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Beneficial Effects of Collagen Hydrolysate: A Review on Recent Developments

Research Article Open Access
1Beijing Advanced Innovation Center for Food Nutrition and Human Health, China Agricultural University, China
2Beijing Higher Institution Engineering Research Center of Animal Product, China
 July 15, 2017;  July 24, 2017
 Bo Li, Beijing Higher Institution Engineering Research Center of Animal Product, Beijing Advanced Innovation Center for Food
Nutrition and Human Health, 17, Qinghua East Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100083, China, Tel: ; Email:
Collagen is the main structural protein of the different
connective tissues, such as skin, bone, cartilage and tendons, and
comprises about one-third of total proteins in mammals. Collagen
extracted from collagen-rich materials with hot water is known
as gelatin. The common materials used for extracting gelatin
include pig skin (46%), bovine hide (29.4%), bones (23.1%)
         
great attention in recent years due to the religions, cultures and
health concerns. The further enzymatic hydrolysis of gelatin
results in collagen hydrolysate (CH). CH has long been used in
pharmaceuticals and foods in many countries and regions, such
as United States, Europe, China and Japan. Approved as Generally
 
the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Center for Food Safety and
Nutrition. The bioavailability and absorption of CH have also been
widely studied. It has been reported that CH is more easily absorbed
and has higher bioavailability than gelatin [2,3]. Besides free amino
acids, small peptides especially dipeptide and tripeptide are also
absorbed into body by peptide transporter 1 (PepT1) [4]. To date,
more than30 peptides (mainly dipeptides and tripeptides) have
the most abundant collagen-derived peptide [5-7]. These peptides
         
studies reported [8-9]. In this paper, we will mainly focus on the
CH in animal experiments and clinical trials (Figure 1). The possible
Figure 1: The benecial effects of CH in animal experiments
and clinical trials.
Tech Res 1(2)-2017. BJSTR. MS.ID.0002017.DOI: 10.26717/BJSTR.2017.01.000217
Collagen hydrolysate (CH) has received increasing attention in recent decades. This review mainly summarizes the recent developments
 
anti obesity and hypoglycemic effects. We also make comments on the current researches and give suggestions for future studies in this review.
       
guidance to develop CH-based health care supplements for disease prevention and/or treatment.
 
DOI: 10.26717/BJSTR.2017.01.000217
Bo Li.
Submission Link:
Bo Li. Biomed J Sci & Tech Res Volume 1- Issue 2: 2017
Benecial Eects
CH itself has good antioxidant activity as demonstrated by
in vitro assays [10,11]. CH intake also increases the activities of
antioxidant enzymes in body, including SOD, GSH-Px and CAT
[3,12]. Nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)-antioxidant
response element (ARE) pathway plays a central role in regulating
antioxidant enzymes. Therefore, we speculate that CH exerts it
antioxidant effect in a direct and/or indirect manner. More work is
needed to investigate the effect of CH on Nrf2-AREsignaling.
Anti aging effect of CH has been widely investigated in several
animal models, including photo aged model, chronologically aged
model and acetone-induced dry skin model [3,12-15]. General
      
the formation of deep wrinkles and improving skin elasticity, are
also observed in clinical trials after taking 10g of CH once a day
for more than 6 weeks [16]. It should be noted that anti aging
effect of CH is more obvious on women aged more than 30 years.
       
the dual effects of CH on skin collagen synthesis and degradation,
as previous study reported [13].
Anti osteoporotic and anti osteoarthritis effects of CH have been
the symptoms of osteoarthritis and osteoporosis [18]. Combined
CH with other nutritional ingredients has received much interest.
It has been reported that combined oral administration of CH with
calcium and vitamin D has better effects on bone health than alone
administration of CH or calcium and vitamin D [19-21]. Future
studies are needed to determine the optimal form and optimal dose
of CH.
Oral administration of marine CH is reported to enhance
cutaneous wound healing and angiogenesis in rats [22-23]. In
addition to elevated VEGF and FGF-2 expression, the effect of CH
 
wound healing, as previous study reported that Pro-Hyp, a collagen-
        
Glycine is one of the major structural units of collagen,
accounting for one-third of the amino acids.CH has the ability
        
      
cytokine via glycine-gated chloride channels (GlyR).
Liang et al. reported CH intake inhibited spontaneous tumor
incidence and increase life spanin sprague-dawley (SD) rats
[26]. Our previous study found that CH intake inhibited platelet
release and down regulated proangiogenic factors in blood [27].
Considering angiogenesis is of key importance in the process of
tumorprogression. Our results provide a possible mechanism
underlying antitumor effect of CH.
Antihypertensive effect of CH has been reported in animal
experiments and clinical trials [28,29]. Oral administration of
  
pressure by inhibiting angiotensin I converting enzyme (ACE)
[28]. Tang et al. [30]found that oral administration of collagen
tripeptide had an inhibitory effect on atherosclerosis development
in hypercholesterol emic rabbits [30]. Platelets are involved in the
patho physiology of atherosclerosis and thrombosis.CH has an
inhibitory activity on platelet release and platelet aggregation, which
may justify potential application of CH as a health care supplement
to prevent and/or treat atherosclerosis and thrombosis-related
cardiovascular diseases [27].
CH intake has an effect on the absorption and metabolism of
weight gain and down regulates serum levels of total cholesterol,
triglyceride and low-density lipoprotein [31]. Further, CH could
alter lipid metabolism-related gene expression and the unfolded
protein response in mouse liver [32]. The hypoglycemic effects
of CH have also been reported [33,34]. It has been reported that
CHcan improve glucose tolerance by inhibiting intestinal glucose
uptake and enhancing insulin secretion [34], suggesting the anti
diabetic property of CH.
Conclusion and Perspective
effects on body health. Those effects make CH new and potential
healthcare supplement for disease prevention and/or treatment
in pharmaceuticals and foods. However, several issues should be
noted and need to be further explored. First, many in vitro studies
only focus on the biological activities of CH, neglecting its tolerance
in gastrointestinal tract. Certain collagen peptides isolated in in
vitro studies may be hydrolyzed by gastrointestinal enzymes and
exert no biological activity in body as expected in in vitro studies.
In vitro simulated GI digestion and Caco-2 mono layers have been
widely used and allow the prediction of oral compounds digestion
       
effects of CH have been reported, what is the peptide sequence
       
activity relationship will guide the application of CH. Third, the
biological activities of protein hydrolysates are highly affected by
their molecular structure and weight, which are greatly impacted
by their processing conditions. Therefore, processing conditions
This study was supported by the grants from China Agriculture
Research System (CARS-46) and National Natural Science
Foundation of China (NSFC,No. 31271846).
Submission Link:
Bo Li. Biomed J Sci & Tech Res Volume 1- Issue 2: 2017
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... Gelatin is a water-soluble fibrous collagen hydrolysate with a high molecular weight ranging from 97 to 250 kDa (Atma et al., 2018;Mulyani, Setyabudi, Pranoto, & Santoso, 2017;Rakhmanova, Khan, Sharif, & Lü, 2018;Sanaei, Mahmoodani, See, Yusop, & Babji, 2013). Collagen is a major structural protein of connective tissues present in blood vessels, cartilage, skin, tendons, ligaments, and bones (Alves, Marques, Martins, Silva, & Reis, 2017;Hashim, Mohd Ridzwan, Bakar, & Mat Hashim, 2015;Song & Li, 2017). Collagen is found in most mammals, accounting for approximately 25-30% of their total protein (Alves et al., 2017;Hashim et al., 2015;Song & Li, 2017). ...
... Collagen is a major structural protein of connective tissues present in blood vessels, cartilage, skin, tendons, ligaments, and bones (Alves, Marques, Martins, Silva, & Reis, 2017;Hashim, Mohd Ridzwan, Bakar, & Mat Hashim, 2015;Song & Li, 2017). Collagen is found in most mammals, accounting for approximately 25-30% of their total protein (Alves et al., 2017;Hashim et al., 2015;Song & Li, 2017). Since gelatin is produced through partial hydrolysis of collagen, the quality of the gelatin depends on the source of the collagen. ...
Gelatin and collagen are considered halal-critical ingredients as they are typically derived from either bovine or porcine animals. Current analytical methods for determining the sources of gelatin and collagen suffer from limitations in terms of robustness and false positives in peptide matching. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the utility of monitoring hydroxyproline, a signature amino acid for gelatin and collagen, for identifying potentially haram foodstuffs. To determine the hydroxyproline profiles among animal- and plant-based samples, one-way univariate analysis of variance followed by pair-wise comparison was used to establish statistical significance. Multivariate chemometric analysis through principal component analysis revealed a discrete distribution pattern among 59 samples due to hydroxyproline variability. Finally, inter- and intra-laboratory comparisons demonstrated the validity and robustness of hydroxyproline determination according to ISO 17025. Thus, this preliminary identification technique will aid the identification of potentially haram foodstuffs.
... However, in other species, the bioactive amino acids and peptides in PHC stimulated gastric mucus production, formed a barrier over ulcerated tissues and increased pH within the glandular ulcer bed, resulting in resistance of the tissue to acid degradation (Ohara et al. 2007;Shaw et al. 2016). In addition, collagen hydrolysates were shown to have anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activity in vitro (Aleman et al. 2011;Nakchum and Kim 2016;Song and Li 2017). Antioxidant and immunomodulary properties are important in glandular mucosal healing in other species (Das and Banerjee 1993;Xu et al. 2007) and might have contributed to reduction in the number of nonglandular ulcers in the study reported here. ...
... Antioxidant and immunomodulary properties are important in glandular mucosal healing in other species (Das and Banerjee 1993;Xu et al. 2007) and might have contributed to reduction in the number of nonglandular ulcers in the study reported here. Furthermore, glycine and proline both locally and systemically have antioxidant effects by regulating the nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2(Nrf2)-antioxidant response element (ARE) pathway, which might have played a central role in regulating antioxidant enzymes and protected the gastric tissue against oxidative damage triggered by inflammation (Song and Li 2017). ...
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Gastric ulcers are common in horses. The purpose of this study was to test the effect of porcine hydrolysed collagen (PHC) on gastric ulcer scores and gastric juice pH in horses. We hypothesise that PHC‐administration will result in improved gastric lesion scores and act synergistically with omeprazole to improve treatment efficacy. Thoroughbred horses (n = 10) were studied in a 2‐period, 2‐treatment crossover design, where the PHC (45 g) was administered twice daily. Horses were treated for 56 days. Gastroscopy was performed and gastric juice pH measured on Days 0, 14, 28, 42, 49 and 56. Nonglandular gastric ulcer number (NGN) and severity (NGS) and glandular ulcer number (GN) and glandular severity (GS) scores were assigned by an investigator masked to treatment and serum gastrin and amino acid concentrations. By Day 42, 2 weeks after discontinuing omeprazole treatment, NGN and NGS scores returned to pretreatment values and serum gastrin was higher when compared to values measured on Day 28. By Day 49, after the feed‐deprivation period, NGN and NGS were similar to pretreatment values. By Day 56, mean NGN score was significantly lower in PHC‐treated horses, compared to controls. Mean gastric juice pH significantly increased in both groups on Day 28 and the pH was significantly (P = 0.0127) higher in the PHC‐treated horses. Serum amino acid concentrations were not significantly different 2 h after feeding PHC and hydroxyproline was not detected. Serum gastrin concentration did not increase 2 h after feeding in the PHC‐fed horses. The PHC fed to horses enhanced the effects of omeprazole on increased gastric juice pH, inhibited gastrin secretion after feeding and resulted in fewer nonglandular ulcers after long‐term feeding (56 days) in stall‐confined horses undergoing intermittent feeding.
... It is the main component of tissues such as fibrous tissue, bone, cartilage, valves of heart, cornea, and basement membrane etc. 1,4,6,16 ...
... Increase in collagen and fibroblasts during healing proposed that a correlation might exist among a quantity of collagen, number of fibroblasts and tensile strength of a scar. 4,16 Bone Bone is a complex and dynamic tissue that renders structural support for the body, preservation of internal organs and acts as levers to which muscles are attached, allowing movement. In total, out of 22 to 25% of the organic component, the principal collagen type I is 94 to 98% along with other noncollagenous proteins and 2 to 5% are cells present in the bone tissue. ...
... Many anti-ageing strategies are targeted at influencing production of ECM components by fibroblasts. A wide range of ligands can influence fibroblast proliferation and activation, including bioactive peptides, antioxidants, retinoids, vitamins, ω6-and ω3-fatty acids, growth factors, hydroxy acids and a bewildering array of botanical extracts [10][11][12] . A common theme for the majority of these ingredients is that they can influence, either directly or indirectly, the production of collagen and ECM components. ...
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Collagen-based supplements have become a keystone in the management of the ageing process, with proven ability to repair skin damage, bestowing a youthful and healthy appearance sought in the pursuit of beauty. Collagen is an essential scaffold protein that gives smoothness and elasticity to skin, but its production declines with age. Finding ways to tackle this problem is now strongly promoted as an effective way to transform skin and hair, repairing age-related deterioration. A growing number of scientific studies show exciting evidence that it is possible to rejuvenate ageing or damaged skin, improve function of worn joints, and support personal wellbeing and vitality. In recent times, research on the mechanisms which impact the production of collagen in skin and the ideal organization into functional fibres which give skin its characteristic elasticity and firmness has provided new insights into how this bio-scaffold can support cells, tissues and organs. The factors which influence collagen production over a lifetime (e.g., puberty, pregnancy, menopause, andropause), intrinsic factors (e.g., genetics, age, ethnicity) and extrinsic factors (e.g., UV-radiation, pollution, smoking) and the potential for new technologies, ingredients and devices to restore collagen and matrix components to their optimal condition are improving the ability to deliver anti-aging strategies with unprecedented results. This paper will review skin collagen production, structure and function throughout the lifestages, emphasizing its relationship with health, appearance and beauty.
... Gelatin is extracted from collagen in hot water [84]. It shows various beneficial effects like anti-oxidant, anti-aging, antitumor, wound healing, anti-inflammatory, antihypertensive, antiatherosclerotic, anti-obesity, hypoglycemic, antiarthritic etc in different animal and clinical studies [85]. The main mechanism of anti-arthritic action is the formation of new collagen type II and stimulation of proteoglycan synthesis [86]. ...
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The use of nutraceuticals and supplements are increasing day by day due to the drawbacks associated with synthetic drugs. Clinicians are aware of these therapies and prescribing the nutraceuticals in addition to the current choice of therapy. Many scientific studies, meta-analysis, randomised clinical trials have proved the effects of nutraceuticals in arthritis. Arthritis is the inflammatory disorder characterized by pain, swelling and stiffness of one or more joints. Two common types of arthritis are rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis. The review covers all the possible nutraceuticals used in these two types of arthritis with their evidence and mechanism of action. Search engines like PubMed, Scopus, Google scholar, Researchgate and Science Direct are used to collect articles published from Jun 1983 to January 2020.
... The small peptides especially di-peptides and tri-peptides are also absorbed into circulation by peptide transporter 1 (PepT1) in the gastrointestinal tract. More than 30 peptides (mainly di-peptides and tri-peptides) have been identified in blood after consumption of the rich sources of protein and peptides such as gelatin (Song and Li 2017). Di-and tri-peptides have nutritional value, because its uptake rate is higher than that of free amino acids and efficiently utilized for metabolism or may have specific bioactivities as quasihormones (Kitada et al. 2016;Vahdatpour et al. 2019). ...
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The small peptides, as multifunctional biomolecules, can affect some organs and metabolic disorders. The purpose of this experiment was to investigate the effects of some small peptides on the renal enzymes and histopathology in mice exposed to diabetes. Solid phase peptide synthesis method was used to synthesis di- and tri-peptides. Diabetes was induced in mice by multiple injection of low doses of streptozotocin. The effects of the di- and tri-peptides on renal aspartate aminotransferase, alanine transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase, total antioxidant (TAC), and catalase activities were evaluated by enzymatic biochemical methods and malondialdehyde (MDA) by thiobarbituric acid method. Hematoxylin and eosin and TUNEL stainings performed for assessing histopathology and apoptosis of the mice kidney. Hannaneh (Leu–Gly) and carnosine (Ala–His) exhibited suppression effects on the blood glucose elevation and the severity of the renal alterations in diabetic mice. They showed a decreasing effect on diabetes-induced DNA damage (P < 0.05). Carnosine significantly prevented from MDA elevation (P < 0.05). The Pro–Pro showed a supression effect on the blood glucose elevation (P < 0.05). Glutathione (Glu–Cys–Gly) and hannaneh caused to renal tissue TAC decreasing (P < 0.05). Mice receiving Pro–Gly and Pro–Gly–Pro have lesser renal SOD compared to diabetic mice (P < 0.05). Pro–Gly–Pro significantly decreased the diabetes-induced DNA damage. Although all the treatments had significant effects on alleviating the apoptosis, but carnosine and hannaneh dipeptides had the best protective effect on the kidney. The carnosine and hannaneh dipeptides had higher reno-protective effects against renal enzymes and histologic changes in diabetic mice.
Collagen tripeptide (CTP) and galacto‐oligosaccharide (GOS), which improve collagen homeostasis and barrier function in the skin, are widely used in the food industry to improve wrinkle‐related parameters and skin health. In this study, the photoprotective effect of CTP/GOS mixtures (3:1, 1:1, and 1:3) in ultraviolet (UV) B‐irradiated hairless mice was examined. Skin parameter analysis, histological approaches, molecular biology techniques and HPLC analysis were applied to investigate the photoaging protective effect, signaling pathways and changes in the microbiota. Oral administration of CTP/GOS mixtures ameliorated photoaged physical parameters and serum levels of pro‐inflammatory cytokines compared to UV‐irradiated control group. Administration of the 1:3 mixture showed significant changes in the extracellular matrix‐related gene expression compared to other mixture groups. The cecal short chain fatty acid (SCFA) content showed a significant increase in the CTP/GOS mixed group with a higher GOS content than the control group. In the 16S rRNA‐based analysis of cecal microbiota, the relative abundance ratio of the Akkermansia genus belonging to the Verrucomicrobia phylum was higher in CTP and GOS mixture‐administered groups than in the UV‐irradiated control group. Taken together, CTP/GOS mixtures showed a synergistic effect on photoprotective activity through changes in the gene expression, cytokine levels, and intestinal microbiota composition.
GIVING COLLAGENT SUPPLEMENTS ON BLOOD SUGAR LEVELS IN MENOPAUSE WOMEN Background: Menopause is a natural process experienced by every woman aged around 48-54 years. The factors that affect menopause at the beginning are usually due to indiscriminate food consumption so that menopausal women experience diabetes mellitus which is increasing where it is known that blood sugar levels can increase.Purpose: This study was to determine the effect of collagen supplementation on blood sugar levels in menopausal women suffering from Diabetes Mellitus in the Work Area of the Curug Public Health Center, Tangerang Regency, 2020.Method: This study was a quasi-experimental study with a One Group Pretest-Postest Design without a control group. The sampling technique used was total sampling. The sample in this study consisted of 20 menopausal women who suffered from diabetes mellitus in June-July 2020.Results: the results of this study indicated that blood sugar levels in menopausal women before being given collagen supplements were 277.15 and after being given collagen supplements 260.30. The results of the Paired t-test analysis showed that there was no effect of blood sugar levels in menopausal women suffering from diabetes mellitus, before and after giving collagen supplements with a value of Pvalue = 0.471.Conclusion : the conclusion is that there is no effect of blood sugar levels before and after giving collagen supplements to menopausal women suffering from diabetes mellitus in the Work Area of the Curug Public Health Center, Tangerang Regency, 2020Suggestion: It is hoped that further research can carry out further research on collagen supplementation in menopausal women on blood sugar levels with a longer / longer study time and add other variables that have not been studied. Keywords: Menopause, Blood Sugar, Collagen. ABSTRAKLatar Belakang: Menopause merupakan proses alamiah yang dialami setiap wanita yang berusia sekitar 48-54 tahun, faktor yang mempengaruhi menopause pada awal biasanya dikarenakan konsumsi makanan yang sembarangan sehingga wanita menopause mengalami diabetes mellitus semakin meningkat dimana telah ketahui kadar gula darah dapat meningkat.Tujuan : Penelitian ini untuk mengetahui pengaruh pemberian suplemen kolagen terhadap kadar gula darah pada wanita menopause yang menderita Diabetes Mellitus di Wilayah Kerja Puskesmas Curug Kabupaten Tangerang Tahun 2020.Metode : Penelitian ini quasi-experiment dengan rancangan One Group Pretest-Postest Design tanpa adanya kelompok kontrol.Teknik pengambilan sampel yang digunakan adalah total sampling. Sampel dalam penelitian ini berjumlah 20 wanita menopause yang menderita diabetes mellitus pada bulan juni-juli tahun 2020Hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa kadar gula darah pada wanita menopause sebelum diberikan suplemen kolagen 277,15 dan sesudah diberikan suplemen kolagen 260,30. Hasil analisis Uji Paired t-test menunjukan bahwa tidak ada pengaruh kadar gula darah pada wanita menopause yang menderita diabetes mellitus,sebelum dan sesudah pemberian suplemen kolagen dengan nilai Pvalue =0,471.Kesimpulan tidak ada pengaruhkadar gula darah sebelum dan setelah pemberian suplemen kolagen pada wanita menopause yang menderita diabetes mellitus di Wilayah Kerja Puskesmas Curug Kabupaten Tangerang Tahun 2020Saran : diharapkan untuk penelitian selanjutnya dapat melakukan penelitian lebih lanjut mengenai suplemen kolagen pada wanita menopause terhadap kadar gula darah dengan waktu penelitian yang lebih panjang/lamadan menambahkan variable-variabel lain yang belum di teliti. Kata Kunci :Menopause, Kadar Gula Darah ,Suplemen Kolagen
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Action mechanisms underlying various biological activities of collagen peptides (CPs) remained to be elucidated. Cytokines may play an important role in mediating these health benefits of CPs. This study aimed to systemically examine the cytokines in skin and blood regulated by CPs intake. Thirteen-month-old female Kunming mice were administered with CPs for 2 months (0 or 400 mg/kg bodyweight/day). The cytokines in skin and plasma were analysed using a 53-cytokine array and corresponding ELISA kits. In skin, CPs intake significantly down-regulated placenta growth factor (PIGF-2), insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-binding protein (IGFBP) -2 and IGFBP-3, and up-regulated platelet factor 4 (PF4), serpin E1 and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1. CPs treatment also increased the type I collagen mRNA and protein levels and improved the aged skin collagen fibres. In plasma, nine cytokines were significantly down-regulated by CPs intake compared to the model group: fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-2, heparin-binding (HB) epidermal growth factor (EGF)-like growth factor (HB-EGF), hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-AB/BB, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 1 (KC), matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9, interleukin (IL)-1α and IL-10; 2 cytokines were significantly up-regulated, including TGF-β1 and serpin F1. Furthermore, CPs intake significantly decreased the level of platelet release indicators in the plasma and washed platelets, including PF4, granule membrane protein (GMP)-140, β-thromboglobulin and serotonin. These results provide a mechanism underlying anti-skin ageing by CPs intake and highlight potential application of CPs as a healthcare supplement to combat cancer and cardiovascular disease by inhibiting platelet release.
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The use of collagen hydrolysates (CHs) as a nutraceutical agent in skin aging has gained increasing attention. Here, the effects of various doses and molecular weights of CH from silver carp skin on photoaging in mice were investigated. The ingestion of CH at 50, 100 and 200 mg per kg body weight led to a dose-dependent increase in the hydroxyproline, hyaluronic acid and moisture contents of the skin, but it had no significant effect on the mice body weight, or on the spleen or thymus index. Furthermore, ingesting CH with lower (LMCH, 200-1000 Da, 65%) and higher molecular weight (HMCH, >1000 Da, 72%) significantly increased the skin components and improved the antioxidative enzyme activities in both serum and skin (p < 0.05); LMCH performed better than HMCH. By contrast, gelatin (>120 kDa) ingestion did not bring a significant change compared to model mice. These results indicated that LMCH exerted a stronger beneficial effect on the skin than did either HMCH and gelatin, which supported the feasibility of using LMCH as a dietary supplement from silver carp skin to combat photoaging.
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In this study, tilapia collagen peptide (TCP) was prepared by alcalase hydrolysis of tilapia skin, and the antioxidant and hypoglycaemic effects of TCP were investigated. The results showed that TCP possessed DPPH and ABTS+ free radicals-scavenging activities. In diabetic mice in which diabetes was induced by injection of alloxan (50 mg kg−1 bw), high-dose TCP (1.7 g kg−1 bw) and the drug metformin (1.0 g kg−1 bw) were found to reduce 31.8% and 30.3% of blood glucose levels in 25 days, respectively. Moreover, in diabetic mice receiving high-dose TCP, antioxidant enzymes SOD and CAT were increased by 23% and 59.2%, respectively, and MDA was decreased by 39.1%. Comparing the treated high-dose TCP group with the metformin group, there were similar SOD (61.5 U mg−1 vs. 60.2 U mg−1) and MDA (1.4 nmol mg−1 vs. 1.3 nmol mg−1), but more (~7%) CAT (359.8 U g−1 vs. 336.1 U g−1). Together, the present data, for the first time, demonstrated that TCP possessed hypoglycaemic effects in mice.
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Introduction Collagen hydrolysate is recognized as a safe nutraceutical, whose combination of amino acids stimulates the synthesis of collagen in the extracellular matrix of cartilage and other tissues. Objective to conduct a systematic review of literature on the action of collagen hydrolysate in bone and cartilaginous tissue and its therapeutic use against osteoporosis and osteoarthritis. Method a study of the PubMed, MEDLINE, LILACS, and SciELO databases was performed. Articles published in English and Portuguese in the period of 1994 to 2014 were considered. Results: the sample comprised nine experimental articles with in vivo (animals and humans) andin vitro (human cells) models, which found that the use of different doses of collagen hydrolysate were associated with the maintenance of bone composition and strength, and the proliferation and cell growth of cartilage. Conclusion hydrolyzed collagen has a positive therapeutic effect on osteoporosis and osteoarthritis with a potential increase in bone mineral density, a protective effect on articular cartilage, and especially in the symptomatic relief of pain.
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Purpose: Collagen peptides (CPs) and calcium citrate are commonly used as bone health supplements for treating osteoporosis. However, it remains unknown whether the combination of oral bovine CPs with calcium citrate is more effective than administration of either agent alone. Methods: Forty 12-week-old Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into five groups (n = 8) for once-daily intragastric administration of different treatments for 3 months at 3 months after ovariectomy (OVX) as follows: sham + vehicle; OVX + vehicle; OVX + 750 mg/kg CP; OVX + CP-calcium citrate (75 mg/kg); OVX + calcium citrate (75 mg/kg). After euthanasia, the femurs were removed and analyzed by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry and micro-computed tomography, and serum samples were analyzed for bone metabolic markers. Results: OVX rats supplemented with CPs or CP-calcium citrate showed osteoprotective effects, with reductions in the OVX-induced decreases in their femoral bone mineral density. Moreover, CP-calcium citrate prevented trabecular bone loss, improved the microarchitecture of the distal femur, and significantly inhibited bone loss with increased bone volume, connectivity density, and trabecular number compared with OVX control rats. CP or CP-calcium citrate administration significantly increased serum procollagen type I N-terminal propeptide levels and reduced serum bone-specific alkaline phosphatase, osteocalcin, and C-telopeptide of type I collagen levels. Conclusions: Our data indicate that combined oral administration of bovine CPs with calcium citrate inhibits bone loss in OVX rats. The present findings suggest that combined oral administration of bovine CPs with calcium citrate is a promising alternative for reducing bone loss in osteopenic postmenopausal women.
Bioactivities of fish collagen peptide are now being elucidated in diverse biological systems. Here, we investigated the effect of fish collagen peptide on the adipogenic differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes and in obese mice fed a high fat diet (HFD). Subcritical water-hydrolyzed fish collagen peptide (SWFCP) significantly inhibited lipid accumulation during the differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes, which was accompanied by decreased expression of CCAAT-enhancer-binding protein-α (C/EBP-α), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ), and adipocyte protein 2 (aP2) genes, key regulators of differentiation and maintenance of adipocytes. SWFCP was also found to suppress the palmitate-induced accumulation of lipid vacuoles in hepatocytes. Oral administration of SWFCP significantly reduced HFD-induced body weight gain without a significant difference in food intake. Consistent with its effects in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes, SWFCP inhibited the expression of C/EBP-α, PPAR-γ, and aP2 in epididymal adipose tissue of mice fed a HFD, leading to a significant reduction in adipocyte size. Furthermore, SWFCP significantly reduced serum levels of total cholesterol, triglyceride, and low-density lipoprotein, and increased serum high-density lipoprotein. These observations suggest that SWFCP inhibits adipocyte differentiation through a mechanism involving transcriptional repression of the major adipogenic regulators C/EBP-α and PPAR-γ, thereby reducing body weight gain and adipogenesis in an animal model of obesity.
Ingestion of collagen peptide (CP) elicits beneficial effects on the body, including improvement in blood lipid profiles, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of CP ingestion on the liver, which controls lipid metabolism in the body. Male BALB/cCrSlc mice were bred with the AIN-93M diet containing 14 % casein or the AIN-93M-based low-protein diet containing 10 % casein or a diet containing 6 % casein+4 % CP for 10 weeks ( n 12/group). Total, free and esterified cholesterol levels in the blood decreased in the CP group. DNA microarray analysis of the liver revealed that expressions of genes related to lipid metabolic processes such as the PPAR signalling pathway and fatty acid metabolism increased in the CP group compared with the 10 % casein group. The expressions of several genes involved in steroid metabolic process, including Cyp7a1 and Cyp8b1 , were decreased, despite being targets of transcriptional regulation by PPAR. These data suggest that lipid metabolism in the liver is altered by CP ingestion, and the decrease in blood cholesterol levels in the CP group is not due to enhancement of the steroid metabolic process. On the other hand, expressions of genes related to the unfolded protein response (UPR) significantly decreased at the mRNA level, suggesting that CP ingestion lowers endoplasmic reticulum stress. Indeed, protein levels of phosphorylated inositol-requiring enzyme 1 decreased after CP ingestion. Taken together, CP affects the broader pathways in the liver – not only lipid metabolism but also UPR.
Background: Collagen hydrolysates (CHs) has been demonstrated to have positive effect on skin photo-aging by topical application or oral ingestion. However, there's little report about its influence on skin chronological aging so far. Results: Nine-month-old female ICR mice were given normal AIN-93M diets containing the CHs (2.5%, 5% and 10%, respectively) from Nile tilapia scale. After 6 months, the collagen content and antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase) activities significantly increased (p < 0.05), while the survival rate, viscera indexes and the contents of moisture, fat and non-collagenous protein of skin didn't changed (p > 0.05). The color, luster and quantity of hair were obviously ameliorated. Moreover, the structure of epidermis and dermis, density and distribution of collagen fibers and ratio of type I to type III collagen were obviously improved in a dose-dependent manner showed by histochemical staining. Conclusion: The oral ingestion of CHs increased the collagen content and antioxidant enzymes activities, and improved the appearance and structure of skin. These suggested its potential to be developed into nutraceuticals or functional foods.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the antidiabetic properties of collagen hydrolysates (CHs). CHs exhibited dipeptidyl peptidase-IV inhibitory activity and stimulated glucagon-like-peptide-1 (GLP-1) secretion in vitro. We also determined whether CHs improve glucose tolerance in normal mice. Oral administration of CHs suppressed the glycemic response during the oral and intraperitoneal glucose tolerance tests (OGTT and IPGTT), but the effects were weaker in IPGTT than in OGTT. CHs had no effect on the gastric emptying rate. A pretreatment with the GLP-1 receptor antagonist, exendin 9-39 (Ex9), partially reversed the glucose-lowering effects of CHs, but only when coadministered with glucose. CHs administered 45 min before the glucose load potentiated the glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. This potentiating effect on insulin secretion was not reversed by the pretreatment with Ex9, it appeared to be enhanced. These results suggest that CHs improve glucose tolerance by inhibiting intestinal glucose uptake and enhancing insulin secretion, and also demonstrated that GLP-1 was partially involved in the inhibition of glucose uptake, but not essential for the enhancement of insulin secretion.
Recent studies have reported that oral intake of gelatin hydrolysate has various beneficial effects, such as reduction of joint pain and lowering of blood sugar levels. In this paper, we produced novel gelatin hydrolysate using cysteine-type ginger protease having unique substrate specificity with preferential peptide cleavage with Pro at the P2 position. Substantial amounts of X-hydroxyproline (Hyp)-Gly-type tripeptides were generated up to 2.5% (w/w) concomitantly with Gly-Pro-Y-type tripeptides (5%; w/w) using ginger powder. The in vivo absorption of the ginger-degraded gelatin hydrolysate was estimated using mice. The plasma levels of collagen-derived oligopeptides, especially X-Hyp-Gly, were significantly high (e.g., 2.3-fold for Glu-Hyp-Gly, p˂0.05) compared with that of the control gelatin hydrolysate, which was prepared using gastrointestinal proteases and did not contain detectable X-Hyp-Gly. This study demonstrated that orally administered X-Hyp-Gly was effectively absorbed into blood probably due to high protease resistance of this type of tripeptides.