Gupta et al, 2017
Characterization of bioactive compounds is needed to fulfil the gap in
understanding the pharmacological implications of disease management.
Abdel-M., Sherif R. Z. and Bloomston, M. (2010). “Liver Anatomy”. Surg Clin North
America. 90: 643-653.
Abraham, A., Mathew, L. and Samuel, S. (2014). Pharmacognostic studies of the
fruits of Terminalia bellirica (Gaertn.) Roxb. J Pharm Phytochem. 3:45-52.
Aneja, K.R. and Joshi, R. (2009). Evaluation of antimicrobial properties of fruit extracts
of Terminalia chebula against dental caries pathogens. Jundishapur J Microbiol.
Aneja, K.R., Sharma, C. and Joshi, R. (2012). Antimicrobial activity of Terminalia
arjuna Wight & Arn: an ethnomedicinal plant against pathogens causing ear
infection. Braz J Otorhinolaryngol. 78:68-74.
Ansari, A.V., Siddiqui, H.H. and Singh, P.S. (2012). Antithrombotic and thrombolytic
activity of Terminalia belerica fruit extracts. Res J Pharm Biol Chem Sci. 3:471-78.
Das, P., Karon, B., Das, S. and Mallik, J. (2012). A review on phytochemistry and
pharmacological activity of Terminalia belerica. Int J Drug Form Res. 3:01-07.
Devi, P.N., Kaleeshwari, S. and Poonkothai, M. (2014). Antimicrobial activity and
phytochemical analysis of fruit extract of Terminalia belerica. Int J Pharm Pharma
Sci. 6:639-642.
Elizabeth, K.M. (2005). Antimicrobial activity of Terminalia bellerica. Ind J Clin
Biochem. 20:150-153.
Fahmy, N.M., Al-Sayed, E. and Singab A.N. (2015). Genus Terminalia: A
phytochemicals and biological Review. Med Aroma Plants. 4:1-21.
Gangadhar M, Patil, B., Yadav, S. and Sinde, D. (2011). Isolation and
characterization of gallic acid from Terminalia belerica and its effect on
carbohydrate regulatory system in vitro. Int J Res Ayur Pharm. 2:559-562.
Ghani, A. (2003). Medicinal plants of Bangladesh with chemical constituents and
uses. 2nd edition. Asiatic Society of Bangladesh, Dhaka, Ramna. 184.
Gilani, H.A., Khana, A., Tuba Ali, T. and Ajmal, S. (2008). Mechanisms underlying
the antispasmodic and bronchodilatory properties of Terminalia belerica fruit. J
Ethnopharmacol. 116:528-538.
Guleria, S., Tiku, A. K. and Rana, S. (2010). Antioxidant activity of acetone extract/
fractions of Terminalia bellerica Roxb. Fruit. Ind J Biochem Biophys. 47:110-116.
Guleria, S., Tiku, A.K. and Rana, S. (2010). Antioxidant activity of acetone/fractions
of Terminalia bellerica Roxb. Fruit. Ind J Biochem Biophys. 47:110-116.
Hagerman, A.M. and Butler, I.G. (1981). The specificity of proanthocyanidin protein
interactions. J Biol Chem. 256:4494-4497.
Hanahan, D. and Weinberg, R.A. (2000). The hallmarks of cancer. Cell. 100:57-70.
62Mol. Biol. and Pharm. of Beneficial Plants ISBN 978-93-85995-56-9
Pharmacological Aspects..................Terminalia belerica Gupta et al, 2017
Hazra, B., Sarkar, R. and Mandal, N. (2012). Protection of Terminalia bellerica Roxb.
against iron overload induced liver toxicity: An account of its reducing and
iron chelating capacity. Am J Pharm Toxicol. 7:109-122.
Hung, J.W. and Chung, W.C. (2003). Management of vegetable crops disease with
plant extracts. Adv Plant Dis Management. 37:153-163.
Jacqueline, M. S., Jongson, L. and Paul, F. P. (1997). Tumor necrosis factor -á induced
insulin resistance in 3T3-L1 adipocytes is accompanied by a loss of insulin
receptor substrate-1 and GLUT4 expression with a loss of insulin receptor
mediated signal transduction, J Biol Chem. 272: 971.
Kamboj, V.P. (2000). Herbal medicine. Curr Sci. 78:35-39.
Karthikeyan, M., Kannan, M., Rajasekar, S. and Saraswathi M.N. (2012). Terminalia
belerica Roxb-A Phytopharmacological Review. Int J Res Pharm Biomed Sci.
Kasabri, V., Flatt, P.R. and Abdel-Wahab, Y.H.A. (2010). Terminalia belerica stimulates
the secretion and action of insulin and inhibits starch digestion and protein
glycation in vitro. Brit J Nut. 103:212-217.
Kawthar, A.E. Diab., Guru, S.K., Bhushan, S. and Saxena, A.K. (2015). In Vitro
Anticancer Activities of Anogeissus latifolia, Terminalia bellerica, Acacia catechu
and Moringa oleiferna Indian Plants. Asian Pac J Cancer Prevention. 16:6423:
Khan, A.U. and Gilani, A.H. (2008). Pharmacodynamic Evaluation of Terminalia
belerica for its Anti-Hypertensive Effect. J Food Drug Analysis. 16:6-14.
Laila, A. and Amal, M.S. (2014). Characterization of chemical constituents, reducing
power and anticancer activities of Terminalia bellerica Roxb. Acad J Cancer Res.
Latha, P.C.R. and Daisy, P. (2010). Influence of Terminalia belerica Roxb. fruits extract
on biochemical parameters in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Int J Pharm.
Meena, A.K, Yadav, A., Singh, U., Singh, B. et al. (2010). Evaluation of
physiochemical parameters on the fruit of Terminalia belerica Roxb. Int J Pharm
Pharma Sci. 2:97-99.
Nampoothiri, S.V., Binil Raj, S.S., Prathapan, A., Abhilash, P.A., Arumughan, C.
and Sundaresan, A. (2011). In vitro antioxidant activities of the methanol extract
and its different solvent fractions obtained from the fruit pericarp of Terminalia
bellerica. Nat Prod Res. 25:277-287.
Newman, D.J. and Cragg, G.M. (2007). Natural products as sources of new drugs
over the last 25 years. J Nat Prod.70:461-477.
Nishikawa, T., Edelstein, D. and Brownlee, M. (2000). The Missing link: A single
unifying mechanism of diabetic complications. Kidney Int Suppl. 77:526.
Parle, M., Yadav, M. and Kadian, R. (2014). Therapeutic potential and
phytopharmacology of Terminalia bellerica. World J Pharm Pharma Sci. 3:804-
63Mol. Biol. and Pharm. of Beneficial Plants ISBN 978-93-85995-56-9
Pharmacological Aspects..................Terminalia belerica Gupta et al, 2017
Pfundstein, B., El-Desouky, S.K., Hull, W.E., Haubner, R. and Erben, G. (2010).
Polyphenolic compounds in the fruits of Egyptian medicinal plants (Terminalia
belerica, Terminalia chebula and Terminalia horrida): Characterization, quantitation
and determination of antioxidant capacities. Phytochem. 71:1132-1148.
Pingale, S.S. (2011). Hepatoprotective action of Terminalia belerica on CCl4 induced
hepatic disorders. Der Pharm Chemi. 3:42-48.
Pinmai, K., Chunlaratthanabhorn, S., Ngamkitidechakul, C., Soonthornchareon,
N. and Hahnvajanawong, C. (2008). Synergistic growth inhibitory effects of
Phyllanthus emblica and Terminalia bellerica extracts with conventional cytotoxic
agents: Doxorubicin and cisplatin against human hepatocellular carcinoma
and lung cancer cells. World J Gastroenterol. 14:1491-1497.
Prabhu, V.V., Chidambaranathan, N. and Gopal, V. (2012). Evaluation and
quantification of angiogenesis activity of Terminalia bellirica Roxb. by mice sponge
implantation method. J Young Pharm. 4:22-27.
Prasad, S., Kashyap, R.S., Deopujari, J.Y., Purohit, H.J., Taori, G.M. et al. (2007).
Effect of Fagoniaarabica (Dhamasa) on in vitro thrombolysis. BMC Complement
Altern Med. 7: 36.
Rajesh, M.G. and Latha, M.S. (2004). Protective activity of Glycyrrhiza glabra Linn.
on carbon tetrachloride-induced peroxidative damage. Ind J Pharm. 36:284-287.
Rashed, K., Potocnjak, I., Giacometti, J., Skodab, M. and Domitrovic, R. (2014).
Terminalia bellerica aerial parts ethyl acetate extract exhibits antioxidant, anti-
inflammatory and antifibrotic activity in carbon tetrachloride-intoxicated mice.
J Funct Foods. 319-330.
Rastogi, R.P. and Mehrotra, B.N. (2004). Compendium of medicinal plants, central
drug research institute (CDRI), Lucknow and National institute of
communication and information resources, New Delhi. 406.
Sabu, M.C. and Kuttan, R. (2009). Antidiabetic and antioxidant activity of Terminalia
belerica Roxb. Ind J Exp Biol. 47:270-275.
Saha, P.K., Patra, P.H., Pradhan, N., R., Deyc, R., and Das, S. (2011). Effect of Terminalia
chebula and Terminalia belerica on wound healing in induced dermal wound in
rats. Pharmacologyonline. 2:235-241.
Saraphanchotiwitthaya, A. and Ingkaninan, K. (2014). Immunomodulatory activity
of an acetone extract of Terminalia belerica roxb fruit on the mouse immune response
in vitro. Int J Pharm Pharma Sci. 6:274-278.
Saraphanchotiwitthaya, A., Sripalakit, P. and Ingkaninan, K. (2008). Effects of
Terminalia belerica Roxb. Methanolic extract on mouse immune response in vitro.
Maejo Int J Sci Technol. 2:400-407.
Saraphanchotiwitthaya, A., Sripalakit, P. and Ingkaninan, K. (2008). Effects of
Terminalia belerica Roxb. Methanolic extract on mouse immune response in vitro.
Maejo Int J Sci Tech. 2:400-407.
Saxena, V., Mishra, G., Saxena, A. and Vishwakarma, K.K. (2013). A comparative
study on quantitative estimation of tannins in Terminalia Chebula, Terminalia
64Mol. Biol. and Pharm. of Beneficial Plants ISBN 978-93-85995-56-9
Pharmacological Aspects..................Terminalia belerica Gupta et al, 2017
Belerica, Terminalia Arjuna and Saraca indica using spectrophotometer. Asian J
Pharm Clin Res. 6:148-149.
Sharma, S. (2012). Chemical investigations of Terminalia belerica. Acta Chim Pharm
Ind. 2:132-133.
Shukla, S., Jadon, A. and Bhadauria, M. (2006). Protective effect of Terminalia belerica
Roxb, and gallic acid agaist carbon tetra chloride induced damage in albino
rats. J Ethanopharmacol. 109:214-218.
Singh, A. (2006). Medicinal plants of the world, Published by Mohan Primlani for
Oxford and IBH Co. Pvt, New Delhi.
Singh, A.S. (2011). Herbalism phytochemistry and Ethanopharmacology, Science
publishers. 357-361.
Walsh, G. (2003). Biopharmaceuticals: Biochemistry and Biotechnology, 3rd edition.
Wiley, Chinchester.
Young, I.S. and Woodside, J.V. (2001). Antioxidant in health and diseases. J Clin
Path. 54: 176-186.
Corresponding author: Dr. Abhay K. Pandey, Department of Biochemistry,
University of Allahabad, Allahabad-211002, India
... Similarly, recent reports also highlighted the medicinal potential of certain Terminalia species cultivated in Africa, Australia, and America 4 . It is known to possess medicinal activities such as analgesic, antioxidant, hepatoprotective, antibacterial, anti-cancer, and immunomodulatory activities 5 . ...
Full-text available
p> Terminalina bellirica is considered to be a sacred plant with five distinctive tastes (sweet, sour, salty, bitter, and pungent). It stimulates the proper functioning of the digestive system, sensory organs and it is very effective in treating several medical conditions. Four types of extracts were prepared (aqueous extracts of T. bellirica fruit, alcoholic extract of T. bellirica fruit, alcoholic extract of seed oil from T. bellirica nuts, and alcoholic extract of T. bellirica seed kernel). The elemental composition of T. bellirica was determined by ICP-OES. Macro elements like Ca (calcium), Na (sodium), and K (potassium) were found to be abundant in the studies samples. The quantity of Ca, Na, and K in the aqueous extracts of T. bellirica fruit, finished products of T. bellirica , alcoholic extract of T. bellirica fruit, alcoholic extract of seed oil from T. bellirica nuts, and alcoholic extract of T. bellirica seed kernel was found to be (723.51-787.39, 347.80-478.90, 50.72, 120, and 300 mg/kg), (603.45-636.79, 241.76-370.00, 9.58, 180, and 200 mg/kg), and (151.23-165.73, 132.70-154.40, 4.26, 200, and 1,150 mg/kg), respectively. An Na/K ratio < 1.0 could prevent high blood pressure. The Na/K ratio in the alcoholic extract of T. bellirica fruit was found to be 0.51. Similarly, a Ca/P ratio > 1.0 is biologically relevant as a Ca/P ratio < 0.5 correlates with several health problems. The Ca/P ratio in the alcoholic extract of T. bellirica fruit was found to be 6.68. Hence, the measured Na/K and Ca/P ratios are in agreement with the recommended ratios. Our study supports the claims that T. bellirica extracts and finished products are of considerable therapeutic value for the prevention and/or treatment of various medical conditions. Moreover, the findings of our study will be helpful to ensure the quality and verify purification of natural products in different ayurvedic formulations. </p
Wounds are big challenges to the wound care professionals. Topical wound care products and wound dressings are evolved every day. Advanced dressings are produced by incorporating antimicrobial agents, growth factors and herbal extracts to enhance the wound healing process. Nanofibres are the recent focus as drug delivery vehicle for the delivery of drugs to the target site. The aim of the study is to prepare Terminalia bellerica loaded PCL nanofibrous mats by electrospinning and to characterize the nanofibres for biomedical applications. Terminalia bellerica is one of the ingredients of Triphala which play important role as rejuvenating agent. The increasing concentration of Terminalia loaded PCL nanofibrous mats shows increased fiber diameter, wettability and Water uptake property. The wettability of the PCL was decreased from 113.3 ± 3.62 to 59.98 ± 4.99, 44.96 ± 7.04 and 34.34 ± 3.45 respectively for the Terminalia loaded PCL nanofibres. The 5% herbal loaded PCL nanofibrous mats shows antimicrobial activity against gram negative bacteria. Further, Terminalia loaded PCL mats were found to be nontoxic and is responsible for the cell adhesion and proliferation and is useful as the potential candidate for wound dressing applications.
Full-text available
The liver is one of the major cellular organs that carries out a critical role in the balancing of miscellaneous processes, among which the metabolism, secretion, storage, and detoxification of endogenous and exogenous substances are important. Due to the enormous advance in current medicine, no completely potential drugs have been discovered that stimulate hepatic functions, offer complete protection, or help to renew hepatic cells. Hence, discovering pharmaceutical replacements is needed for the management of hepatic abnormalities, with the objective of these changes being more accurate and less harmful. The use of plants, its secondary metabolites, and the consumption of fruits played a significant role in human health maintenance. A broad spectrum of scientific studies has proposed that plants with therapeutic properties can be attributed due to the presence of bioactive compounds. The present chapter incorporates the findings based on research conducted in herbal extracts and bioactive compounds, which may offer new options for restricted therapeutic possibilities that occur at present in the management of hepatic abnormalities.
Full-text available
The present communication attempts to evaluate the physicochemical and preliminary phytochemical studies on the fruit of Terminalia bellirica Roxb., Combretaceae family. Bibhitaka is a large tree, up to 40m height. Leaves petiolate, broadly elliptic, clustered towards the end of branches, Flowers greenish yellow, in solitary, simple, axillaries spikes, Fruits globular, 1.5-2.5 cm in diam., obscurely 5-angled when dry. It is found in deciduous forests throughout the greater part of India, but not in the arid regions, in areas of Upper Gangtic Plain, Chota Nagpur, Bihar, Orissa, West Bengal, Chittagong, Konkan, Deccan, S.M. country and most of the part of South India. The mostly part used Fruit, Seed and Bark. The bark is mildly diuretic and is useful in anaemia and leucoderma. Fruits are astringent, acrid, sweet, thermogenic use as anti-inflammatory digestive, anthelmintic, expectorant and antipyretic, antiemetic. They are useful in cough asthma, bronchitis, ophthalmic disorders, skin diseases, ulcers. The oil obtained from seeds is trichogenous and is useful in dyspepsia, skin diseases, leucoderma and greyness of hair. As there is no detailed standardization work reported on fruit, the physicochemical parameters, preliminary phytochemical constants, toxic heavy metals, pesticide residue and aflatoxin analysis are carried out. The study revealed specific identities for the particular crude drug which will be useful in identification and control to adulterations of the raw drug.
Full-text available
ABSTRACT Ashoka, arjuna baheda and harde are constituents of digestive churna from old age civilization. These drugs principally contain tannins which are widespread in plant kingdom. It is a poly-phenolic compound which is proven as antioxidants and possesses a chemo- protective potential. They are found in leaves, flowers, fruits and bark. The aim of study is to estimate the amount of tannins present in these drugs using folin-denis method.Terminalia chebula (combretaceae) (harde), Terminalia belerica (combretaceae)(bahera), Terminalia arjuna (combretaceae)(arjuna) and Saraca indica (leguminaseae) (ashoka) were crushed to coarse powder. The alcoholic extracts of the drugs were prepared for photometric determination of tannins using folin-denis method. The tannin concentration was determined by the standard graph of tannic acid solution and was found to be 99.55456mg/gm,9.95568mg/gm, 54.96288mg/gm, and 57.4869 mg/gm for harde, arjuna, baheda and ashoka respectively. The concentration curve for tannic acid was determined and the correlation coefficient was calculated and was found to be 0.998 which indicates the good linearity between the concentration and the absorbance. It has been found that the tannins form the stable complexes with protein, starch and metal chelates by disturbing the metabolic activity of the bacterial enzymes nutrient availability, and functionality of biological membranes. The present study can be used as one of the parameters for standardization of medicinal plants. Keywords: Terminalia chebula (combretaceae) (harde), Terminalia belerica (combretaceae)(bahera), Terminalia arjuna combretaceae)(arjuna) and Saraca indica (leguminaseae) (ashoka)
The importance of fruit powder of Terminalia belerica was investigated for its hepatoxicity effect in Wistar Albino rats against CCl 4 induced hepatic damage. Oral administration of 1 gm/kg body weight of powder of Terminalia belerica fruit recovered the CCl 4 induced liver damage. The elevated levels of tissue and blood biochemical markers were reported. The administration of Terminalia belerica plant material recovered the enzyme levels like normal rats. The biochemical observations were supplemented by histoapthological examination of liver. The results of blood and tissue biochemical parameters like Aspartate aminotramferase, Alanine aminottramferase, Alkaline phosphatase, etc reveled that Terminalia belerica fruit powder could regenerates liver cells and offered protection against CCl 4 induced hepatic damage. The observation of markers as well as Light and electron microscope photographs supports the regeneration process of liver parenchyma.
Terminalia bellerica has been used as a folk medicine in a variety of ailments including hypertension. Our aim was to investigate the possible mechanism of its blood pressure (BP)-lowering effect. The crude extract of Terminalia bellerica fruit (Tb.Cr) which tested positive for flavonoids, sterols and tannins induced a dose-dependent (10-100 mg/kg) fall in the arterial BP of rats under anaesthesia. In isolated guinea-pig atria, Tb.Cr inhibited the force and rate of atrial contractions. In rabbit thoracic aorta, Tb.Cr relaxed the phenylephrine (PE, 1 μM) and K+ (80 mM)-induced contractions as well as suppressed the PE (1 μM) control peaks in the Ca++-free medium, similar to that caused by verapamil. The vasodilator effect of Tb.Cr was endothelium-independent as it was not opposed by Nω-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester in endothelium-intact rat aortic preparations and it occurred at the similar concentration in the endothelium-denuded tissues. These results indicate that Terminalia bellerica lowers BP through Ca++ antagonist mechanism and thus provides a sound mechanistic background for its medicinal use in hypertension.
Objective: To evaluate the potential efficacy of Glycyrrhiza glabra Linn. (Fabaceae) in protecting tissues from peroxidative damage in CCl4-intoxicated rats. Material and Methods: Peroxidative hepatic damage in rats was studied by assessing parameters such as thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), conjugated dienes (CD), superoxidedismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and glutathione (GSH) in liver and kidneys. The effect of co-administration of G. glabra on the above parameters and histopathological findings of the liver in experimental animals was studied. Results: The increased lipid peroxide formation in the tissues of CCl4-treated rats was significantly inhibited by G. glabra. The observed decreased antioxidant enzyme activities of SOD, CAT, GSH-Px, GST, and antioxidant concentration of glutathione were nearly normalized by G. glabra treatment. Carbon tetrachloride-induced damage produces alteration in the antioxidant status of the tissues, which is manifested by abnormal histopathology. G. glabra restored all these changes. Conclusion: Glycyrrhiza glabra is a potential antioxidant and attenuates the hepatotoxic effect of CCl4.
Herbal medicines are the synthesis of therapeutic experiences of generations of practising physicians of indigenous systems of medicine for over hundreds of years while nutraceuticals are nutritionally or medicinally enhanced foods with health benefits of recent origin and marketed in developed countries. The marketing of the former under the category of the latter is unethical. Herbal medicines are also in great demand in the developed world for primary health care because of their efficacy, safety and lesser side effects. They also offer therapeutics for age-related disorders like memory loss, osteoporosis, immune disorders, etc. for which no modern medicine is available. India despite its rich traditional knowledge, heritage of herbal medicines and large biodiversity has a dismal share of the world market due to export of crude extracts and drugs. WHO too has not systematically evaluated traditional medicines despite the fact that it is used for primary health care by about 80% of the world population. However, in 1991 WHO developed guidelines for the assessment of herbal medicine. Suggestions for herbal medicine standardization are outlined. The scenario and perceptions of herbal medicine are discussed.
An annual of the UMBELLIFERAE family. It grows to 30–60 cm high with ternately pinnate leaves. The flowers are small, white, and borne in compound umbels. The fruit is ovoid or pyriform, laterally compressed, 3–5 mm in length and 2–3 mm wide, grayish green to grayish brown with a peculiar sweet smell. The mericarp is broadly ovoid, 5-ridged with short hairs and numerous vittae.
Objectives: To investigate the immunomodulatory activity of an acetone extract of T. bellerica fruit.Methods: Mitogen induced-lymphocyte proliferation using the MTT (3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) technique, Th1-and Th2-related cytokine production by lymphocytes using ELISA and peritoneal macrophage function in ICR mice were assayed.Results: The results show that the extract had a mild inhibitory effect on the generation of oxidase enzyme (Phagocytic Index 0.8, 100 μg/ml) but did not influence acid phosphatase enzyme function during phagocytosis. The extract stimulated the proliferation of both T and B lymphocytes. The maximal activation (Stimulation Index 3.2, 100 μg/ml) was presented with concanavalin A induction, indicating a major effect on T lymphocyte proliferation. The extract reduced the production of IFN-γ (89%, 100 μg/ml) and IL-2 (98%, 100 μg/ml) but increased IL-10 secretion (231%, 100 μg/ml) compared to concanavalin A. Gallic acid, a pharmacological component contained in this plant, presented a similar effect as that of T. bellerica extract and may contribute to the immunomodulatory activity of T. bellerica fruits in cooperation with other phytocompounds. The decrease in the IFN-γ/IL-10 ratio indicated a shift in the Th1/Th2 balance towards a Th2-type response, which might lead to a treatment for Th1-mediated inflammatory immune diseases.Conclusion: Our investigations show that the acetone extract of T. bellerica fruit possesses immunomodulatory activity, which could be used to explain its folklore applications and provide a pharmacological basis for its usefulness in immune-related disorders. © 2014,International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences. All right reserved.
Terminalia bellirica (Baheda) family combretaceae is distributed equally between tropical Asia, Africa and America 1 . Traditionally, fruits of the plant are useful in bronchitis, sore throat and inflammation of eyes. A large number of compounds 2 have been isolated from fruits, stem bark of the plant. In the present communication, chemical investigation of seeds has been taken up. Friedelin, β-sitosterol have been isolated from petroleum ether extract, whereas D-glucose, fructose, sucrose, galactose and mannose were identified from ethanolic extract of seeds.