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Factors associated with Facebook jealousy in three Spanish-Speaking countries

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  • Universidad de la Costa, Barranquilla, Colombia

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Nowadays, control over one's partner is easily maintained through social networks, such as Facebook. The aim of this study was to analyze the factors associated with Facebook-jealousy. We examined a total sample of 1144 individuals distributed as follows: data from Spain (n = 393), Colombia (n = 600), and Ecuador (n = 151 individuals), with ages ranging from 14 to 42 years old. All participants held nationality from one of the respective countries, were currently or had been enrolled in a relationship, and both the participant and his/her/their partner also had a Facebook account. Participants completed an online survey with self-reported measures to evaluate: self-esteem, partner conflicts and their strategies to cope with them, romantic jealousy, and Facebook jealousy. Results show that the propensity to experience jealousy in the relationship and low self-esteem are related with more Facebook jealousy across the three countries. For both, Spain and Colombia, strategies to cope with partner conflicts are also associated with Facebook jealousy, in particular lower levels of constructive strategies and higher dominance are associated with greater Facebook jealousy. In short, Facebook jealousy represents another way to manifest jealousy that is influenced by both personal and relationship variables.
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Sexual and Relationship Therapy
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Factors associated with Facebook jealousy in three
Spanish-Speaking countries
Nieves Moyano, María del Mar Sánchez-Fuentes, Ariana Chiriboga & Jennifer
Flórez-Donado
To cite this article: Nieves Moyano, María del Mar Sánchez-Fuentes, Ariana Chiriboga
& Jennifer Flórez-Donado (2017) Factors associated with Facebook jealousy in three
Spanish-Speaking countries, Sexual and Relationship Therapy, 32:3-4, 309-322, DOI:
10.1080/14681994.2017.1397946
To link to this article: https://doi.org/10.1080/14681994.2017.1397946
Published online: 20 Nov 2017.
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Factors associated with Facebook jealousy in three
Spanish-Speaking countries
Nieves Moyano
a
, Mar
ıa del Mar S
anchez-Fuentes
b
, Ariana Chiriboga
c
and
Jennifer Fl
orez-Donado
b
a
Facultad de Ciencias Humanas y de la Educaci
on, Departamento de Psicolog
ıa y Sociolog
ıa, Universidad de
Zaragoza, Huesca, Espa~
na;
b
Facultad de Ciencias Humanas y Sociales, Departamento de Psicolog
ıa del
Individuo, Universidad de la Costa, Barranquilla, Colombia;
c
School of Psychology, Universidad de
Especialidades Esp
ıritu Santo, Guayaquil, Ecuador
ABSTRACT
Nowadays, control over ones partner is easily maintained through
social networks, such as Facebook. The aim of this study was to
analyze the factors associated with Facebook-jealousy. We examined
a total sample of 1144 individuals distributed as follows: data from
Spain (n= 393), Colombia (n= 600), and Ecuador (n=151
individuals), with ages ranging from 14 to 42 years old. All
participants held nationality from one of the respective countries,
were currently or had been enrolled in a relationship, and both the
participant and his/her/their partner also had a Facebook account.
Participants completed an online survey with self-reported measures
to evaluate: self-esteem, partner conicts and their strategies to cope
with them, romantic jealousy, and Facebook jealousy. Results show
that the propensity to experience jealousy in the relationship and low
self-esteem are related with more Facebook jealousy across the three
countries. For both, Spain and Colombia, strategies to cope with
partner conicts are also associated with Facebook jealousy, in
particular lower levels of constructive strategies and higher
dominance are associated with greater Facebook jealousy. In short,
Facebook jealousy represents another way to manifest jealousy that
is inuenced by both personal and relationship variables.
KEYWORDS
Facebook; Facebook jealousy;
jealousy; self-esteem; partner
conict
Introduction
Currently, Facebook is the most relevant social network with the largest number of
active users, sometimes even surpassing Google (Anderson, Fagan, Woodnutt, &
Chamorro-Premuzic, 2012). At the end of June 2017, Facebook had more than 2 billion
users (Facebook, 2017). Social networks have modiedformsofcommunication,aswell
as the nature of interpersonal relationships (Bergdall et al., 2012; Fox & Warber, 2013;
Wilson, Gosling, & Graham, 2012). Torres-Salazar and Melamed (2016) indicate that
technology in society has generated changes in recent times by reconguring the inter-
action of people in the different scenariosandhaspromotedvariousfacilitiesand
solutions in daily living.
CONTACT Nieves Moyano nmoyano@unizar.es
© 2017 College of Sexual and Relationship Therapists
SEXUAL AND RELATIONSHIP THERAPY, 2017
VOL. 32, NOS. 34, 309322
https://doi.org/10.1080/14681994.2017.1397946
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The use of Facebook has been linked to positive aspects by satisfying interpersonal
aspects such as intimacy (Sheldon, Abad, & Hinsch, 2011), social integration (Kalpidou,
Costin, & Morris, 2011; Morris, Reese, Beck, & Mattis, 2010), and satisfaction with life
(Seder & Oishi, 2009). Although, Madariaga, Lozano, and Eduardo (2016) found that social
support is greater through face-to-face communication compared to communication medi-
ated by information and communication technology. Facebook has also been associated
with negative factors. In the context of couple relationships, the use of Facebook has been
associated with feelings of jealousy (with women reporting higher levels) (Elphinston &
Noller, 2011;McAndrew&Shah,2013,Morrisetal.,2010; Utz & Beukeboom, 2011), con-
icts, loss of privacy, rupture or divorce, physical abuse, and even crimes of passion (Muise,
Christodes, & Desmarais, 2009). Exposure through photos, videos, etc., through Facebook,
may trigger negative feelings in the relationship, which are expressed through monitoring a
partnersprole (see Hertlein, Dulley, Cloud, Leon, & Chang, this issue, for further infor-
mation regarding partner monitoring in online contexts).
Considering the expression of jealousy in several varying forms in ofine environ-
ments, and that new forms of jealousy are likely emerging in the context of social net-
working, it is important to better understand the factors associated with jealousy,
particularly in online environments. In relation to this, the objective of the present study
was to examine how these factors: self-esteem, romantic jealousy, and coping strategies in
dealing with relational conict, are associated with Facebook jealousy, across three Span-
ish-Speaking countries: Spain, Colombia, and Ecuador.
Literature review
It is important to highlight three characteristics of Facebook. First, Facebook increases the
amount of information people receive from their partners (photos, videos, likes, friends,
etc.). Second, it allows socially accepted control or supervision over the partner. Third,
information that may be relevant to the relationship is openly shown and can improve
the positive aspects, such as closeness in the relationship, or negative ones such as jealousy
(Muise et al., 2009). In a study by Muscanell, Guadagno, Rice, and Murphy (2013), it was
shown that the way in which privacy settings are used in Facebook publications impacts
the relationships, leading to jealousy, among other negative emotions. In short, Facebook
seems to act as reinforcing feelings of jealousy or conict in the couple.
Romantic jealousy is a common and complex feeling for which it is sometimes difcult to
distinguish between normality and pathology. It can be dened as feelings that are charac-
terized by thoughts, emotions, and actions that are threatening to the stability or quality of a
relationship (Mullen, 1991) or the emotional reaction to a threat to the relationship (Pfeiffer
& Wong, 1989). Jealousy can be considered as one of the most frequent emotions or feelings
in relationships, as well as one of the most destructive factors in a relationship (Buunk &
Bringle, 1987). Jealousy has been associated with low levels of self-esteem. In this sense, sev-
eral studies show that individuals with low self-esteem tend to experience higher jealousy
(Cameron, Holmes, & Vorauer, 2009; DeSteno, Preyss, & Voracek, 2012; Kellett & Totter-
dell, 2013; Malagon, Cuestas, & Reyes, 2014; Murray et al., 2009). In addition, ndings have
also indicated that jealousy is related to the quality of the relationship (Barelds & Barelds-
Dijkstra, 2007). Align with this, jealousy is associated with a greater number of conicts
(Harris & Darby, 2010; Perles, San Mart
ın, & Canto, 2016; Perles, San Mart
ın, Canto, &
310 N. MOYANO ET AL.
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Moreno, 2011), and aggressions (Ashton, Graham-Kevan, & Archer, 2008; Harris & Darby,
2010;S
anchez, Mu~
noz, Nocentini, Ortega-Ru
ız, & Menesini, 2014).
Conicts occur in any intimate relationship, and the way couples manage their relational
conict is associated with aspects of the relationship quality (Brehm, Miller, Perlman, &
Campbell, 2002). Some particular conict strategies may be associated with jealousy. For
example, studies using the Conict Tactic Scale (CTS; Straus, Hamby, Boney-McCoy, &
Sugarman, 1996) show that romantic jealousy is related with psychological tactics (Montes-
Berges, 2008). In Spanish samples, jealousy is highlighted as a variable related to violent
conict resolution strategies in couples (Perles et al., 2011). Although the CTS has been a
widely used measure, other measures such as the Romantic Partner Conict Scale (RPCS)
from Zacchilli, Hendrick, and Hendrick (2009) better represents what Canary (2000)called
routine, normative episodes of relationship conict(p. 475). The six domains that the
RPCS assesses (Compromise, Avoidance, Interactional Reactivity, Separation, Domination,
and Submission) represent either constructive or destructive strategies, which are differently
associated with relationship variables such as love, communication, respect, or relationship
satisfaction, among others. In short, while constructive conict strategies such as compro-
mise are positively related to communication, satisfaction, respect, and love, the destructive
strategies are negatively related to these variables (Zacchilli et al., 2009). Therefore, our
focus of interest, besides the link of jealousy and abusive behaviors, is to better understand
how both romantic conict strategies and Facebook jealousy are linked.
Method
Participants
Data from three Spanish-speaking countries were recruited; namely, Spain, Colombia, and
Ecuador. We considered the following inclusion criteria: (1) nationality from Spain, Colom-
bia, or Ecuador; (2) being/or having been enrolled in a relationship, and (3) both the partic-
ipant and his/her/their partner having a Facebook account. From Spain, data from 415
individuals were recruited. However, data from 22 individuals were deleted considering
that the majority of scales were not answered or nationality was other than Spanish. There-
fore, data from 393 men and women were considered in the nal sample. From Colombia,
initially, data from 646 subjects were collected; however, 46 data were deleted, because they
did not provide any answer, or their nationality was from a different Latin American coun-
try. From Ecuador, data from 169 individuals were recruited; however, data from 18 indi-
viduals were discarded considering any of the following reasons: no answers were provided,
they were not enrolled in a relationship (both currently and in the past), and/or not having
a Facebook account. Therefore, the nal sample from Ecuador was composed of 151 indi-
viduals (see Table 1 for sociodemographic characteristics from each country).
Measures
Background questionnaire
In the background questionnaire, we gathered information on participantsnationality,
sex, age, sexual orientation, civil status, education, religion, whether they were currently
SEXUAL AND RELATIONSHIP THERAPY 311
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enrolled in a relationship (or in the past), and length of their relationship. Also, partici-
pants answered whether they and his/her/their partner have an active Facebook account.
Facebook jealousy scale (FJS; Muise et al., 2009)
This scale is composed of 27 items that assess the experience of jealousy in the specic
context of Facebook. This scale is answered using a 7-point Likert scale, ranging from 1
(very unlikely) to 7 (very likely). Higher scores indicate greater jealousy in the context of
Facebook (e.g. How jealous would you feel if your partner posted pictures of himself/her-
self that are sexually provocative?). We used the global score as previously done by other
authors (Brem, Spiller, & Vandehey, 2015). Higher scores indicate higher Facebook jeal-
ousy. In this study, Cronbachs alpha values for the total score were .95, .96, and .95 for
Spanish, Colombian, and Ecuadorian participants, respectively.
Romantic jealousy scale (RJS; White, 1976)
We administered the Spanish adaptation conducted by Montes-Berges (2008). The scale
consists of six items that assess the feelings of jealousy presented by one of the partners
(e.g. How jealous do you get of your partners relationship with members of the opposite
sex?). This scale is answered using a 7-point Likert scale, ranging from 1 (not at all jeal-
ous)to7(very jealous), for items one, two, four, and six; and a 5-point Likert scale, rang-
ing from 1 (never)to5(often) for the remaining items. Higher scores indicate greater
feelings of jealousy. In this study, Cronbachs alpha values for the total score were .86, .86,
and .90 for Spanish, Colombian, and Ecuadorian participants, respectively.
Table 1. Sociodemographic characteristics of data from Spain, Colombia, and Ecuador.
Spain (n= 393) Colombia (n= 600) Ecuador (n= 151)
n(%) n(%) n(%)
Gender
Men 137 (34.9) 212 (35.3) 62 (41.1)
Women 256 (65.1) 387 (64.5) 89 (58.9)
Age range 14-42 14-40 15-42
M(SD) 25 (7.44) 24.70 (7.50) 22.30 (3.03)
Sexual orientation
Heterosexual 375 (95.4) 558 (93) 143 (94.7)
Same-sex 8 (2) 9 (1.5) 3 (2)
Bisexual 7(1.8) 14 (2.3) 2 (1.3)
Other 2 (0.5) 11 (1.8) 3 (2)
Civil status
Single 214 (54.5) 329 (54.8) 132 (87.4)
Free union 88 (22.4) 128 (21.3) 11 (7.3)
Married 73 (18.6) 113 (18.8) 8 (5.3)
Divorced 4 (1) 8 (1.3)
Education
No studies/primary 19 (4.8) 16 (2.7)
Secondary 56 (14.2) 158 (26.3) 18 (11.9)
High degree 318 (80.9) 426 (71) 133 (88.1)
Religion
Christian/catholic 275 (70) 518 (86.3) 131 (86.8)
None 107 (27.2) 66 (11) 20 (13.2)
Other 7 (2.8) 8 (2.7)
312 N. MOYANO ET AL.
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Rosenberg self-esteem scale (RSES; Rosenberg, 1989)
We used the Spanish version (Mart
ın-Albo, N
u~
nez, Navarro, & Grijalvo, 2007). This scale
is composed of 10 items that assess self-esteem (e.g. I feel that I have a number of good
qualities). This scale is answered using a 4-point Likert scale, ranging from 1 (totally
agree) to 4 (totally disagree), higher scores indicate lower self-esteem. The Spanish ques-
tionnaire showed good psychometric properties (Mart
ın-Albo et al., 2007). In this study,
Cronbachs alpha values were .81, .75, and .90 for Spanish, Colombian, and Ecuadorian
participants, respectively.
Romantic partner conict scale (RPCS; Zacchilli et al., 2009)
This scale has 39 items that assess daily conict in couples. It is divided into six factors:
Compromise (My partner and I collaborate to nd a common ground to solve problems
between us), Avoidance (I avoid disagreements with my partner), Interactional Reac-
tivity (When my partner and I disagree, we argue loudly), Separation (When we dis-
agree, we try to separate for a while so we can consider both sides of the argument),
Domination (I try to take control when we argue), and Submission (I surrender to my
partner when we disagree on an issue). This questionnaire is answered using a 5-point
Likert scale, ranging from 0 (totally disagree)to4(totally agree), higher score indicates a
better way to resolve conicts. For each subscale, Cronbachs alpha values were, respec-
tively, for Spanish, Colombian, and Ecuadorian data as follows: Compromise: .92, .92, .91;
Avoidance: .82, .79, .76; Interactional Reactivity: .73, .81, .75; Separation: .77, .81, .77;
Domination: .81, .77, .77; and Submission: .86, .85, .87.
Procedure
Prior to data collection, we conducted the translation and adaptation for both, the FJS
(Muise et al., 2009) and the RCPS (Zacchilli et al., 2009), as they had not been validated
into Spanish. Therefore, we rst conducted the translation and adaptation of both self-
reported measures. For this purpose, a forward translation was conducted from English to
Spanish (Mu~
niz, Elosua, & Hambleton, 2013) by two uent English speakers. They then
evaluated the adequacy of the translation and agreed upon a rst draft of the Spanish ver-
sion of the scale. Once, we had a rst adaptation, both scales were sent to three experts in
psychometrics and/or sexuality who evaluated the adequacy of the items based on items
representativeness of the construct and the items comprehension. The experts rated the
items ranging from 1 (nothing at all)to4(very) using the table of specication of the
items. Once a nal version for both scales was created, a pilot study was conducted, and
the scale was administered: 10 individuals from Spain, 12 from Ecuador, and 12 from
Colombia with ages ranging from 16 to 28 years old. Each participant fullled the ques-
tionnaire with suggestions, and after that, the corresponding researchers from each coun-
try discussed to each other the modications and rewording needed for some of the items.
Participants completed the questionnaires online, from October 2016 to May 2017. The
link was distributed in social networks and by the news service of different universities
(namely University of Zaragoza, University de la Costa, and University of Especialidades
Esp
ıritu Santo). The rst page of the survey included informed consent, information
about the principal investigator, the overall objective of the study, and the inclusion crite-
ria. Once individuals read the informed consent, they indicated whether they agreed to
SEXUAL AND RELATIONSHIP THERAPY 313
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take part in the study. If yes, they continued to answer the questionnaires. They were also
informed that their responses were anonymous, condential, and that the data obtained
would be solely and exclusively processed for research purposes. The sample was collected
from the general population of Spain, Colombia, and Ecuador, through an incidental pro-
cedure. All participants were volunteers and no compensation was given.
Results
First, we conducted a multivariate analysis of variance test to compare data from Spain,
Colombia, and Ecuador on each of the analyzed variables. The multivariate tests (Wilks
Lambda) were signicant for all three samples F
(18, 2262)
= 42.01; p= .000, h
2
= .25. As can
be seen in Table 2, further univariate tests showed that, scores from all variables, except
RPCS-Avoidance, were signicantly different across countries (see Table 2 for descriptive
statistics and signicant differences across data from each country). Bonferroni corrected
post hoc comparisons indicated between which countries signicant differences were
yielded.
In order to analyze the association between the examined variables, we conducted
Pearson correlations, independently for each country (see Tables 35). Similarly, for
both Spain and Colombia, the variables that were signicantly associated with Face-
book jealousy were the following: romantic partner jealousy, self-esteem, and from
RCPS compromise, interactional reactivity, separation, domination, and submission.
Age, length of the relationship and RCPS-avoidance were not signicantly associated
with Facebook jealousy. Therefore, individuals with a higher tendency to feel roman-
tic jealousy, lower self-esteem, lower collaboration to negotiate solutions in the rela-
tionship (compromise), higher verbal aggression and lack of trust between partners
(interactional reactivity), higher tendency to get separated when there is a conict
(separation), and also higher domination and submission (taking control over the
partner or surrender during conicts respectively) also report more jealousy in the
context of Facebook.
For Ecuador, a lower number of variables were signicantly associated with Facebook
jealousy. In particular, age, that is as the age increases, Facebook jealousy decreases. Also,
romantic partner jealousy, interactional reactivity, domination, and submission were
Table 2. Descriptive statistics and signicant differences across data from Spain, Colombia, and
Ecuador.
Spain Colombia Ecuador
M(SD) M(SD) M(SD) F
(2.1139)
Facebook jealousy 60.67 (31.07)
1,2
88.10 (39.75)
1
81.82 (36)
2
70.67***
Romantic partner jealousy 12.26 (5.94)
1
15.49 (6.77)
1,2
12.92 (6.71)
2
31.68***
Self-esteem 19.86 (5.27)
1
18.77 (4.84)
1
27.84 (4.67)
1
199.78***
RPCS-Compromise 44.70 (8.74)
2
43.54 (9.91)
1
35.90 (8.83)
1,2
49.79***
RPCS-Avoidance 8.46 (2.80) 8.87 (2.66) 8.66 (2.62) 2.70
RPCS-Interactional Reactivity 8.83 (4.44)
1
10.21 (5.68)
1
7.38 (4.80)
1
21.04***
RPCS-Separation 7.52 (4.18)
1,2
9.38 (5.05)
1
8.86 (4.39)
2
18.79***
RPCS-Dominance 9.52 (5.16)
1,2
11.25 (5.72)
1
11.75 (5.11)
2
14.66***
RPCS-Submission 7.99 (4.60)
1
8.80 (5.04)
1
8.37 (4.78) 3.40*
Note: Similar subscripts indicate signicant differences between groups.
***p<.001; *p<.05.
314 N. MOYANO ET AL.
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signicantly associated with Facebook jealousy, in a similar direction to the one previously
described for Spain and Colombia.
Finally, we conducted separated linear regression analyses for data from each country
in order to examine which variables better predicted Facebook jealousy. We considered as
Table 3. Pearson correlations between the examined variables from Spain.
1 2345678 91011
(1) Age .29*** .05 .10* .04 ¡.11* ¡.04 .00 ¡.05 .10* .01
(2) Length of the
relationship
¡.04 ¡.10* ¡.03 ¡.04 ¡.05 .01 ¡.00 .05 ¡.06
(3) Facebook jealousy .54*** .15** ¡.24*** ¡.04 .36*** .15** .31*** .21***
(4) Romantic partner
jealousy
.04 ¡.20*** ¡.10* .31*** .04 .20*** .15**
(5) Self-esteem ¡.06 .07 .16** .11* .16** .18***
(6) RPCS-Compromise .16** ¡.27*** ¡.06 ¡.18*** ¡.17***
(7) RPCS-Avoidance ¡.04 ¡.02 .06 .24***
(8) RPCS-Interactional
Reactivity
.32*** .49*** .37***
(9) RPCS-Separation .35*** .21***
(10) RPCS-Domination .32***
(11) RPCS-Submission
***p<.001; **p<.01; *p<.05.
Table 5. Pearson correlations between the examined variables from Ecuador.
1234567891011
(1) Age .49*** ¡.19* ¡.06 .07 .19* ¡.00 ¡.09 ¡.09 ¡.21** ¡.18*
(2) Length of the
relationship
.00 ¡.06 .03 .11 ¡.04 .07 ¡.08 ¡.12 ¡.17*
(3) Facebook jealousy .39*** .13 ¡.08 ¡.15 .25** .11 .23** .16*
(4) Romantic partner
jealousy
¡.07 .11 .26** .26** .02 .22** .08
(5) Self-esteem ¡.03 .10 .09 .10 ¡.05 .01
(6) RPCS-Compromise .40*** ¡.31*** .06 ¡.26** ¡.12
(7) RPCS-Avoidance ¡.17* .02 ¡.24** .03
(8) RPCS-Interactional
Reactivity
.23** .60*** .36***
(9) RPCS-Separation .28** .19*
(10) RPCS-Domination .50***
(11) RPCS-Submission
***p<.001; **p<.01; *p<.05.
Table 4. Pearson correlations between the examined variables from Colombia.
1234567891011
(1) Age .33*** .01 .03 .00 .09* .07 ¡.04 ¡.03 .00 .03
(2) Length of the
relationship
¡.07 ¡.12** ¡04 ¡.02 .02 ¡.07 ¡.00 ¡.02 ¡.02
(3) Facebook jealousy .51*** .15*** ¡.10* ¡.00 .37*** .17*** .35*** .22***
(4) Romantic partner
jealousy
.05 ¡.09 ¡.06 .39*** .13** .31*** .14***
(5) Self-esteem ¡.06 .08 .13** .11** .17*** .23***
(6) RPCS-Compromise .49*** ¡.07 .06 .00 .04
(7) RPCS-Avoidance ¡.05 .13** .01 .12**
(8) RPCS-Interactional
Reactivity
.43*** .56*** .39***
(9) RPCS-Separation .38*** .28***
(10) RPCS-Domination .45***
(11) RPCS-Submission
*** p<.001; **p<.01; * p<.05.
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predictor variables those that were previously signicant. For Spain and Colombia, the
variables that better predicted Facebook jealousy were greater romantic partner jealousy,
lower self-esteem, lower compromise for negotiating conicts, and higher dominance dur-
ing conicts. They explained 38% and 32% of the variance for Spanish and Colombian
scores, respectively (see Tables 6 and 7).
For Ecuador, greater romantic partner jealousy and lower self-esteem were the best
predictors of Facebook jealousy. They explained 21% of variance (see Table 8).
Taken together, the strongest predictor of Facebook jealousy was the individuals ten-
dency to feel jealous, combined with lower self-esteem. Conict strategies were only
important to predict Facebook jealousy for Spanish and Colombian data.
Discussion
The goal of the present study was to examine the factors associated with Facebook jeal-
ousy in three Spanish-Speaking countries Spain, Colombia, and Ecuador. Our ndings
indicate that the propensity to experience romantic jealousy and low self-esteem are the
most important factors associated with Facebook jealousy across the three evaluated
countries. Strategies related to coping with the relationship conicts are important only
for Spanish and Colombian couples. Particularly low ability to negotiate and nd a solu-
tion during conicts and being more dominant are predictors of Facebook jealousy. How-
ever, no signicant association between partner conicts and Facebook jealousy is
evidenced for the Ecuadorian sample.
Our study shows that men and women from Spain report lower levels of Facebook
jealousy, while Colombias participants reported the highest levels of Facebook
Table 6. Linear regression analysis in order to predict Facebook jealousy
in the Spanish sample.
Predictors RR
2
FBeta t
Romantic partner jealousy .61 .38 22.60*** .47 10.70***
Self-esteem .08 1.99*
RPCS-Compromise ¡.09 ¡2.18*
RPCS-Domination .12 2.47*
***p<.001; *p<.05.
Table 7. Linear regression analysis in order to predict Facebook jealousy
in the Colombian sample.
Predictors RR
2
FBeta t
Romantic partner jealousy .57 .32 28.63*** .41 11.16***
Self-esteem .08 2.25*
RPCS-Compromise ¡.08 ¡2.05*
RPCS-Domination .12 2.91**
*** p<.001; **p<.01; * p<.05.
Table 8. Linear regression analysis in order to predict Facebook jealousy
in the Ecuadorian sample.
Predictors RR
2
FBeta t
Romantic partner jealousy .46 .21 12.75*** .34 4.48***
Self-esteem .19 2.55*
***p<.001; * *p<.05.
316 N. MOYANO ET AL.
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jealousy and also romantic partner jealousy in comparison to Spain and Ecuador. Cer-
tain sexual behaviors or emotions are guided by cultural scripts (see Byers, 1996;
Emmers-Sommer et al., 2010). In this regard, Latin American countries are a special
case, as they often endorse relatively more rigid gender roles (Guti
errez-Quintanilla,
Rojas-Garc
ıa, & Sierra, 2010). In Spain, although sexual double standards still persists
(Sierra, Moyano, Vallejo-Medina, & G
omez-Berrocal, 2017), a study showed that 70%
of men and women report not to endorse jealousy romantic myths (P
erez, Fiol,
Guzm
an, & Basurto, 2010).
Although publications regarding jealousy are scarce in Colombia and Ecuador, some
knowledge regarding this phenomenon may emerge by focusing on the link between jeal-
ousy and violence. In Colombia, data from the National Institute of Legal Medicine and
Forensic Sciences in 2014 showed that pathological jealousy is often underneath some
expressions of violence (2014). Particularly, about 27% of victims of partner violence
reported that this violence was due to intolerance and jealousy. Aligned with this, a study
conducted in Ecuador (Boira, Carbajosa, & M
endez, 2016) indicated that jealousy is one
of the main causes of partner violence (together with machismo, alcohol and indelity).
Finally, a study regarding online jealousy in Spain showed that online intrusiveness
(dened as the lack of respect to invade the privacy of ones partner) inuences individu-
alsinvolvement in physical and psychological dating aggression (S
anchez et al., 2014).
Little research has examined the factors associated with Facebook jealousy, as
Muise et al. (2009) have been pioneers in conducting research and providing a self-
reported measure. Some previous ndings from these authors indicate that Facebook
jealousy is associated with the quality of the relationship. Similar to our ndings, Utz
and Beukeboom (2011) highlighted that Facebook jealousy is linked to low self-
esteem, jealousy as a trait, and surveillance behaviors in the relationships. Also, low
self-esteem, independent of age, is associated with greater levels of jealousy (Kellett &
Totterdell, 2013).
Regarding the association between Facebook jealousy and romantic partner conicts,
it is of interest that, especially for Spain and Colombia, the strategies to cope with con-
icts are associated with Facebook jealousy. In particular, couples that employ more
positive strategies to solve their conicts (such as compromise) feel less Facebook jeal-
ousy, while those who use more destructive strategies, such as being more verbally
aggressive or tend to be more focused on winning the conicts over the partner (inter-
actional reactivity and domination respectively) experience more Facebook jealousy.
Previous research shows that individuals who tend to show more aggressiveness or with
lower abilities to manage conicts tend to express more jealousy in their relationships
(Sebasti
an et al., 2010).
Limitations
Interpretations regarding our ndings should consider the following limitations: First,
samples from each country are mostly young and hold higher degrees of education. Also,
participants were recruited through an incidental sampling procedure. Therefore, general-
ization of our ndings to samples with other characteristics remains unknown. However,
this research can encourage others to emphasize how technology reects our
relationships.
SEXUAL AND RELATIONSHIP THERAPY 317
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Research implications
Facebook jealousy is linked to both individual characteristics and relationship variables, in
which the individual proneness to experience romantic jealousy is highlighted as the main
predictive variable. In addition, although romantic jealousy was the most important vari-
able for the prediction of Facebook jealousy, culture is of relevance, as the partner conict
strategies were differently associated with this phenomenon for each country. Therefore,
some relationship variables may or may not emerge as important related factors depend-
ing on other contextual aspects. Finally, this study may open up new horizons for research
regarding some emerging technology-related constructs. In particular, our ndings indi-
cate a strong link between romantic jealousy and Facebook jealousy, which makes us won-
der whether this or other technology-related variables are actually a new phenomenon or
a classic phenomenon, which nds a new format of expression.
Future research should expand our knowledge regarding the parallelism between mani-
festations of sexuality in a realrelationship context in comparison to a virtualcontext.
Does the virtual world represent our sexuality? What is similar? What is different? Why?
These questions may become more complex as the technology, whose development is
faster than our thoughts, reaches and goes beyond what are now unforeseen boundaries
and limitations (see McArthur & Twist; and Peterson & Twist, this issue, for a look at
future forms of technology and their potential impact on romantic relationships).
Conclusion
Technology provides new forms of expression of sexual and partner-related issues. In par-
ticular, social networking such as Facebook opens up the window to communicate with a
wide range of people (known, unknown, family, friends, ex-partners, etc.). Therefore, jeal-
ousy, and in particular Facebook jealousy, is likely to emerge as another manifestation of
jealousy associated with use. Our study, conducted in three Spanish-speaking countries,
Colombia, Spain, and Ecuador, show that the proneness to feel romantic jealousy is the
most relevant factor to predict Facebook jealousy, together, although with a most modest
association, with low self-esteem. Thus, individual characteristics are important in elicit-
ing the feeling of jealousy, which is then directed towards the partner.
The way partner conicts are sorted out is also of relevance, in particular both con-
structive and destructive strategies (compromise and dominance, respectively), only in
the cases of Spain and Colombia. Therefore, trying to nd a solution and to resolve con-
icts in a specic way is negatively associated with Facebook jealousy, while trying to take
control over the partner and to winarguments is directly associated, as a way of being
abusive and taking control. Further research considering other dyadic variables, as well as
contextual issues that could improve our knowledge regarding cultural inuence, should
be conducted.
Acknowledgments
The authors would like to extend their appreciation to Taylor Oliver for her work with translation,
and colleagues who provided their revision and suggestions during the adaptation process of the
measures. Also, the authors and editor(s) extend further thanks to Ryan B. Peterson for his
318 N. MOYANO ET AL.
Downloaded by [83.51.81.15] at 11:00 03 December 2017
additional technical edits to this paper prior to publication. Finally, we want to give thanks to all the
participants who took part in this study.
Disclosure statement
The authors declare no potential conicts of interest with respect to the research, authorship, and/
or publication of this article.
Notes on contributors
Nieves Moyano, PhD in Psychology, Facultad de Ciencias Humanas y de la Educaci
on, Departa-
mento de Psicolog
ıa y Sociolog
ıa, Universidad de Zaragoza, Huesca, Espa~
na.
Mar
ıa del Mar S
anchez-Fuentes, PhD in Psychology, Facultad de Ciencias Humanas y Sociales,
Departamento de Psicolog
ıa del Individuo, Universidad de la Costa, Barranquilla, Colombia.
Ariana Chiriboga, Bachelor in Psychology, School of Psychology, Universidad de Especialidades
Esp
ıritu Santo, Guayaquil, Ecuador.
Jennifer Fl
orez, Master in Psychology, Facultad de Ciencias Humanas y Sociales, Departamento de
Psicolog
ıa del Individuo, Universidad de la Costa, Barranquilla, Colombia.
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