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Abstract

Background An interest in substances of natural origin has been a subject that is increasing constantly-both those known for many years and recently discovered are of great interest to the researchers. This interest also applies to bee products because of their extensive nutritional and therapeutic properties; these products are known and used for several thousand years, but only recently, they became the subject of sparse documented scientific research. With the passing of time, it is difficult to determine what will be the wishes and requirements of the future consumers, what should be introduced to new technologies to ensure the demand for new products. Scope and approach Recently, there has been an increasing demand for natural products, particularly the bee products. Bee bread and pollen, due to their nutritional and medicinal properties, are used for apitherapeutic purposes. These include about 200 different substances, such as free amino acids and vitamins. Special attention should be attributed to unsaturated fatty acids such as linoleic, linolenic, and arachidonic, which are found in pollen and bee bread. Key finding and conclusion The fashion for a healthy lifestyle leads to a situation where a number of people start taking care of their health. They search for the highest quality products, preferably with health benefits, rich in vitamins, valuable bioelements, and nutrients. Therefore, bee bread that is rich in beneficial ingredients has proved to fulfill these expectations. It constitutes a wholesome, biologically active nutrient, which can be used in the food industry.

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... For instance, bee bread has a higher amino acid, sugar, lactic acid, and vitamin content compared with bee pollen. Moreover, bee bread is easily digestible and more readily absorbed by humans as the pollen grain's multi-layered wall is destroyed by the natural fermentation, making this product more biologically active [186,187]. However, as for the other bee products, the composition of bee pollen and bee bread is strictly influenced by the botanical origin and geographical and climatic conditions, which influence these products' bioactive properties [187,188]. ...
... As these bee products are an excellent source of energy and nutrients, they have always been well known for their involvement in improving humans' and animals' physical and mental states [186]. Phenolic compounds are the most investigated bioactive molecules in these bee products. ...
... In another study, it was shown that the steroid fraction of the chloroform extract from bee pollen of Brassica campestris L. induced cytotoxicity in prostate cancer PC-3 cells, probably triggering apoptosis, suggesting that this fraction could represent a promising candidate for the treatment of advanced prostate cancer [199]. In addition, it has been also observed that bee pollen and bee bread could be helpful dietary supplements for treating chemotherapy side effects [186]. Bee pollen and bread also possess a strong antimicrobial activity, possibly due to their phenolic content, but also due to the activity of the glucose oxidase secreted by honey bees [75]. ...
Article
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Biodiversity strengthens the productivity of any ecosystem (agricultural land, forest, lake, etc.). The loss of biodiversity contributes to food and energy insecurity; increases vulnerability to natural disasters, such as floods or tropical storms; and decreases the quality of both life and health. Wild and managed bees play a key role in maintaining the biodiversity and in the recovery and restoration of degraded habitats. The novelty character of this perspective is to give an updated representation of bee products’ biodiversity, sustainability, and health relationship. The role of bees as bioindicators, their importance in the conservation of biodiversity, their ecosystem services, and the variety of the bee products are described herein. An overview of the main components of bee products, their biological potentials, and health is highlighted and detailed as follows: (i) nutritional value of bee products, (ii) bioactive profile of bee products and the related beneficial properties; (iii) focus on honey and health through a literature quantitative analysis, and (iv) bee products explored through databases. Moreover, as an example of the interconnection between health, biodiversity, and sustainability, a case study, namely the “Cellulose Park”, realized in Rome (Italy), is presented here. This case study highlights how bee activities can be used to assess and track changes in the quality of agricultural ecosystems—hive products could be valid indicators of the quality and health of the surrounding environment, as well as the changes induced by the biotic and abiotic factors that impact the sustainability of agricultural production and biodiversity conservation in peri-urban areas.
... Nowadays, the concept of "food as medicine and medicine as food" assimilated to Hippocrates is increasingly common in the food sector, where the production of functional foods is a significant part of human lifestyle (1). All over the world, consumers have extensive knowledge regarding the effect of food on wellbeing and having positive food expectations (2). ...
... Because of their nutritional and medicinal properties, natural products such as unique bee brands have piqued the curiosity of academics in recent years. Even though these have been wellknown products for millennia, they have only lately become the subject of recorded scientific investigation (2). ...
... BP is deposited into honeycomb cells by bees, which seal them with honey and wax. Collected and stored, BP is exposed to lactic fermentation under the beehive conditions, resulting in BB, which is fermented BP (2). ...
Article
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Recent signs of progress in functional foods and nutraceuticals highlighted the favorable impact of bioactive molecules on human health and longevity. As an outcome of the fermentation process, an increasing interest is developed in bee products. Bee bread (BB) is a different product intended for humans and bees, resulting from bee pollen's lactic fermentation in the honeycombs, abundant in polyphenols, nutrients (vitamins and proteins), fatty acids, and minerals. BB conservation is correlated to bacteria metabolites, mainly created by Pseudomonas spp., Lactobacillus spp., and Saccharomyces spp., which give lactic acid bacteria the ability to outperform other microbial groups. Because of enzymatic transformations, the fermentation process increases the content of new compounds. After the fermentation process is finalized, the meaningful content of lactic acid and several metabolites prevent the damage caused by various pathogens that could influence the quality of BB. Over the last few years, there has been an increase in bee pollen fermentation processes to unconventional dietary and functional supplements. The use of the chosen starters improves the bioavailability and digestibility of bioactive substances naturally found in bee pollen. As a consequence of enzymatic changes, the fermentation process enhances BB components and preserves them against loss of characteristics. In this aspect, the present review describes the current biotechnological advancements in the development of BB rich in beneficial components derived from bee pollen fermentation and its use as a food supplement and probiotic product with increased shelf life and multiple health benefits.
... From a compositional point of view, BP is often a valuable source of proteins, essential amino acids, vitamins, and fatty acids as well as other compounds that, although they lack a nutritional function, exhibit an important functional character, such as pigments (carotenoids) and polyphenols, which can act as potent antioxidants. 9,10 This composition is influenced by several factors, for instance, the plant species, geographical region, and season of the year in which the pollen is collected. Thus, these constituents vary in content levels. ...
... 13 Fructose and glucose, with the ratio varying between 1.20 and 1.50, are the most abundant sugars, followed by sucrose, maltose, and other disaccharides, such as sucrose, turanose, erlose, maltose, and trehalose. 16 A total of 3−4% of BP is cellulose, which is the main component of the layers of pollen grains, and its presence significantly affects the digestibility of BP. 9 Proteins are the second most abundant component in BP. They constitute between 10 and 40% (w/w) of its dry weight. ...
... Meanwhile, ω-3 fatty acids ranged between 8.07 and 44.1%, and ω-6 fatty acids ranged between 1.77 and 38.25%. 9,10 Despite the low number of reports available, BP is considered an important source of fat-soluble vitamins (0.1%), such as vitamin A in terms of β-carotene and tocopherols (vitamin E) ( Figure S1 of the Supporting Information), as well as several water-soluble vitamins (0.3%) of vitamin B complex and vitamin C ( Table 1). 11 Dependent upon the season of the year, environmental conditions, geographical regions, and floral species, the content of certain vitamins in pollen varies. ...
Article
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Beside honey, honeybees (Apis mellifera L.) are able to produce many byproducts, including bee pollen, propolis, bee bread, royal jelly, and beeswax. Even if the medicinal properties of these byproducts have been recognized for thousands of years by the ancient civilizations, in the modern era, they have a limited use, essentially as nutritional supplements or health products. However, these natural products are excellent sources of bioactive compounds, macro- and micronutrients, that, in a synergistic way, confer multiple biological activities to these byproducts, such as, for example, antimicrobial, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory properties. This work aims to update the chemical and phytochemical composition of bee pollen, propolis, bee bread, royal jelly, and beeswax and to summarize the main effects exerted by these byproducts on human health, from the anticancer and immune-modulatory activities to the antidiabetic, hypolipidemic, hypotensive, and anti-allergic properties.
... The perception of food production and consumption is currently changing, and the development of functional food is an important part of the food market. In order to improve quality of life, modern consumers are increasingly concerned about using natural functional foods containing biologically active substances from natural sources, partly because they have better safety than synthetic drugs [1]. Scientific research describes bee products as having many benefits for health, including antibacterial, anti-atherosclerotic, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancerogenic, hepatoprotective, antiviral and antioxidants properties [2]. ...
... Accuracy and repeatability standard deviations were 0.01% and linearity R 2 = 0.999 of each standard listed in Table 3. Seventeen standard solutions were used to identify the predominant phenolic compounds in the samples, which were evaluated both before and after bacterial/spontaneous fermentation. UPLC-DAD also allowed evaluation of the content of lactic acid, which is an important parameter of successful lactic acid fermentation and helps to preserve bee bread in the hive [1,19]. ...
... Accuracy and repeatability standard deviations were 0.01% and linearity R² = 0.999 of each standard listed in Table 3. Seventeen standard solutions were used to identify the predominant phenolic compounds in the samples, which were evaluated both before and after bacterial/spontaneous fermentation. UPLC-DAD also allowed evaluation of the content of lactic acid, which is an important parameter of successful lactic acid fermentation and helps to preserve bee bread in the hive [1,19]. ...
Article
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Bee-collected pollen is one of the most valuable natural products. However, the pollen cell walls limit the digestibility and release of nutrients to the human body. Solid-state lactic acid fermentation can be used to ease the release of bioactive compounds from the pollen cell. The aim of this research was to determine the impact of a solid-state lactic acid fermentation process on biologically active compound composition and antioxidant activity of bee-collected pollen from various European regions (Italy, Netherlands, Lithuania, Poland, Sweden, Denmark, Malta, Slovakia, and Spain). Spontaneous fermentation and fermentation using an L. rhamnosus culture were performed. The total content of phenolic compounds, total content of flavonoids, and radical (DPPH) scavenging activity were measured by spectrophotometric tests, while UPLC was employed for quantification of phenolic compounds. The determined fermentation positive effects included an increase of total phenolic content by 1.4–2.3 times, total flavonoid content by 1.1–1.6 times, and radical scavenging activity by 1.4–2.3 times. Naringenin (21.09–135.03 µg/g), quercetin (6.62–78.86 µg/g), luteolin (29.41–88.90 µg/g), and rutin (21.40–89.93 µg/g) were the most abundant flavonoids in all samples; however, their variation level was both geographical in origin and fermentation-type dependent. Fermentation increased the content of phenolic acids with high antioxidant potentials such as ellagic, ferulic and caffeic, while reduction of chlorogenic acid was determined.
... The use of bee products dates to the ancient times where Greeks believed that honey and pollen are the food of kings, maintain vigour and vitality in life (Gupta and Stangaciu, 2014;Rao et al., 2016). The bee pollen is mentioned in the holy scriptures, including the Bible (Kieliszek et al., 2018;Bakour et al., 2017). Many ancient enmities like Hippocrates, Pliny the Elder, and Pythagoras believed that pollen has therapeutic effect Campos et al., 2020;Çelik and Aşgun, 2020). ...
... Many ancient enmities like Hippocrates, Pliny the Elder, and Pythagoras believed that pollen has therapeutic effect Campos et al., 2020;Çelik and Aşgun, 2020). Bee products in ancient times were considered highly valued products and played a major role in the religious rites (Kieliszek et al., 2018;Bakour et al., 2017). Larger scale use of pollen for human consumption started only after the Second World War, with the evolvement of improved and easily accessible pollen traps (Campos et al., 2010;Kieliszek et al., 2018;Brown, 1989). ...
... Bee products in ancient times were considered highly valued products and played a major role in the religious rites (Kieliszek et al., 2018;Bakour et al., 2017). Larger scale use of pollen for human consumption started only after the Second World War, with the evolvement of improved and easily accessible pollen traps (Campos et al., 2010;Kieliszek et al., 2018;Brown, 1989). ...
Article
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There has been an increasing demand for natural products, particularly the bee products in the Covid-19 pandemic situation. Honeybees produce honey, royal jelly, propolis, bee venom, bee pollen, and beeswax, which potentially benefit to humans. Bee bread and pollen are widely used for apitherapeutic purposes due to the nutritional and medicinal properties. These include about 200 different substances, especially enzymes, free amino acids and vitamins. Clinical standardization of these products is usually hindered due to chemical variability and inconsistency of bee products depending on honeybee and botanical sources. The major bioactive compounds in honeybee products include phenolics, methylglyoxal, royal jelly proteins (MRJPs), and oligosaccharides. Royal jelly consist of antimicrobial jelleins and royalisin peptides, MRJPs, and hydroxy-decenoic acid derivatives, notably 10-hydroxy-2-decenoic acid (10-HDA), which has potent antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, neuromodulatory, metabolic syndrome preventing, and anti-aging activities. Caffeic acid phenethyl ester and artepillin C found in propolis shows good antiviral, immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory and anticancer effects. The major components of bee venom consists of toxic peptides like melittin (pain-inducing), apamin (SK channel blocking), and phospholipase A2 (allergenic). Bee pollen rich in vitamins, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory plant phenolics. Bee pollen also contains antiatherosclerotic, antidiabetic, and hypoglycemic flavonoids, unsaturated fatty acids, and sterols. Beeswax is pharmaceutical as well as widely used in cosmetics and makeup. Given the importance of drug discovery from natural sources and present Covid-19 pandemic situation, this review is aimed at providing an exhaustive screening of the bioactive compounds detected in honeybee products and of their curative or adverse biological effects.
... Although the botanical origin is the primary factor in determining the chemical composition of the pollen, other factors such as geographical origin, weather conditions, climate, type of soil where the pollen is harvested, the time during harvesting has taken place, and even the breed of bees can also influence the pollen composition . As a result, there is a significant variation in the nutritional components of each pollen that have numerous valuable therapeutic properties (Denisow and Denisow-Pietrzyk, 2016;Kieliszek et al., 2018). The pollen usually has high moisture content and needs to be dried to maintain its nutrients and prevents degradation (Kieliszek et al., 2018). ...
... As a result, there is a significant variation in the nutritional components of each pollen that have numerous valuable therapeutic properties (Denisow and Denisow-Pietrzyk, 2016;Kieliszek et al., 2018). The pollen usually has high moisture content and needs to be dried to maintain its nutrients and prevents degradation (Kieliszek et al., 2018). It has been consumed as a health food supplement and even considered medicine from a long time ago (Linskens and Jorde, 1997). ...
... The process of breaking down the outer layer of pollen, the exine, which is made of sporopollenin, is essential in the transformation process so that all the pollen nutrients are more accessible to the host. The enzymatic transformation of pollen into bee bread provides pollen protection against the loss of properties and the development of new components (Kieliszek et al., 2018). However, previous data reported a slight difference in its composition compared to pollen (Nagai et al., 2004). ...
Chapter
Pollen and bee bread are valuable apitherapeutic products owing to their high-potential medical and nutritional applications. They are rich in nutritional properties such as proteins, amino acids, carbohydrates, lipids and fatty acids, phenolic compounds, enzymes, and coenzymes together with vitamins and bioelements, which are essential for maintaining human health. They demonstrate various potential biological activities with health-promoting properties such as antioxidant, hepatoprotective, antiobesity, antiinflammatory, antimicrobial, antifungal, antiviral, antiradiation, and anticancer attributed to their natural antioxidants, including mostly phenolic compounds. The liver plays a major role in the metabolism of various substances. The intake of dietary components is crucial for liver health which can be beneficial or detrimental to the healthy or diseased liver. This chapter provides a general overview of the functional properties of pollen and bee bread related to liver health, their safety, and future warranted research.
... Studies demonstrated that bee bread has an effect on the development of the digestive tract and improves the immune system and facilitates medicinal therapy. Bee bread proved to have some beneficial effects such as antimicrobial, anti-atherosclerotic activity, anti-ageing and anti-anaemic activity including effective antioxidant that has acted against active oxidative stress [43]. Hens fed with a 0.5 g bee bread/kg diet were found to produce significantly increased egg number and laying rate compared to the control group [44]. ...
... The bee bread was diluted with 1.0 ml distilled water for easier administration of the bee bread by oral gavage. The doses of bee bread were based on human consumption which was one tablespoon daily or approximately 30 g/ 60 kg of body weight [43]. Rats in C and T2 groups were given 1.0 ml of distilled water daily to experience the same force-feeding procedure as T1 and T3 groups to avoid other stress interference. ...
Article
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Exposure to extreme temperature during pregnancy was associated with abnormal birth outcomes including preterm birth, low birth weight, and placental abortion. Bee bread is a natural product created by bees that is highly nutritional and was recommended for human consumption as a source of high energy and protein. Hence, this study aims to determine the effect of bee bread on pregnancy outcomes and the reproductive system of the ovary and uterus in rats exposed to heat stress.
... Bee pollens are rich sources of various minerals as well as organic substances [4][5][6]. The roles of nutritional and physiologically important elements in completing the deficiencies are not well known. ...
... In the present study, potentially toxic element accumulation rate and possible risk levels were estimated according to the daily pollen consumption amount. The recommended daily dose of pollen consumption for an adult was reported to range from 20 to 40 g [4,39]. If a teaspoon is 7.5 g of pollen, it can be concluded that one dose is 3-5 teaspoons of this product for adults and 1-2 teaspoons for children [40]. ...
Article
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Honeybee pollens are good food sources in terms of their mineral contents and are specifc to the regions they are collected. In addition, they may be used as bioindicators in the assessment of environmental pollution based on their potentially toxic element contents. In the present study, mineral element composition and potentially toxic element levels of honeybee pollen samples collected from various cities in East Black Sea Region of Turkey (18 samples) were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) after microwave assisted acid digestion. The method validation was performed by using CRM (Certifed Reference Material-BCR®279-Sea Lettuce-Ulva lactuca) to evaluate the accuracy and precision. Elemental composition of honeybee pollens were detected within the following ranges (minimum–maximum, mg kg−1 dry pollen); Mn (manganese): 11.579–117.349, Fe (Iron): 34.865–811.043, Zn (zinc): 17.707–56.223, Se (selenium): 0.422–0.722, Cr (chromium): 0.848–6.949, Cu (copper): 7.510–26.344, Mg (magnesium): 549.921–2149.716, Ca (calcium): 726.575–2201.837, Na (sodium): 36.518–120.283, Pb (lead):<0.005–0.622, Cd (cadmium): 0.039–1.390, Ni (nickel): 2.317–21.710, and As (arsenic): 1.331–2.248. Recommended daily allowance, target hazard quotients, hazard index, and carcinogenic risk values of the pollens were calculated with the help of these results. In considering THQ values, pollens were determined to be safe for the consumption of both genders. Based on the carcinogenic risk calculation, most of the pollens examined in this study were categorized as moderately risky. Monitoring studies can be used to identify new sources of contamination or the origin and spread of a particular element. Hence, bee pollens can also be considered as potential bioindicators of toxic metal pollution.
... Therefore, honeybee pollens are valuable natural herbal substances with a variety of therapeutic applications for humans, especially in medical and nutritional uses (Ares et al. 2018;Denisow and Denisow-Pietrzyk 2016;Komosinska-Vassev et al. 2015;Margaoan et al. 2019;URCAN et al. 2017). They have antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, anticarcinogenic, and antiallergic activities that affect different body functions appropriately (Denisow and Denisow-Pietrzyk 2016;Kieliszek et al. 2018;Komosinska-Vassev et al. 2015;Kostić et al. 2020;Li et al. 2018). ...
... Besides organic compounds, honeybee pollens are rich sources of various minerals (Kieliszek et al. 2018;Kostić et al. 2015;Li et al. 2018). The role of nutritional and physiologically important elements in completing deficiencies is of great importance. ...
Article
Full-text available
Surface chemistry of pollen samples was characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Then the concentrations of certain elements (Li, Al, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Cd, Ba, and Pb) in pollen samples were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) for the evaluation of environmental pollution. The levels of elements were detected in the following ranges (minimum–maximum, mg/kg dry pollen): Li (0.18–0.39), Al (24.98–308.04), V (6.18–98.58), Cr (1.05–6.81), Mn (13.85–95.91), Fe (52.20–326.26), Co (0.15–0.34), Ni (1.66–10.79), Cu (8.61–19.01), Zn (20.47–70.02), As (1.22–2.65), Se (0.39–0.67), Cd (0.05–0.74), Ba (0.73–16.30), and Pb (0.00–0.26). It has been concluded that there is a correlation between the pollen samples with high heavy metal concentrations and traffic density as these regions are closer to the road in the northern region. It is exposed to pollution from various sources such as intensified urbanization and tourism activities carried out on land and sea; industrial activities are increasing rapidly due to the opportunities offered by the coastal areas, sea transportation, and agricultural, domestic, and industrial pollution coming from the inner regions through rivers and streams. In this sense, pollens can be used as potential bio-indicators for monitoring heavy metal pollution and gives an idea about how we can use them for future assessing purposes.
... The morphological and structural analysis of pollen grains under the microscope allows for the identification of species, family, or genus from which they originate and determines the percentage of each type of pollen, and its respective classification (monofloral or multifloral) [3]. When the product contains more than 90% pollen from a single species, it is considered monofloral, and its name is specified [1,2,4,5]. There are no standards or regulations at the European Union level or norms imposed by other agencies regarding this product's quality, physical-chemical properties, and microbial load [6]. ...
... About 250 substances have been identified from different plant species [1]. The main chemicals that could be present are amino acids, proteins, carbohydrates (fructose, glucose, sucrose, maltose, trehalose, etc.), lipids (fatty acids-FA, phospholipids, sphingolipids, triglycerides), nucleic acids, phenolic compounds, mineral elements (aluminium, calcium, copper, chromium, iron, etc.), enzymes and coenzymes, carotenoids, volatile oils as well as vitamins (group-B, C, D, E, H, K) [1,3,4,[9][10][11]. ...
Article
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This paper evaluated the chemical and biological properties of bee pollen samples from Romania. Firstly, the bee pollen alcoholic extracts (BPEs) were obtained from raw bee pollen harvested by Apis mellifera carpatica bees. The chemical composition of BPE was obtained by determination of total phenol content and total flavonoid content, UHPLC-DAD-ESI/MS analysis of phenolic compounds, and GC-MS analysis of fatty acids, esters, and terpenes. Additionally, the antioxidant activity was evaluated by the Trolox Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity method. Furthermore, the biological properties of BPE were evaluated (antimicrobial and cytotoxic activity). The raw BP samples studied in this paper had significant phenolic acid and flavonoid content, and moderate fatty acid, ester, and terpene content. P1, P2, and P4 have the highest TPC and TFC levels, and the best antioxidant activity. All BPEs studied had antimicrobial activity on pathogenic strains isolated from the clinic or standard strains. A synergistic antimicrobial effect of the BPEs was observed along with the soluble compounds of L. rhamnosus MF9 and E. faecalis 2M17 against some pathogenic (clinical) strains and, considering the tumour proliferation inhibitory activity, makes BP a potential prebiotic and antitumour agent for the gut environment.
... Bee pollen is widely used for the treatment of stomach ulcers, menopausal syndrome, prostatitis and infectious diseases. Consumption of bee pollen may also help lower the risk of heart diseases, cancer and type 2 diabetes [3,11]. ...
... It was found that the consumption of bee bread prevents deficiency of vitamins and nutrients and, in consequence, the formation of many diseases. Bee bread also improves the elimination of toxins from the organism, reduces allergic reactions, regulates cholesterol levels and demonstrates an antiaging and antianemic activity [11,13]. ...
Article
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In this study, the profile of free and conjugated phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of bee bread, bee pollen, honey and beeswax samples from the same beehive was analyzed. The contents of free phenolic compounds and those released from the esters and glycosides bounds were analyzed by HPLC–TOF–MS/MS method. In the obtained extracts, the total of phenolic (TP) and flavonoid (TF) contents was measured using spectrophotometric methods, while antioxidant activity was determined by DPPH and ABTS in vitro assays. Therefore, in the tested honeybee products 23 phenolic compounds were identified, constituting of 14 phenolic acids and nine flavonoids. Among the phenolic acids, ferulic (bee bread), protocatechuic (bee pollen) and m-coumaric acids (honey and beeswax) were predominant. In case of flavonoids, the major compounds were vitexin in bee bread, orientin in bee pollen, and apigenin in honey. The highest TP and TF contents were detected in the bee pollen, and was 4.11 mg GAE/g and 0.41 mg Q/g, respectively. Moreover, these compounds were mostly present in bound form. Honeybee product extracts had high scavenging ability against radicals, and their antioxidant activity differed significantly across samples (p < 0.05). Overall, this study demonstrates that selected honeybee products are an abundant source of the bioactive compounds with the characteristic profile of phenolic compound as well as antioxidant activity.
... Healing properties of the bee products are recorded in many religious texts, including the Bible, Vedas, and Quran (4,5). Bee collected pollen (BCP) and bee bread (BB) are used as food supplements for humans (6), even the Greeks believed that BCP and honey were the food of kings, which can give them the youthfulness and life. Nowadays, bee products [honey, royal jelly (RJ), propolis, beeswax, bee venom (BV), bee collected pollen (BCP), and bee bread (BB)] as natural medicines are gaining prominence for the full of bioactive compounds that are associated with their high bioactive molecule content (7), beneficial health properties (4,8), including powerful healing properties. ...
... Bee products can be divided into three categories: (1) bee collection and brewing products, such as propolis, honey and BCP, BB; (2) Bee secretions, such as RJ, beeswax, and BV; and (3) bee ecological bodies and hives, such as bee larvae, bee corpses, and old beehives (39) (Figure 1). Hive products and their apitherapy have a long history dates back to the ancient times, which have been used in phytotherapy and diet for their powerful healing properties (6). Over the past 5 years, several research papers have been published focus on the beneficial compounds, data from the web of science were shown in Figure 2. ...
Article
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Increased demand for a more balanced, healthy, and safe diet has accelerated studies on natural bee products (including honey, bee bread, bee collected pollen royal jelly, propolis, beeswax, and bee venom) over the past decade. Advanced food processing techniques, such as ultrasonication and microwave and infrared (IR) irradiation, either has gained popularity as alternatives or combined with conventional processing techniques for diverse applications in apiculture products at laboratory or industrial scale. The processing techniques used for each bee products have comprehensively summarized in this review, including drying (traditional drying, infrared drying, microwave-assisted traditional drying or vacuum drying, and low temperature high velocity-assisted fluidized bed drying), storage, extraction, isolation, and identification; the assessment methods related to the quality control of bee products are also fully mentioned. The different processing techniques applied in bee products aim to provide more healthy active ingredients largely and effectively. Furthermore, improved the product quality with a shorter processing time and reduced operational cost are achieved using conventional or emerging processing techniques. This review will increase the positive ratings of the combined new processing techniques according to the needs of the bee products. The importance of the models for process optimization on a large scale is also emphasized in the future.
... Apart from this, bee bread is an excellent source of energy and nutrition for humans due to the higher protein concentration of pollens. The biochemical components of bee bread include vitamins, fatty acids, proteins, enzymes, hormones, antioxidants, carbohydrates, and minerals (Kieliszek et al., 2018). Nowadays, bee bread is very popular in the commercial market due to its high nutritional properties. ...
Article
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Triticum aestivum, commonly known as bread wheat, is one of the most cultivated crops globally. Due to its increasing demand, wheat is the source of many nutritious products including bread, pasta, and noodles containing different types of seed storage proteins. Wheat seed storage proteins largely control the type and quality of any wheat product. Among various unique wheat products, bread is the most consumed product around the world due to its fast availability as compared to other traditional food commodities. The production of highly nutritious and superior quality bread is always a matter of concern because of its increasing industrial demand. Therefore, new and more advanced technologies are currently being applied to improve and enrich the bread, having increased fortified nutrients, gluten-free, highly stable with enhanced shelf-life, and long-lasting. This review focused on bread proteins with improving wheat qualities and nutritional properties using modern technologies. We also describe the recent innovations in processing technologies to improve various quality traits of wheat bread. We also highlight some modern forms of bread that are utilized in different industries for various purposes and future directions.
... Numerous studies have pointed out the high nutritional value and health benefits of such bee products as pollen, bee bread, honey, and beeswax [1][2][3]. It has been proven that their positive impact on the human body (antioxidant, anti-microbial, anti-fungal, antiinflammatory, etc.) could be related to the high content of specific bioactive compounds. ...
Article
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This study aimed to characterize bee products (bee bread, bee pollen, beeswax, and multiflorous honey) with the profile of phenolic compounds, total phenolic (TPC) and flavonoid (TFC) contents, and antioxidant and microbiological properties. The TP and TF contents could be ordered as follows: bee pollen > bee bread > beeswax > honey. The UPLC−PDA−MS/MS analysis allowed identifying 20 polyphenols. Sinapic acid dominated in bee pollen, gallic acid in the bee bread and honey, while pinobanksin was the major compound of beeswax. The data showed that bee pollen and bee bread had a stronger antioxidant potential than honey and beeswax. Moreover, the antibacterial activity of the bee products was studied using 14 bacterial strains. Bee bread’s and bee pollen’s antimicrobial activity was higher towards Gram-negative strains. In comparison, honey was more potent in inhibiting Gram-positive bacteria. Our study indicates that bee products may represent valuable sources of bioactive compounds offering functional properties.
... They also contain a wide variety of other health promoting compounds present in functional foods, such as prebiotics, probiotics, fibre, lignans, triterpenes, carotenoids, bioactive peptides and organic acids [1][2][3][4][5]. Therefore it is considered as an excellent substitute of antibiotics [6] and implemented as complementary medicine for a large variety of impaired health conditions [4,7,8]. Bee pollen exhibits antibacterial and antifungal activity [1,3,[9][10][11][12]. ...
Article
Microorganisms and helminthes can cause serious diseases in humans as well as in animals. The use of antimicrobial and antihelminthic drugs have created selective pressure and caused resistance to antibiotics used against them, thus it necessitates the use of honey bee’s derived natural products. One such bee derived product is pollen, collected by worker honey bees from the flowering plants and modify it by adding its salivary secretions. The present study embodies use of pollen as antimicrobial and antihelminthic substance. Among microorganisms 4 Gram (+ve) bacteria; (Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae) and 3 Gram (-ve) bacteria; (Escherichia Coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella enteric) and 2 yeasts (Candida albicans and Saccharomyces cerevisiae) were used and the methodology used disc diffusion assay and broth dilution method. The antihelminthic effect was observed among amphistomes via bioassay method under in vitro conditions. For observations three types of pollen extracts (ethanolic, methanolic and water extract) were prepared and positive controls used were; Ampicillin for antibacterial, Amphotericin B for antifungal and Albendazole for anti-helminthes. The antimicrobial activities were determined by measuring the zones of inhibition diameters in millimeters after 24 hours of incubation at optimum temperature for each microbe and also by broth dilution method. Results obtained showed that the water extract of pollen was found to be most effective against bacteria used in the present study where; Gram (+ve) bacteria were more susceptible as compared to the Gram (-ve) bacteria. It was also observed that among yeasts; Saccharomyces cerevisiae was more susceptible towards ethanolic extract of pollen while Candida albicans showed more inhibitions towards water extract of pollen. Results also demonstrated that none of the extracts of pollen was found to be effective against Helminthes (amphistomes) used in the present study.
... Similarly, Grunert (2017) declared that the increasing consumers' interest in health products is obvious, taking into consideration its positive supply trend occurs recently. Thus, Kieliszek et al. (2018); Testa, Asciuto, Schifani, Schimmenti & Migliore (2019) claimed that consumers are looking for products with the highest quality of ingredients, benefits for the health and also rich in vitamins and nutrients. ...
Conference Paper
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Financial literacy is critical for the future well-being of individuals. Understanding the basic concept of finance enables people to make sound financial decisions and gain a better knowledge of investment. The study measures financial literacy and its impact on stock market participation using the big three questions of interest compounding, inflation, and risk diversification. An empirical survey was conducted on 215 respondents in Indonesia. The data was collected through an online questionnaire from June 14 to September 30, 2021. The binary logistic regression was applied to analyze the data. The empirical result confirms that fewer than half of respondents answer financial literacy questions correctly. The proportion of correct answers for compound interest is 47%, followed by risk diversification and inflation at 37% and 34%. Furthermore, employment status, compound interest, and inflation significantly impact stock market participation. However, gender, marital status, and risk diversification were insignificantly related to stock market participation in Indonesia. The research contributes to policymakers in understanding the determinant of stock market participation in Indonesia
... Moving toward bee pollen-derived products, bee bread has a similar composition to bee pollen, but with marked quantitative differences mainly related to the fermentation process, which it undergoes. For instance, bee bread delivers higher amino acids, sugar, lactic acid, and vitamin content compared to bee pollen [123,124]. In a recent study, bee bread from different regions in Greece, containing Castanea sativa, Cistus sp., Hedera helix, Borago sp., and other pollen grains belonging to the Brassicaceae family, showed both antibacterial and antioxidant activity [125]. ...
Article
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Plant species are fundamental source of nectar in beekeeping since bees access nectar and pollen from flowers. Consequently, bee products are strongly linked to the bee foraging flora source, and, depending on this, they acquire defined features, including their health and medicinal properties. Medicinal plants contribute greatly to increase the beneficial properties of bee products, such as honey, pollen, royal jelly, and propolis. Bee products represent a potential source of natural antioxidants that can counteract the effects of oxidative stress underlying the pathogenesis of many diseases. The antioxidant properties of bee products have been widely studied and there is an abundance of information available in the literature. Notwithstanding, the uniqueness of the presented perspective is to provide an updated overview of the antioxidant properties of bee products derived from medicinal plants as beekeeping sources. This topic is divided and discussed in the text in different sections as follows: (i) beekeeping and the impacts of environmental factors; (ii) an overview of the role of medicinal plants for bee products; (iii) definition and categorization of the main medicinal bee plants and related bee products; (iv) the study approach of the antioxidant properties; (v) the conventional and innovative assays used for the measurement of the antioxidant activity; and (vi) the antioxidant properties of bee products from medicinal plants.
... The foraging bees deliver the collected pollen loads to the hive and pack them directly into the empty cells of the honeycomb, where it is later secured and mixed with wax and honey [31]. The lactic fermentation process of pollen in the honeycomb performed by Lactobacillus bacteria under anaerobic conditions converts pollen into a more preserved state called "bee bread" [32], which gives it a high nutritive value [33]. Bee bread has been reported to have excellent digestibility and abundant chemical compositions [34]. ...
Article
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Metabolic dysfunction-associated fatty liver disease (MAFLD) is a pathological accumulation of hepatic lipid closely linked with many metabolic disorders, oxidative stress and inflammation. We aimed to evaluate the hepatoprotective effect of bee bread on oxidative stress and inflammatory parameters in MAFLD rats. Twenty-eight male Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned into four groups (n = 7/group): normal control (NC), high-fat diet (HFD), bee bread (HFD + Bb, HFD + 0.5 g/kg/day bee bread) and orlistat (HFD + Or, HFD + 10 mg/kg/day orlistat) groups. After 12 weeks, the HFD group demonstrated significantly higher body weight gain, serum levels of lipids (TG, TC, LDL), liver enzymes (AST, ALT, ALP) and adiponectin, liver lipids (TG, TC) and insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). Furthermore, the HFD group showed significantly decreased antioxidant enzyme activities (GPx, GST, GR, SOD, CAT) and GSH level, and increased liver oxidative stress (TBARS, NO), translocation of Nrf2 to the nucleus, Keap1 expression and inflammation (TNF-α, NF-κβ, MCP-1) together with histopathological alterations (steatosis, hepatocyte hypertrophy, inflammatory cell infiltration, collagen deposition), which indicated the presence of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and fibrosis. Bee bread significantly attenuated all these changes exerted by HFD feeding. In conclusion, our results suggest that bee bread might have antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-steatotic and anti-fibrotic effects that are beneficial in protecting liver progression towards NASH and fibrosis.
... These compounds exhibit a variety of beneficial properties such as anticarcinogenic, antioxidant, antiapoptotic, anti-atherosclerosis, anti-inflammation, cardiovascular protection, anti-aging, and enhancement of endothelial function, as well as inhibition of angiogenesis and cell proliferation activity [22]. Bee pollen also contains relatively high amounts of phenolics, and the flavonoids (0.2-2.5%) are the main compounds [23]. In this study, the total phenolic content of pollen extract from mixed pollen types was calculated spectrophotometrically using the Folin-Ciocalteu method as an equivalent to gallic acid. ...
Article
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In this study, the botanical origin, total flavonoid and phenolic content, antioxidant activity, phenolic profile and fatty acid composition of mixed bee pollen loads collected in Bayburt, Turkey, were determined. In addition to these assays, antibacterial activity of bee-collected pollen extract (BCPE) against a variety of food-borne pathogenic bacteria was determined in vitro. Pollen loads were classified into five botanical families based on their color: Asteraceae, Fabaceae, Campanulaceae, Cistaceae and Rosaceae. Total flavonoid, total phenolic, CUPRAC and CERAC concentrations were 173.52 mg GAE/g, 79.21 mg QE/g, 85.59 mg Trolox/g and 118.13 mg Trolox/g, respectively. Twenty-three phenolic compounds were scanned in bee pollen extract by LC-MS/MS, with rutin being the most abundant. Cis-4,7,10,13,16,19 docosahexaenoic acid was the predominant fatty acid, followed by cis-11-eicosenoic acid, palmitic acid, and alfa linolenic acid. In addition, the agar well diffusion (AWD) and micro-broth dilution methods were used to determine of the antibacterial activity of the BCPE sample. MIC values were observed to vary between 2.5–5 mg/mL for Gram-positive bacteria and 5–10 mg/mL for Gram-negative bacteria. These findings indicate that bee pollen could be a potential source of antioxidants and antimicrobials.
... Bee bread is a health-oriented bee product rich in nutritional value (Kieliszek et al., 2018). Bees produce this product by combining the pollen with their digestive enzymes and placing them in the comb cells (Vásquez & Olofsson, 2009). ...
Article
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Bee bread is a bee product produced by bees in which they combine pollen with their digestive enzymes and place them in the comb cells. In this study, it was aimed to evaluate the nutritional and antioxidant properties of Anatolian bee bread and present an examination of regional differences. In order to emphasize the bioavailability of bee bread and to determine its phenolic, flavonoid content, antioxidant activity and nutritional quality, ten samples were collected from different parts of Anatolia. Seven of them were from Muğla (prominent city in terms of honey production), one was from Van representing the Eastern Anatolia region, one was from Sivas representing the Central Anatolia region and one was from Kırşehir. Ten samples were analyzed for total phenolic, flavonoid, antioxidant and moisture content, and the mixture representing ten samples were analyzed for nutritional content (carbohydrate, fat, saturated fat, fiber, protein, salt, ash, iron and zinc). Total phenolic content, flavonoid, antioxidant content and moisture content of the samples were determined as 11.90 – 14.77 mg GAE/g, 1.30 – 6.30 mg CE/g, 20.03 – 35.43 mg TEAC/g and 10.13 – 18.10%, respectively. The highest phenolic, flavonoid and antioxidant content was observed in Muğla2 samples. The study’s results were compared to results found in literature, and it was concluded that Anatolian bee bread has high antioxidant content and nutritional value, especially, in terms of carbohydrates, iron and zinc.
... Bee bread is a mixture of plant ower pollen, wax, honey, and salivary gland secretion of bees compacted into honeycombs. Bee bread mixture is a perfectly complete food, has high energy, and is a nutrient resource for bee larvae and adult bees 3 . The components of bee bread encompass proteins and amino acid (8.0-28%), carbohydrates (15-45%), lipids and fatty acids (7.0-15%), vitamins, minerals, and antioxidant compounds such as avonoids, and phenolic acids, depending on the plant's sources and collationed region 4 . ...
Preprint
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This work explores the proximate composition, fatty acid profile, nutritional quality, and anti-amylase activity of propolis, royal jelly, and bee bread. The differential FTIR patterns of propolis, royal jelly, and bee bread reflect these products have different proximate compositions and nutritional properties. The values for carbohydrate, fat, and protein values of be products are similar to egg and soya. The primary fatty acids bee bread and bee propolis are palmitic, linolenic, oleic, linoleic, myristic, and docosanoic acids. The primary fatty acids in royal jelly are 2-dodecenedioic, 10-hydroxy-2-decenoic, decanedioic, linoleic, 10-hydroxydecanoic acid 3-hydroxy-decanoic acids, respectively. The propolis, bee bread, and royal jelly have well-balanced saturated, unsaturated, monounsaturated, polyunsaturated, omega-3, and omega-6 fatty acids. Their nutritional quality, including omega-6/omega-3, thrombogenicity, atherogenicity, hypocholesterolemic, nutritional value, and peroxidizability indexes, are similar to egg and soya. Fatty acids inhibit amylase by increasing Km/Vmax and decreasing Vmax and Km through an un-competition or non-competition strategy. Molecular docking, ultraviolet absorption, and fluorescence quenching analysis reveal that fatty acids interact with amino acid residues of amylase through Van der Waals and hydrogen bonds interactions. Functional fatty acids from bee products can be used in a number of food supplements, food ingredients, and medications to provide carbohydrate-degrading enzymes.
... A similar conclusion was described in work, which results concluded that fermented camel milk could provide a beneficial effect on the inflammation associated with obesity [46]. Even though the above-listed additives offer enormous health benefits [47][48][49][50][51][52][53][54][55][56][57], they have not been considered an add-on to camel milk until recently. ...
Article
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This study aimed to assess potential feeding effect of camel milk curd mass and its mixes to experimental rat’s blood serum biochemical parameters, enzymatic activity and the peptide toxicity. Fifty healthy male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into five groups (n = 10 each). Each group was fed with camel milk pure curd mass and its mixes for 16 days. At the end of the experiment, rats were sacrificed to collect the samples from the blood serum. Blood serum biochemical parameters total protein, cholesterol, glucose, albumin, triglycerides; the enzymatic activities of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase were determined on the A25 automatic analyser, and peptide toxicity analysed by the reference method. The statistical data have shown no significant differences in body weight gain in all groups. Total protein decreased in group II, IV, and V; however, it increased in group III compared to the control group. Cholesterol grew up in group II and it slightly increased in group V, dropped in groups III and IV compared to group I result. Glucose increased in groups II, III, IV compared to group I; still, group V results show a slight decrease. Albumin decreased in group IV, yet in group V it increased than the group I result. Simultaneously, groups II and III results were changed with less percentage. Triglyceride grew up in groups II, V, and it dropped significantly in groups III, IV compared to the control group. De Ritis ratio of enzymes in groups II, III, and IV fluctuated between 1.31 and 0.98 IU/L; however, group V demonstrated significant data versus group I. Diets peptide toxicity in all groups was lower than control group data. The experimental results indicated that curd mass from camel milk could be used as a pure or with additives and it did not discover the observed side effects.
... Bee bread is usually formed due to the outcome of the fermentation from the combination of pollen, digestive enzymes found in saliva, and nectar [1,2]. It possesses high protein, carbohydrates, fats, and mineral components. ...
Article
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Obesity is a debilitating disorder with a variety of problems including oxidative stress, inflammation, and apoptosis. The aim of our study was to investigate the therapeutic role of bee bread on oxidative stress, apoptosis, and inflammation in the testis of obese rats. Thirty-two adult male Sprague Dawley rats, with weights between 230-300 g, were distributed into four groups (n = 8/group), namely normal control (C), obese (Ob), obese + BB or obese + OR [high-fat diet (HFD) for 6 weeks then HFD plus bee bread or orlistat for another 6 weeks] groups. Bee bread (0.5 g/kg) or orlistat (10 mg/kg/day) was diluted with distilled water and administered daily for 6 weeks by oral gavage. There were significant decreases in the activities of antioxidant enzymes [glutathione-S-transferase (GST), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase (CAT), glu-tathione reductase (GR)], glutathione (GSH)] and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) levels and mRNA expressions of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), superoxide dismutase (Sod), catalase (Cat) and glutathione peroxidase (Gpx) in the obese group relative to the control group. Meanwhile, the mRNA levels of pro-inflammatory markers, namely: inducible nitric oxide synthase (Inos), nuclear factor kappa B (Nf-κβ), tumour necrotic factor α (Tnf-α) and interleukin 1β (Il-1β) were significantly increased while interleukin (Il-10) was decreased in the obese group relative to the control group. Further, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) immunoexpressions decreased while cleaved caspase-3 immunohistochemical staining increased significantly in the obese group, in addition to increases in the mRNA levels of p53, Bax, Caspases-8, 9 and 3, relative to the control group. Treatment with bee bread showed increases in antioxidant enzymes and PCNA im-munoexpression, as well as decreases in inflammation and apoptosis markers in the testes. This study has shown that bee bread has therapeutic effects against oxidative stress, inflammation, apop-tosis in the testis of HFD-induced obese male rats, thereby suggesting its role as a natural supplement capable of treating obesity-induced male reproductive impairment. Citation: Suleiman, J.B.; Mohamed, M.; Abu Bakar, A.B.; Zakaria, Z.; Othman, Z.A.; Nna, V.U. Therapeutic Effects of Bee Bread on Obesity-Induced Testicular-Derived Oxidative Stress, Inflammation, and Apoptosis in High-Fat Diet Obese Rat Model. Antioxidants 2022, 11, 255. https://doi.org/10.3390/ antiox11020255 Academic Editors: Valéria Cristina Sandrim and Priscila Rezeck Nunes
... In addition, bee pollen has been used as an alternative and complementary treatment for prostatitis, stomach ulcers, and infectious diseases [110]. Previously, stingless bee pollen has been reported to consist of more than 250 beneficial substances, i.e., sugars, lipids, carbohydrates, proteins, amino acids, vitamins, minerals, carotenoids, flavonoids, and macro-and micronutrients [111,112]. Due to difficulty in acquiring stingless bee pollen, its selling price is high [113]. ...
Article
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The stingless bee has been gaining more attention in recent years due to the uniqueness and benefits of its products. Similar to the common honeybee, stingless bees also produce honey, propolis, and pollen, which offer superior benefits for direct or indirect consumption. However, reports on the benefits of stingless bee products are scarce. This article summarises recent reports on stingless bee products. The function and application of the properties of the products such as phenolic compounds, antioxidant properties, and chemical content are elucidated. The antimicrobial properties and anticancer potential of the products are also highlighted. Future trends, potential, and uniqueness of stingless bee products are discussed. Stingless bee honey is highlighted as a superfood that exceptionally has the potential to be an active ingredient in treating cancer. Stingless bee propolis has been extensively studied for its rich beneficial chemical compounds that contribute to its antioxidant properties. Though studies on stingless bee pollen are scarce, it has been reported that it also has the potential of being a functional food.
... This composition varies from one region to another depending on the honey plants' climatic conditions and seasonal variations. All these conditions make bee bread a potential functional food with distinct bioactive molecules [8,9]. In the life of bees, there are times when they are highly active, such as when colonies are reproducing or during periods of high wax production. ...
Article
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Bee bread is a natural product obtained from the fermentation of bee pollen mixed with bee saliva and flower nectar inside the honeycomb cells of a hive. Bee bread is considered a functional product, having several nutritional virtues and various bioactive molecules with curative or preventive effects. This paper aims to review current knowledge regarding the chemical composition and medicinal properties of bee bread, evaluated in vitro and in vivo, and to highlight the benefits of the diet supplementation of bee bread for human health. Bee bread extracts (distilled water, ethanol, methanol, diethyl ether, and ethyl acetate) have been proven to have antioxidant, antifun-gal, antibacterial, and antitumoral activities, and they can also inhibit α-amylase and angiotensin I-converting enzyme in vitro. More than 300 compounds have been identified in bee bread from different countries around the world, such as free amino acids, sugars, fatty acids, minerals, organic acids, polyphenols, and vitamins. In vivo studies have revealed the efficiency of bee bread in relieving several pathological cases, such as hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, inflammation, and oxidative stress.
... Additionally, the study was conducted with different feeding methods, based on this, pollen content variations were obtained in RJ samples. Pollen grains are known as a good food source for bee nutrition and contain carbohydrates, lipids, and various vitamins and minerals (Roulston & Cane 2000;Kieliszek et al. 2018). The differences of pollen spectrum according to feeding methods and positions of hives could change the nutritional value positively or negatively of bee products. ...
... www.nature.com/scientificreports/ Bee pollen has been linked to anti-carcinogenic properties 1,34,35 but there is still no full evidence for this attribution. Studies have shown bee pollen with greater or lesser antimutagenic properties in different types of cancer 3,[36][37][38] . ...
Article
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Bee pollen is recommended as dietary supplement due to immunostimulating functions including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-carcinogenic properties. Nevertheless, the effectiveness of such properties is still not well understood. As diet can be associated with animal performance, microbiota modulation and potentially factor for cancer, this study aimed to analyze if bee pollen could influence growth, gut microbial and skin cutaneous melanoma development in zebrafish. Control diets based on commercial flakes and Artemia were compared with the same diet supplemented with bee pollen. Fish weight gain, increased length, intestinal bacteria metagenomics analysis, serum amyloid A gene expression and cutaneous melanoma transplantation assays were performed. Bee pollen affected microbiota composition and melanoma development. Differential abundance revealed higher abundance in the control group for Aeromonadaceae family, Aeromonas and Pseudomonas genus, A. sobria, A. schubertii, A. jandaei and P. alcaligenes species compared with pollen diet group. Pollen group presented higher abundance for Chromobacterium genus and for Gemmobacter aquaticus, Flavobacterium succinicans and Bifidobacterium breve compared with control group. Unexpectedly, fish fed with bee pollen showed higher tumor growth rate and larger tumor size than control group. This is the first study to report intestinal microbial changes and no protective cancer properties after bee pollen administration.
... Mărgăoan et al. [2] confirmed that bee pollen differs in composition depending on botanical origin, place of collecting, processing, and storage conditions. Bee pollen is considered a high-value health product, which is discussed in several recent reviews [3][4][5][6][7], indicating its nutritive value and therapeutic properties. Phenols are listed among important bioactive compounds present in bee pollen, which have antioxidant activity [8,9]. ...
Article
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This study aimed to evaluate the physical, chemical, and microbiological characteristics of bee-collected pollen, with special consideration to the antimicrobial resistance of the isolated microorganisms to the selected antibiotics. A hierarchy cluster analysis was conducted, in which bee pollen samples were divided into four groups by their colour. The highest antioxidant activity among monofloral bee pollen was found for the autumn raspberry pollen and the lowest for the clover pollen, using the ABTS test. The total phenol content in rapeseed bee pollen was the second-highest among all samples analysed, which might indicate a correlation between high phenol content and strong antioxidant activity. Our study indicated a moderate correlation between bee pollen moisture content and Enterobacteriaceae counts, as well as a correlation between moisture content and total bacterial count. Among all bacteria (n = 34) isolated from pollen, the highest prevalence was found in Bacillus spp. and coagulase-negative staphylococci. The resistance of isolated microorganisms was identified in 18 cases. The high number of antimicrobial resistance cases, i.e., when isolates were resistant to ampicillin (seven cases) and penicillin (eight cases), indicates an environmental effect because, for this study, no antibiotics were used in the apiaries harvesting pollen. This indicates the need for improved safety procedures in bee pollen production for human consumption.
... The pollen collected in the spring is significantly different in terms of amino acid content compared to the pollen load collected by bees in the summer. The carotenoids and vitamin C contents in pollen loads collected from various plants are differentiated [96]. In the process of healing burn wounds, the bee pollen ointment helps by preventing infection in the area of newly formed tissue [97]. ...
Article
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Skin tissue regeneration is one of the population’s most common problems, and the complications that may appear in the healing process can have detrimental consequences. An alternative to conventional treatments could be represented by sustainable materials based on natural products, such as honey and its derivates (propolis, royal jelly, bee pollen, beeswax, and bee venom). They exhibit significant inhibitory activities against bacteria and have great potential in dermal tissue regeneration. Research in the pharmaceutical field demonstrates that conventional medication combined with bee products can deliver better results. The advantages include minimizing side effects and maintaining the same effectiveness by using low concentrations of antibiotic, anti-inflammatory, or chemotherapy drugs. Several studies suggested that bee products can replace the antimicrobial activity and efficiency of antibiotics, but further investigation is needed to establish a topical mixture’s potential, including honey, royal jelly, and propolis. Bee products seem to complete each other’s deficiencies, and their mixture may have a better impact on the wound healing process. The topic addressed in this paper highlights the usefulness of honey, propolis, royal jelly, bee pollen, beeswax, and bee venom in the re-epithelization process and against most common bacterial infections.
... The phytochemical analysis showed the presence of essential compounds which can help to protect the food material. In addition, use of fermented plant extracts in dietary products will enable pharmaceutical and food industry to produce healthoriented food products (Kieliszek et al., 2018). Previous studies showed that addition of solvents like methanol, chloroform, ethanol, and hexane enhance the antimicrobial potential due to easy release of phytochemicals (Alam et al., 2016;Johnson et al., 2011). ...
Article
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Mentha arvensis L. is traditionally used in folk medicine, and pharmacological industry due to presence of active chemical substances. It is also valuable for food industry as additives because of the presence of antioxidant, cytotoxic, antidiabetic and antimicrobial constituents. This study is intended to examine reactive oxygen species (Cvetanović et al.) generation, lipid oxidation, cytotoxicity and antimicrobial effect of aqueous extract from M. arvensis L. prepared in various solvents i.e. fermented methanol extract (FM.E), distilled water extract (DW.E) and methanol extract (M.E). Phytochemical screening of the extract was qualitatively investigated for the isolation of alkaloids, flavonoids, fats and oils, menthol and quinones. To check the potential of extract as preservative, pH, lipid oxidation and Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) analysis was performed. Our results showed FM.E induce ROS generation, cytotoxicity and inhibit Staphylococcus aureus (4.20±0.90 mm) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (3.23±0.32 mm) growth. In addition, in vivo results showed FM. E and M.E efficiently maintained chicken meat pH and reduced lipid oxidation. The presence of essential phytochemicals was responsible for inhibition of biofilm formation. FT-IR analysis revealed the presence of free OH stretching vibrations at 3878.69 cm-1 , free NH at 3459.56 cm-1 and H-NH bond stretching 3388.02 cm-1 groups in chicken meat which belong to M. arvensis L. extracts. These results suggest that menthol from M. arvensis L. extract is favorable food additive against resistant pathogens.
... According to Oroian et al. (2020) [51], among the phenolic compounds, the majority compounds are 5-O-caffeoylquinic acids and caffeic acid from the phenolic acids group, quercetin 3-O-galactoside and isorhamnetin 3-O-glucoside from the flavonols group, and luteolin and apigenin from the flavones group. It is well known that the chemical composition of pollen differs significantly depending on the plant species, whether it is uniflora or multiflora, the climatic-geographical conditions [52], and its processing methods and storage environment [53,54]. Due to the fact that a higher value for Vitamin C was generated by the reduced capacity of the Folin-Ciocalteu reagent, the results obtained for it should not be taken into account for the total phenolic and flavonoid content. ...
Article
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Nutraceuticals are experiencing a high-rise use nowadays, which is incomparable to a few years ago, due to a shift in consumers’ peculiarity tendencies regarding the selection of alternatives to Western medicine, potential immunity boosters, or gut-health promoters. Nutraceuticals’ compositions and actual effects should be proportional to their sought-after status, as they are perceived to be the middle ground between pharma rigor and naturally occurring actives. Therefore, the health benefits via nutrition, safe use, and reduction of potential harm should be the main focus for manufacturers. In this light, this study assess the nutritional profile (proteins, fats, fibers, caloric value, minerals) of a novel formulated nutraceutical, its physico-chemical properties, FTIR spectra, antioxidant activity, anthocyanins content, and potential hazards (heavy metals and microbiological contaminants), as well as its cytotoxicity, adherence, and invasion of bacteria on HT-29 cells, as well as its evaluation of beneficial effect, potential prebiotic value, and duplicity effect on gut microbiota in correlation with Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006. The results obtained indicate the growth stimulation of Lb. rhamnosus and the inhibitory effects of E.coli, Ent. Faecalis and Lc. lactis. The interaction between active compounds suggested a modulator effect of the intestinal microbiota by reducing the number of bacteria that adhere to epithelial cells or by inhibiting their growth.
... Pollen is frequently used as a functional food by humans as it contains high amounts of compounds such as amino acids, antioxidants, vitamins, and lipids (Ares et al. 2018). Pollen is frequently referred to as "the world's best food products" (Kieliszek et al. 2018). ...
Article
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Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) accumulate in the food chain due to their physical and chemical properties and adversely affect human health. For this reason, this study aimed to determine the PAH and PCB concentration levels in pollen and honey samples in urban and semi-urban areas and to evaluate the risk of cancer that may occur by ingestion in Bursa, Turkey. The average total concentrations of 14 PAH (∑14PAH) compounds in pollen and honey samples were found to be 304.3 ± 192.3 ng/g (average ± standard deviation) and 650.2 ± 118.1 ng/g for the urban area, and 329.6 ± 160.6 ng/g and 464.3 ± 66.4 ng/g for the semi-urban area, respectively. Similarly, ∑14PCB concentrations in pollen and honey samples were found to be 8.7 ± 3.6 ng/g and 13.0 ± 4.8 ng/g for the urban area and 7.7 ± 2.2 ng/g and 17.4 ± 4.0 ng/g for the semi-urban area, respectively. It was determined that the pollen and honey samples in both sampling areas were affected by local PCB sources. The Pearson correlation coefficient (PCC) method determined the relationship between pollen and honey samples. According to the PCC values obtained, it was observed that pollen and honey in both sampling regions exhibited a significant relationship with each other. Finally, while there was no cancer risk for PCBs due to ingestion of honey and pollen in both sampling areas, acceptable cancer risk has been calculated for PAHs.
Article
The purpose of this study was to investigate the use of bee pollen (BP) (5, 10%, 15%) as a functional ingredient in cookies. Evaluation of physicochemical and sensory properties with total phenolic(TP) and antioxidant capacities in extractable, hydrolysable and bioaccessible fractions of enriched cookies was studied. With the addition of BP, carbohydrate content of the cookies decreased, while ash, total protein and total fat content, spread ratio(SR), the browning index and hardness of the cookies increased. TP contents of the enriched cookies were determined as 352.70‐401.13 mg/100g, of which 92.27‐93.16% were hydrolysable phenolic content, only 8.55‐9.26% of the TP contents were bioaccessible. In addition, the cookies produced with the addition of BP were accepted in terms of their sensory properties. In the light of the information obtained, it can be said that BP is an ingredient that can improve the quality criteria while improving the functional properties of the cookies.
Article
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Background Bee pollen (BP) is full of useful nutrients and phytochemicals.Its chemical components and bioactivities depend mainly on the type of floral pollen. Methods Monofloral BP from Camellia sinensis L., Mimosa diplotricha , Helianthus annuus L., Nelumbo nucifera , Xyris complanata , and Ageratum conyzoides were harvested. Crude extraction and partition were performed to yield solvent-partitioned extracts of each BP. Total phenolic content (TPC) was assayed by the Folin-Ciocalteu method, while the flavonoid content (FC) was measured by the aluminium chloride colorimetric method. Antioxidant capacity was measured by the (i) 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, (ii) 2,2’-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) scavenging activity and its Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), and (iii) ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP). All samples were tested for lipoxygenase inhibitory (LOXI) activity. The most active sample was enriched by silica gel 60 column chromatography (SiG60-CC) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), observing the chemical pattern of each fraction using thin layer chromatography. Chemical structure of the most active compound was analyzed by proton nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectrometry. Results Dichloromethane (DCM)-partitioned BP extracts of H. annuus L. and M. diplotricha (DCMMBP) showed a very high TPC, while DCMMBP had the highest FC. In addition, DCMMBP had the strongest DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activities (as a TEAC value), as well as FRAP value. Also, DCMMBP (60 µg/mL) gave the highest LOXI activity (78.60 ± 2.81%). Hence, DCMMBP was chosen for further enrichment by SiG60-CC and HPLC. Following this, the most active fraction showed higher antioxidant andLOXI activities with an EC 50 for DPPH and ABTS of 54.66 ± 3.45 µg/mL and 24.56 ± 2.99 µg/mL (with a TEAC value of 2,529.69 ± 142.16 µmole TE/g), respectively, and a FRAP value of 3,466.17 ± 81.30 µmole Fe ²⁺ /g and an IC 50 for LOXI activity of 12.11 ± 0.36 µg/mL. Triferuloyl spermidines were revealed to be the likely main active components. Conclusions TPC, FC, and spermidine derivatives played an important role in the antioxidant and antilipoxygenase activities in M. diplotricha bee pollen.
Article
This study focused on the effects of adding various levels of bee pollen to diets for Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix Japonica). The response variables that were examined included their performance, carcass characteristics, meat colour, immune system, and some serum constituents. A total of 160 one-day-old quail chicks were used. These chicks were randomly assigned to four treatments, each consisting of 40 chicks. These groups were further divided into four replicates of ten birds. The treatments consisted of diets to which 0.0, 2.5, 5.0, and 10 g/kg bee pollen were added. The feeding period lasted 42 days. The performance and serum biochemistry of the growing quails were not affected by the addition of bee pollen to the diet. The addition of 5 g/kg bee pollen increased the follicle weight and the L* value of the breast, and decreased the a* value of the thigh. It also improved the serum immunoglobulin A (IgA) content. Thus, the addition of 5 g/kg bee pollen to the diet of growing quails was effective in improving follicle development, meat quality and immune system.
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Apart from food, other important needs in the care of human bodies are cosmetics and drugs. For long the latter two are obtained from chemical formulations and phytochemicals (commonly used in Ethnomedicine), use of bioactive compounds from insects (i.e. “ento medicine” and “ento cosmetics”) is a recent development in research, even though the bioactive compounds were discovered long ago. This chapter is a review on a number of substances extracted from various insect species that are useful in cosmetics, pharmaceutical industries as well as those that form part of prescription for healing in orthodox and traditional medicine. The review is based on information from scientific reports, Google, e-library, textbooks. A number of substances were found to have been incorporated into cosmetic and pharmaceutical products and as part of prescriptions for healing in orthodox medicine, many others at elementary stages of investigation, purification and development. The findings showed that insects have a lot of bioactive substances that need to be harnessed for the good man.
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This study discussed the proximate composition, nutritional properties, amino acid profile and anti‐amylase activity of royal jelly, propolis and bee bread. Royal jelly, bee bread and propolis have lower protein and lipid and more sugar than soybeans and eggs. Soybeans have the highest energy, followed by bee bread, propolis, royal jelly and eggs. Eggs have the highest protein digestibility, followed by royal jelly, bee bread, soybeans and propolis. The primary amino acids in bee bread, royal jelly and propolis are proline, glycine, lysine, alanine, aspartic acid, serine, glutamic acid, threonine, arginine, leucine, tyrosine, phenylalanine, histidine, β‐aminobutyric acid, valine, asparagine and methionine. Amino acids from royal jelly, propolis and bee bread inhibited amylase by increasing Km/Vmax and decreasing Vmax and Km through un‐competitive or non‐competitive strategies. Molecular docking, ultraviolet absorption and fluorescence quenching analysis showed that amino acids interact with amylase structure at the allosteric site through van der Waals interactions and hydrogen bonds. Bee products can be used as food supplements, ingredients and medications to manage diabetes by inhibiting amylase. Bee products acid hydrolysis, amino acid extraction, amino acid profiling and anti‐amylase activity of amino acid extract.
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Bee products have been used by humankind for their healthy attributes for many ages and applied as a traditional medicine in many countries. Nowadays, they are gaining more attention from different industry sectors, including pharmaceutical, dietary supplements, food, and cosmetics, based on technological and scientific developments due to the increasing demands of consumers for natural products. A vast amount of research demonstrated their valuable nutrients and bioactive compounds for many years and significantly contributed to the current knowledge, explaining the factors leading to variations in their contents and the significance of postharvest applications, like processing and storage; many scientific reviews illustrated the pharmaceutical value of their bioactive compounds with various biological properties. The obstacles relevant to their applications in food, dietary supplements, medicine, and cosmetics are discussed by focusing on the variation of their contents, needs for standardization of methodologies, and health claim approach at the global level. Current approaches for using propolis, pollen, royal jelly, and bee venom to develop therapeutic applications and many factors affecting their future like safe doses, toxicity, the bioavailability of nutrients, allergenicity, and health claim regulations are discussed together. Notably, the food and dietary supplement industry applications are emphasized by considering further research needs in that area. Outlook discussions are based on the trending research using computational tools for drug discovery to develop therapeutic agents from bee products, advanced analytical technology in enhancing the knowledge about their components and developing international standards, as well as the factors such as consumer demands, climate change, international trade, harmonization of standards, and safety.
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Objective Cocktail honey is derived from a mixture of honey (trigona sp.), bee bread, and homogeneous royal jelly. The material has a phenolic content rich in antioxidants that are beneficial for women's reproductive health, especially for pre-conception, because it can suppress the content of free radicals in the body. Antioxidants are useful to overcome oxidative damage due to free radicals in the body that prevent various diseases from increasing fertility during pre-conception. Method This study used the DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) test method using UV–vis spectrophotometry to express the value of free radical reduction activity as IC50 (inhibitory concentration) values. Results The DPPH test on cocktail honey products obtained an average yield of 4577.7 μg/mL, which was included in the product category was very weak in the antioxidant activity content. Conclusion The content contained in the honey cocktail contains weak bioactive content by assessing the antioxidant content using DPPH. The difference in the results of antioxidant activity tests using DPPH is caused by the test method and the conditions used in processing, homogeneous ingredients, solvent volume, extraction time, temperature, and pressure in product management.
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Bee bread is a nutritionally and functionally attractive food, given its content of protein, carbohydrates, lipids, and bioactive compounds. Since it involves microorganisms such as lactic acid bacteria, yeasts, and fungi, it is a food with prebiotic and probiotic characteristics, with the consequent benefits to the health of consumers. Different studies have demonstrated the advantages obtained from the metabolic reactions of the microorganisms present in bee bread, particularly in some aspects related to intestinal function and health in general. Although bee bread is obtained naturally in the hive, different inconveniences arise during its collection, affecting the microbiological quality of the food and the survival of the hive; therefore, some approaches have been made, based on the induced fermentation of pollen, to obtain a product analogous to bee bread. These advances indicate the importance of this product of plant origin and its potential in the diversification of foodstuff consumption.
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Sukcesem rynkowym jest między innymi usatysfakcjonowanie klienta. Czynnikiem, który ma znaczący wpływ na świadomość klienta jest jakość nabywanych przez niego produktów żywnościowych. Jakość bywa różnie postrzegana i oceniana subiektywnie. Do klienta, według jego postrzegania jakości, należy podjęcie decyzji o wyborze i zakupie danego produktu żywnościowego. Dbanie przez sprzedawców o jakość oferowanych produktów żywnościowych klientowi to dbanie również o jego zdrowie, a nawet życie. Celem opracowania jest, zaprezentowanie, w ujęciu teoretycznym wybranych aspektów decydujących o wyborze i spożyciu produktów żywnościowych o wysokiej jakości początkowej. Ponadto przedstawienie niektórych, opisanych w literaturze, problemów związanych z marnowaniem żywności. Zastosowano metodę krytycznego przeglądu źródeł dostępnej literatury zarówno krajowej, jak i zagranicznej.
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Microbial fermentation can break the bee pollen wall. However, the global profiling of bee pollen metabolites under fermentation remains unclear. This study aims to comprehensively elucidate the changes in the composition of bee pollen after microbial fermentation. Ultra-performance liquid chromatography-electron spray ionization-mass spectrometry (UPLC-ESI-MS) based on widely targeted metabolomics analysis was used to compare the chemical composition of unfermented bee pollen (UBP) and fermented bee pollen (FBP). Among the 890 metabolites detected, a total of 668 differential metabolites (classified into 17 categories) were identified between UBP and FBP. Fermentation significantly increased the contents of primary metabolites such as 74 amino acids and derivatives, 42 polyunsaturated fatty acids and 66 organic acids, as well as some secondary metabolites such as 38 phenolic acids, 80 flavone aglycones and 22 phenolamides. The results indicate that fermentation is a promising strategy to improve the nutritional value of bee pollen.
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Introduction Cell-adhesive surfaces play a pivotal role in biomedical engineering, as most biological reactions take place on surfaces. Pollen shell (PSh) ofPistacia vera L., as a new medical device, has previously been reported to cause cytotoxicity and apoptosis in MG-63 bone cancer cells. Methods Iron oxide nanoparticles (Fe3O4NPs) were synthesized and their reaction to PShs was gauged at different concentrations, and then characterized using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, energy dispersion X-ray spectrometer, X-ray diffraction spectra, vibrating sample magnetometer, and dynamic light scattering. Then, the biological impacts of PShs/Fe3O4NPs composites on MG-63 cells were investigated in-vitro using MTT assay, quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), Annexin V/propidium iodide, FESEM, and DAPI staining. Results Fe3O4NPs with a size range of 24-40 nm and a zeta potential value of -37.4 mV were successfully assembled on the PShs. The viability of MG-63 cells was significantly decreased when cultured on the magnetic PShs as compared to non-magnetic PShs, in Fe3O4 concentration and time-dependent manner. In contrast, magnetic PShs had a positive effect on the viability of normal human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hBM-MSCs). The analysis of apoptosis-related genes in cancer cells revealed that loading Fe3O4NPs on PShs increased expression of BAX/BCL2 and caspase-3 genes. The increased apoptotic activity of combined PShs/Fe3O4NPs was further confirmed by annexin V/propidium iodide, morphological analysis, and DAPI staining. Conclusion The incorporation of Fe3O4NPs into PShs could effectively increase anticancer effects on MG-63 cells via the mitochondria-mediated apoptosis pathway, evident by upregulation of BAX/BCL2 ratio.
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This chapter emphasizes the profile and characteristics of bee products relevant to diabetes mellitus (DM) and their use in DM management. The chapter summarizes and analyses recent scientific data from both preclinical and clinical trials indicating the bee products’ potential in treating DM. Bee products have hypoglycemic, antihyperglycemic, antihyperlipidemic, antioxidant, and antiinflammatory properties, which are favorable factors for diabetics and their control. Bee products reduce oxidative stress, advanced glycation end products (AGE) build-up and adipose tissue inflammation, all of which contribute to insulin resistance and secretion abnormalities, which ameliorate diabetic complications, including nephropathy, retinopathy foot ulcers and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.
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Purpose: To investigate the apoptosis-inducing capacity of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) extracts of bee pollen and propolis in HL-60 Myeloid Cancer Cell Lines. Methods: DMSO extracts of pollen and propolis were incubated separately with HL-60 cells, and caspase-3 activity evaluated. In order to determine the cell cycle characteristics of HL-60 cells with and without extracts of pollen and propolis, the cells were analysed using flow cytometry. Results: The DMSO extract of propolis (0.5 mg/mL) increased apoptosis from undetectable levels to 60.1 %, while maintaining cell viability. The DMSO extract of pollen (2 mg/ml) increased apoptosis from undetectable levels to 52.2 % while decreasing cell viability by 62 %. Caspase-3 activity in HL-60 cells incubated with DMSO extracts of pollen and propolis were 3.6-to 12-fold higher than in controls. Conclusion: Turkish pollen and propolis individually increase apoptosis and the activity of caspase-3 in HL-60 cells. This finding indicates that bee products may have beneficial effects in the treatment of cancer.
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To fuel their activities and rear their offspring, foraging bees must obtain a sufficient quality and quantity of nutritional resources from a diverse plant community. Pollen is the primary source of proteins and lipids for bees, and the concentrations of these nutrients in pollen can vary widely among host-plant species. Therefore we hypothesized that foraging decisions of bumble bees are driven by both the protein and lipid content of pollen. By successively reducing environmental and floral cues, we analyzed pollen-foraging preferences of Bombus impatiens in (i) host-plant species, (ii) pollen isolated from these host-plant species, and (iii) nutritionally modified single-source pollen diets encompassing a range of protein and lipid concentrations. In our semifield experiments, B. impatiens foragers exponentially increased their foraging rates of pollen from plant species with high protein:lipid (P:L) ratios; the most preferred plant species had the highest ratio (∼4.6:1). These preferences were confirmed in cage studies where, in pairwise comparisons in the absence of other floral cues, B. impatiens workers still preferred pollen with higher P:L ratios. Finally, when presented with nutritionally modified pollen, workers were most attracted to pollen with P:L ratios of 5:1 and 10:1, but increasing the protein or lipid concentration (while leaving ratios intact) reduced attraction. Thus, macronutritional ratios appear to be a primary factor driving bee pollen-foraging behavior and may explain observed patterns of host-plant visitation across the landscape. The nutritional quality of pollen resources should be taken into consideration when designing conservation habitats supporting bee populations.
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Apitherapy is a branch of alternative medicine that deals with the use of bee products for the treatment and prevention of various diseases. The task of apitherapy is to improve the health of people at any age. This paper reviews the literature on the bee products used in apitherapy and their impact on the human body.
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Abstract Like other beehive products, such as honey, royal jelly and propolis, bee pollen has attracted great interest because of the health benefits it can provide when consumed. Bee pollen has high contents of sugars and proteins and a low content of lipids, it is also a rich source of vitamins and other bioactive compounds, which makes it an attractive micronutrient supplement. However, few studies have investigated its composition. Therefore, the aim of this study was to characterize the essential minerals and inorganic contaminants present in bee pollen produced at apiaries in Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometry (ICP-OES) revealed the presence of 8 essential minerals (calcium, iron, copper, chromium, manganese, molybdenum, phosphorus and zinc) in the 5 analyzed samples; 6 of them were in sufficiently high amounts to meet dietary requirements. Of the 5 inorganic contaminants assessed (barium, cadmium, lithium, lead and vanadium), only cadmium was present at levels over the International Honey Commission’s standards. All bee pollen samples showed a high content of the 8 essential minerals. Contamination usually results from the use of pesticides, fertilizers and other chemicals in agriculture; thus, monitoring of its levels must be included in bee pollen analysis.
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Background: It is now well documented that postnatal exposure to certain chemicals has been reported to increase the risk of autism spectrum disorder. Propionic acid (PA), as a metabolic product of gut microbiotaandas a commonly used food additive, has been reported to mediate the effects of autism. Results from animal studies may help to identify environmental neurotoxic agents and drugs that can ameliorate neurotoxicity and may thereby aid in the treatment of autism. The present study investigated the ameliorative effects of natural bee pollen against acute and sub-acute brain intoxication induced by (PA) in rats. Methods: Twenty-four young male Western Albino ratswere enrolled in the present study. They were classified into four equal groups, eachwith6 rats. The control group received only phosphate buffered saline; the oral buffered PA-treated groups (II and III) received a neurotoxic dose of 750 mg/kg body weight divided in 3 dose of 250 mg/kg body weight/day serving asthe acute group and 750 mg/kg body weight divided in 10 equal dose of 75 mg/kg body weight/day as the sub-acute group. The fourth group received 50 mg bee pollen for 30 days after PA-acute intoxication. Results: The obtained data showed that the PA-treated groups demonstrated multiple signs of brain toxicity, as indicated by a depletion of serotonin (5HT), dopamine and nor-adrenaline, together withan increase in IFN-γ and caspase 3. Bee pollen was effective in ameliorating the neurotoxic effect of PA. All measured parameters demonstrated minimal alteration in comparison with thecontrol animal than did those of acute and sub-acute PA-treated animals. Conclusions: In conclusion, bee pollen demonstrates anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic effects while ameliorating the impaired neurochemistry of PA-intoxicated rats.
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Natural goods, including bee products, are particularly appreciated by consumers and are used for therapeutic purposes as alternative drugs. However, it is not known whether treatments with bee products are safe and how to minimize the health risks of such products. Among others, bee pollen is a natural honeybee product promoted as a valuable source of nourishing substances and energy. Health-enhancing value of bee pollen is expected due to the wide range of secondary plant metabolites (tocopherol, niacin, thiamine, biotin and folic acid, polyphenols, carotenoid pigments, phytosterols), besides enzymes and coenzymes, contained in bee pollen. The promising reports on the anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-cariogenic anti-bacterial, anti-fungicidal, hepatoprotective, anti-atherosclerotic, immune enhancing potential require long-term and large cohort clinical studies. The main difficulty in application of bee pollen in modern phytomedicine is related to the wide species-specific variation in its composition. Therefore, the variations may differently contribute to bee-pollen properties and biological activity and thus in therapeutic effects. In principle, we can unequivocally recommend bee pollen as a valuable dietary supplement. Although the bee-pollen components have potential bioactive and therapeutic properties, extensive research is required before bee pollen can be used in therapy.
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One-day-old Hubbard broiler chicks were fed basal diet supplemented with bee-pollen at the rate of 0% (control), 0.2, 0.4 or 0.6% for a period of 6 weeks with an aim to use them in broiler nutrition as a natural growth promoting substance. Significant (p<0.01) differences in live body weight and body weight gain were found between broiler chicks fed the basal diet and those having bee-pollen in their diets during the experiment period. Broiler receiving 0.6% bee-pollen had the highest significant (p<0.01) body weight and body weight gains. Bee-pollen supplementation resulted in less feed intake and improved feed conversion ratio compared to the control group. The relative weight of carcass were significantly (p<0.01) higher in chicks fed bee-pollen diets. Chicks fed 0.6% bee-pollen diet were found to have highest relative weights of thymus, bursa and spleen and the highest values of the packed cells volume, hemoglobin concentration, red blood cells, white blood cells, hetrophils and lymphocytes. Serum total protein, albumen and globulin were significantly higher in birds fed on bee-pollen compared with the control group. The concentrations of serum uric acid, creatinine, triglycerides, cholesterol, GOT and GPT in chicks fed 0.2, 0.4 and 0.6% of bee-pollen were found to be lower than the control group. It was concluded that supplementation of bee-pollen to the diets of broiler chicks improved the performance, carcass traits and blood parameters.
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Objective: To evaluate the antioxidant and antiproliferative effect of methanolic bee pollen extract (BPE) of Malaysian stingless bee [Lepidotrigona terminata (L. terminata)] and its synergistic effect with cisplatin (a chemotherapeutic drug) on MCF-7 cancer cell line. Methods: The antioxidant activity of BPE from L. terminata was measured by using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH) assay. Antiproliferative activity at different concentrations of BPE and cisplatin was determined through using MTT assay on MCF-7 and L929 cell lines. An interaction effect (synergistic, additive and antagonistic) between BPE and cisplatin was determined by CompuSyn software based on MTT assay data. Results: The EC50 (50% decrement of DPPH inhibition) of BPE was 0.5 mg/mL. L. terminata BPE exhibited antiproliferative activity on both cancer and normal cell lines. The IC50 (concentration of drug that was required for 50% of cell inhibition in vitro) of BPE on MCF-7 was 15 mg/mL whereas in normal cell line L929 was 26 mg/mL. The IC50 for cisplatin on MCF-7 was 20 μmol/L. The combination effect of BPE and cisplatin on MCF-7 cells showed that BPE at 15 mg/mL was able to potentiate the inhibitory effect of cisplatin at all different concentrations (2.5–20.0 mg/mL). The average of cancer cells inhibition which was potentiated by BPE was around 50%. A combination index values of less than 1 reported in the CompuSyn software further proved the synergistic effect between BPE and cisplatin, suggesting that BPE was working synergistically with cisplatin. Conclusions: Our study therefore suggested that BPE of Malaysian stingless bee, L. terminata is a potential chemopreventive agent and can be used as a supplementary treatment for chemotherapy drugs. BPE might be able to be used to potentiate the effect of chemotherapy drugs with the possibility to reduce the required dose of the drugs. The molecular mechanisms of how the BPE exerts antiproliferative activity will be a much interesting area to look for in future studies.
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Pollen is used in the human diet as a food supplement because of its high nutritional value; however, this product is prone to fungal contamination that could potentially generate toxins that are harmful to human health. This study aimed to verify the floral diversity of commercial brands of bee pollen and their mycotoxicological safety for human consumption. A total of 27 bee pollen samples were analyzed; these samples represented commercial brands, either showing an inspection seal or not, marketed in the State of Rio de Janeiro. The analyzed parameters included floral diversity through palynological analysis, water activity, fungal counts, identification and toxigenic profiles. The palynological analysis identified nine plant families, of which the Asteraceae was predominant. Analysis of hygienic quality based on fungal load showed that 92% of samples were reproved according to the commercial, sanitary, and food safety quality indicators. Aspergillus, Cladosporium and Penicillium were the most common genera. Toxigenic evaluation showed that 25% of the A. flavus strains produced aflatoxins. The high rate of contamination of products bearing an inspection seal emphasizes the need to monitor the entire procedure of bee pollen production, as well as to revise the current legislation to ensure safe commercialization of this product.
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Malnutrition is a major cause of colony losses. In managed hives, bees are fed protein supplements (PS) during pollen shortages. If bees were provided with natural forage instead of PS, would they have lower pathogen levels and higher queen and colony survival? We addressed this question by either providing colonies with forage (Brassica rapa —rapini) or feeding them PS from November to February. Soluble protein concentrations in the PS were lower than the rapini pollen as were levels of most amino acids. Nurse bees digested less of the protein in PS than the pollen. Hemolymph protein titers in nurse bees and colony growth did not differ between those fed PS or foraging on rapini. However, colonies fed PS had higher levels of black queen cell virus and Nosema and greater queen losses, indicating that natural forage might improve overwintering survival. pollen nutrition / digestion / amino acids / Nosema / viruses
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Bee-pollen is an apicultural product with potential for medical and nutritional applications; therefore, its microbiology quality should be monitored. In this context, the objective of this study was to diagnose the microbiological quality of 45 dehydrated bee-pollen samples collected from November 2011 to December 2013 in nine Brazilian States. All the samples were negative for sulphite-reducing Clostridium spores, Salmonella, coagulase-positive Staphylococcus and Escherichia coli, which are microorganisms of public health concern. Total aerobic mesophilic microorganism counts ranged from <10 to 1.10x10(4) CFU.g(-1) , with psychrotroph counts ranging from <10 to 1.12x10(3) CFU.g(-1) and total coliforms from <10 to 2.80x10(3) CFU.g(-1) , while the values for yeasts and moulds were between <10 to 7.67x10(3) CFU.g(-1) . According to the literature, the microbiota observed in this study were typical, however it is important to consider that these microorganisms may cause spoilage and diminish shelf life, reason by which quality control programs should be implemented. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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During ancient times, people throughout the world commonly used pollen, praising it for its goodness and medicinal properties. Some of the reasons the ancients used bee-pollen are why we use it today. To date no scientific evidence has been cited to disprove the claimed properties of bee-pollen.
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The aim of the study. The objective of this study was to investigate microscopic, physical and chemical properties of bee bread collected in three regions of Latvia in order to compare the quality and to investigate the possibility of producing granules containing bee bread. Material and methods. Microscopic analysis of bee bread samples was performed. Plant herbaria, special literature and internet sources were used for identification of pollen. Thin layer chromatography was used for identification of carotenoids and flavonoids. Granules were prepared by wet granulation method. Lactose, calcium lactate, calcium carbonate, potato starch and purified water were used as excipients. Appearance, loss on drying, pH of aqueous solution and content of carotenes were estimated. Results. Microscopic analysis showed mostly native pollen identified as willow pollen. Beta-carotene identified and 2 carotenoids found by thin layer chromatography. Two zones of flavonoids found on chromatograms at day light and 6 zones at ultra violet light. The comparison of bee bread samples of 3 regions of Latvia showed insignificant differences in appearance and consistency, hydrogen ion concentration 3.93–4.23, loss on drying 7.72–11.07 %; content of carotenes calculated to bcarotene 6.77–9.35 mg%. Stability study of bee bread samples showed greater changes after storage at 40ºC temperature. All compositions of granules showed appropriate appearance and flowability. Quality of granules: loss on drying 5.48–13.5%, content of carotenes calculated to b-carotene 5.77–6.75 mg%. Conclusions. Pollen of willow can be considered as an indicator of the origin of bee bread in Latvia. Bee bread samples of three regions of Latvia have insignificant differences in physical, chemical parameters.
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The effects of sublethal pesticide exposure on queen emergence and virus titers were examined. Queen rearing colonies were fed pollen with chlorpyrifos (CPF) alone (pollen-1) and with CPF and the fungicide Pristine® (pollen-2). Fewer queens emerged when larvae from open foraging (i.e., outside) colonies were reared in colonies fed pollen-1 or 2 compared with when those larvae were reared in outside colonies. Larvae grafted from and reared in colonies fed pollen-2 had lower rates of queen emergence than pollen-1 or outside colonies. Deformed wing virus (DWV) and black queen cell virus were found in nurse bees from colonies fed pollen-1 or 2 and in outside colonies. The viruses also were detected in queen larvae. However, we did not detect virus in emerged queens grafted from and reared in outside colonies. In contrast, DWV was found in all emerged queens grafted from colonies fed pollen-1 or 2 either reared in outside hives or those fed pollen-1 or 2. The results suggest that sublethal exposure of CPF alone but especially when Pristine® is added reduces queen emergence possibly due to compromised immunity in developing queens.
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The aim of this study was to determine the antioxidant activity, phenolic content and antibacterial activity of pollen extracts obtained with different concentrations of ethanol. Each extraction condition (ethanol solutions from 40 to 90%) had a different effect in the phenolic compounds content. Although, the pollen extract obtained at 60, 70 and 80% of ethanol showed relatively higher levels of phenolic compounds (>10 mg/g) and did not present statistical significant difference between the extraction conditions. The amount of total phenolics ranged from 3.6 to 8.1 and 6.6 to 10.9 mg GAE/g for Alagoas state and Parana state pollen, respectively. The higher value for antioxidant activity index was 83.30% for the pollen from Alagoas state and 81.15 % for Parana state pollen. The highest degree of antioxidant activity was found in the extraction at 60% of ethanol solution for Parana state pollen, which also showed the highest concentration of polyphenol compounds. Staphylococcus aureus was inhibited by the ethanolic extract of Alagoas state pollen in all the concentrations of solvent, except the ethanolic extract of pollen at 90%. The extract at 60% of ethanol solution (Parana sample) inhibited Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella sp.
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Bee pollen is a valuable apitherapeutic product greatly appreciated by the natural medicine because of its potential medical and nutritional applications. It demonstrates a series of actions such as antifungal, antimicrobial, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective, anticancer immunostimulating, and local analgesic. Its radical scavenging potential has also been reported. Beneficial properties of bee pollen and the validity for their therapeutic use in various pathological condition have been discussed in this study and with the currently known mechanisms, by which bee pollen modulates burn wound healing process.
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Pollen ranges from 2.5% to 61% protein content. Most pollen proteins are likely to be enzymes that function during pollen tube growth and subsequent fertilization, but the vast range of protein quantity may not reflect only pollen-pistil interactions. Because numerous vertebrate and invertebrate floral visitors consume pollen for protein, protein content may influence floral host choice. Additionally, many floral visitors pollinate their host plants. If protein content influences pollinator visitation, then pollinators are hypothesized to select for increased protein content of host plants. We analyzed or gleaned from the literature crude pollen protein concentrations of 377 plant species from 93 plant families. Using this database, we compared pollen protein concentration with (1) pollination mode, (2) pollen collection by bees, and (3) distance from stigma to ovule, after accounting for phylogeny through paired phylogenetic comparisons and a nested ANOVA including taxonomic rank. We found that pollen protein concentrations were highly conserved within plant genera, families, and divisions. We found that bees did not collect pollen that was unusually rich in protein, whether they pollinated or merely robbed their host plant. Plant species with vibratile pollination systems, which require visitation by pollen-collecting bees in order to transfer pollen, tended to have very protein-rich pollen, but it was not clear whether this was due to plant enhancement of pollinator rewards or to the possession of very small pollen grains. We found that zoophilous species were not statistically richer in pollen protein than anemophilous species after accounting for phylogeny, although the three most species-rich anemophilous clades surveyed were generally poor in protein. Plant genera hosting specialist pollen-collecting bees did not have particularly protein-rich pollen. Both mass of protein per pollen grain and pollen grain volume were correlated with stigma-ovule distance. We suggest that the need for growing pollen tubes probably plays a more important role in determining pollen protein content than rewarding pollinators.
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Honey bee hives are filled with stored pollen, honey, tree resins, and wax, all antimicrobial to differing degrees. Stored pollen is the nutritionally rich currency used for colony growth, and consists of 40-50% simple sugars. Many studies speculate that prior to consumption by bees, stored pollen undergoes long-term nutrient conversion, becoming more nutritious “bee bread” as microbes pre-digest the pollen. We quantified both structural and functional aspects associated with this hypothesis using behavioral assays, bacterial plate counts, microscopy, and 454 amplicon sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene from both newly-collected and hive-stored pollen. We found that bees preferentially consume fresh pollen stored for less than three days. Newly-collected pollen contained few bacteria, values which decreased significantly as pollen was stored >96 hours. The estimated microbe to pollen grain surface area ratio was 1:1,000,000 indicating a negligible effect of microbial metabolism on hive-stored pollen. Consistent with these findings, hive-stored pollen grains did not appear compromised according to microscopy. Based on year round 454 amplicon sequencing, bacterial communities of newly-collected and hive-stored pollen did not differ, indicating the lack of an emergent microbial community co-evolved to digest stored pollen. In accord with previous culturing and 16S cloning, acid resistant and osmotolerant bacteria like Lactobacillus kunkeei were found in greatest abundance in stored pollen, consistent with the harsh character of this microenvironment. We conclude that stored pollen is not evolved for microbially mediated nutrient conversion, but is a preservative environment due primarily to added honey, nectar, bee secretions and properties of pollen itself.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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The influence of the drying temperature (35 and 45C) on bee pollen is evaluated based on the physical, chemical and nutritional characteristics of dried bee pollen from two zones in Colombia (La Calera and Zipaquira). The methods used to establish the effect of the treatment are: determination of chemical composition, measurement of water activity, solubility index, mean particle size, vitamin C content and carotene content. The results confirm that the drying process of bee pollen at 45C has the shorter drying time (156–198 min), moisture content (7–8%) and water activity (0.3), but higher levels of carotene and vitamin C losses. The protein, fiber and ash contents are not affected by the drying temperature. The observed higher carotene content of the pollen from La Calera is probably because of the flora composition in this zone. The vitamin C content decreases as the drying temperature increases, but there are no significant differences between zones. Bee pollen can be sold as both fresh and dried products. However, refrigeration with temperature between 5 and 10C is required for storage of the fresh bee pollen to preserve quality. The bee pollen drying allows preserving the product at room temperature, making the product marketing easier and increasing the profits of beekeepers. The drying process of bee pollen in Colombia is done by sun, solar and oven-drying methods. But hot-air drying is considered as a suitable drying method because it decreases drying time and improves the hygienic quality of the dried product. The chemical, physical and nutritional properties of dried bee pollen were studied in order to evaluate the effect of drying temperature on pollen from different origins. Thus, the results of this investigation can help the apiarists to use the best drying conditions to produce dried bee pollen.
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