ArticlePDF Available

Comparative Nutritional Analysis of Black Fonio (Digitaria iburua) and White Fonio (Digitaria exili)

Authors:

Abstract

A comprehensive study was carried out to compare the nutritive value of black and white Fonio, both of which are of West African origin. Standard methods of analysis was used to analyses the proximate and some mineral composition of the both grains. The nutritive value such as crude protein, crude fat, crude fiber, carbohydrate, moisture and ash content was determined. Minerals such as sodium and potassium were determined using flame photometry; while zinc, iron and calcium were determined using atomic absorption spectrometry. The result shows that black Fonio contains 8.75% crude protein, 4.00% crude fat, 1.03% crude fiber, 76.91% carbohydrate, 2.31% ash, 7.00 % moisture, sodium (Na) 30mg/100g, potassium (K) 8.45mg/100g, calcium (Ca) 30.00mg/100g, Iron (Fe) 2.75mg/100g, Zinc (Zn) 0.75mg/100g while that of white Fonio was found to contained 7.11% crude protein, 3.00% crude fat, 0.79%crude fiber, 79.72% carbohydrate, 2.13% ash, 7.00% moisture, sodium (Na) 20.00mg/100g, Potassium (K) 5.40mg/100g, Calcium (Ca) 20.00mg/100g, Iron (Fe) 1.10mg/100g, Zinc (Zn) 0.65mg/100g. The result shows that black Fonio is more nutritive than the white Fonio.
International Research Journal of Biological Sciences ___________________________________ ISSN 2278-3202
Vol. 4(6), 4-9, June (2015) Int. Res. J. Biological Sci.
International Science Congress Association 4
Comparative Nutritional Analysis of Black Fonio (Digitaria iburua) and
White Fonio (Digitaria exili)
Idris Z. Sadiq
1*
, Maiwada S.A.
2
, Dauda D.
1
, Jamilu Y.M.
1
and Madungurum M.A.
1
1
Dept. of Biotech, School of Engineering and Technology, Sharda University, Knowledge park III, Greater Noida, Gautam Budha Nagar, INDIA
2
Deparment of Biochemistry, Faculty of science, Bayero University, Kano, Kano-NIGERIA
Available online at: www.isca.in, www.isca.me
Received 9
th
April 2015, revised 14
th
May 2015, accepted 7
th
June 2015
Abstract
A comprehensive study was carried out to compare the nutritive value of black and white Fonio, both of which are of West
African origin. Standard methods of analysis was used to analyses the proximate and some mineral composition of the both
grains. The nutritive value such as crude protein, crude fat, crude fiber, carbohydrate, moisture and ash content was
determined. Minerals such as sodium and potassium were determined using flame photometry; while zinc, iron and
calcium were determined using atomic absorption spectrometry. The result shows that black Fonio contains 8.75% crude
protein, 4.00% crude fat, 1.03% crude fiber, 76.91% carbohydrate, 2.31% ash, 7.00 % moisture, sodium (Na) 30mg/100g,
potassium (K) 8.45mg/100g, calcium (Ca) 30.00mg/100g, Iron (Fe) 2.75mg/100g, Zinc (Zn) 0.75mg/100g while that of
white Fonio was found to contained 7.11% crude protein, 3.00% crude fat, 0.79%crude fiber, 79.72% carbohydrate,
2.13% ash, 7.00% moisture, sodium (Na) 20.00mg/100g, Potassium (K) 5.40mg/100g, Calcium (Ca) 20.00mg/100g, Iron
(Fe) 1.10mg/100g, Zinc (Zn) 0.65mg/100g. The result shows that black Fonio is more nutritive than the white Fonio.
Keywords: Proximate, minerals, nutrients, black fonio, white fonio.
Introduction
Fonio is an indigenous cereal grain native to West Africa. It has
been cultivated in dry savannas of West Africa for years and it
was once steadily demanded in some West African communities
including Nigeria, Mali, Guinea and Burkina Faso. Farmers in
the West Africa allocate about 300,000 hectares each year for
Fonio production, and the crop feeds about 3-4 million people
1
.
Of all the grains, Fonio is the most nutritious and a good source
of cyteine and methionine, which are important to health of
humans and also not found in some common cereals
1,2
. These
combining properties of both nutrition and taste may probably
be importance in the future. Above all, Fonio May probably
provide resources to local farmers and hold the potential for
reducing poverty and hungry
1
. White Fonio is the most
commonly used among the two species. It is found in Senegal,
Chad and Nigeria and particularly raised in plateau located in
the central Nigeria popularly called "acha" and also in the
nearby areas. The black Fonio was reported to be limited to the
Bauchi and Jos of Nigeria along with other regions of the
northern Benin and Togo
1
. Although Fonio was once thought to
be one of the “Lost Crops of Africa” and was entirely ignored
by scientists
3
, the grain is how re-explored’ and chosen for
improvement as a species for cultivation
1-3
. Due to it high
protein content (about 7% or more) that is found to be rich in
leucine, valine and methionine, the grain has been regarded as
best nutritious and testing of all grains
1-4
. Fonio was also
reported to have high malting and brewing possibilities
2,4
. Many
factors were believed to have caused the declined in the
production of Fonio, the identified disadvantages of Fonio
include but not limited to; the smaller size of the grain, less
yield than other cereal grains shattering and lodging
2, 4
. The aim
of this research is to compare the nutritive value of the two
varieties of Fonio.
Material and Methods
Sample Collection: Two varieties of Fonio, black and white
were purchased from Rimi market in Kano city, Nigeria. The
market is located in Kano city on coordinates: 11°59'48"N and
8°31'28"E. The market is patronized by many Kano inhabitants
for purchase of food stuffs.
Preparation of sample: The samples were washed with
distilled water and dried. They were then grinded into finely
powder using mortar and pestle. The nutritional analysis was
done using the powder.
Reagent Preparation: 2% Boric acid made by dissolving 2g of
boric acid in volumetric flask of 100ml and making it up to the
mark. 1%HCl (v/v) made by adding 5ml of concentrated. HCl of
specific gravity 1.18 to distilled water and making it up to
500ml in a volumetric flask.
1.25% H
2
SO
4
working solution prepared by dissolving 100g in
125ml of stock solution to 1dm
3
.
10% NaOH made by dissolving 40g NaOH with distilled water
in 1000ml volumetric flask and making it up to the mark.
International Research Journal of Biological Sciences _______________________________________________ ISSN 2278-3202
Vol. 4(6), 4-9, June (2015) Int. Res. J. Biological Sci.
International Science Congress Association 5
0.1M HCl made by diluting 9ml of analar grade HCl and
making the solution up to 1 liter with distilled water. This is
then standardized by titrating against 0.1N Na
2
CO
3
(anhydrous)
using methyl red as indicator.
0.1M NaOH made by dissolving 4g with distilled water in
1000ml volumetric flask and making it up to ml mark.
Kjeldahl catalyst-A combination of 500g K
2
SO
4
+ 15g CuSO
4
+
TiO
2
in the ratio of 100:3:3 grinded together in finely powder.
0.1N HNO
3
was prepared by diluting 63cm
3
to 1 liter with
distilled water.
Determination of Protein by Microkjeldahl Method
5
:
Principle: Protein-containing sample is digested using conc.
H
2
SO
4
in the presence of Kjeldahl catalyst. Standard alkali was
added to digest the sample and the ammonia produced is steam
distilled into a standard solution of HCl. Titration of The acid
gives an indication of the amount ammonia (NH
3
) distilled, and
hence the nitrogen content from which crude protein is
calculated.
Procedures: Each of the samples 0.20g was weight into the
digestion tubes. Conc. H
2
SO
4
(15ml) was added to each tubes
and swirl the tubes gently until the samples and the acid were
thoroughly mixed. Kjeldahl catalyst (5g) was added to each
tube. The tubes were heated until the solution clears. The
temperature was risen and heat to boiling for 2 hours after the
solution has cleared and allows cooling. The content of each
tube were transferred into 100ml volumetric flasks and diluted
with distilled water where the tube is marked. 2%boric acid
(10ml) and 4 drops of mixed indicator were measured into a
250ml-Erlenmeyer flask. Aliquot of the digest (10ml) was
transferred into the distillation flask and the flask was attached
to the distillation apparatus. Sodium hydroxide (10ml) was
added into the distillation flask containing the digest. Nitrogen
was distilled into boric acid/mixed indicator receiver flask until
the 150 mark is reached. The condenser tip was washed with
distilled water and titrated the distillate with 0.025 N H
2
SO4
until pink end point was developed. The calculation of the total
protein was done through the multiplication of the percentage of
nitrogen with 6.25.
The percentage of nitrogen is calculated as follows:
%N = 0.014 # titre # volume # normality # 100 weight of
sample # volume of aliquate % crude protein = total nitrogen #
6.25
Determination of Crude Fat by Method of AOAC
6
:
Principle: The principle is based on the fact that lipophilic
(non-polar) constituent of a sample are readily extracted into
organic solvent. Determination of crude fat involves the
continuous removal of fat from the sample with solvent e.g.
petroleum ether (B.P 40-60
0
C) in soxholer extractor.
Procedure: Few granules that prevent bumping were added to
Six (6) cleaned round flasks and Petroleum ether with B.P 40-
60
0
c of about 300mls was put into each flask and then fixed in
the soxholer extraction units. The thimbles for Extraction were
weight and 20 milliliters of the samples was put into the
weighed thimble (W1) and the thimble put into the soxhler
extraction unit including the forceps and the circulation of the
cold water was turn on. The mantle for heating was turn on and
the refluxing solution was set at a constant pace. The Extraction
was performed for about eight hours. The thimble was taken
out, dried at 70
0
C to a constant weight and then weight (W2).
The calculation of extractable fat was as follows;
% crude fible = {weight of extracted fat = weight of dried
sample} # 100
Where: W1 = weight of sample, W2= weight of thimble
Crude Fiber Determination According To AOAC, AACC,
ISO, AND AOCS Using the Fibrecap 2021/2023 System
7
:
Principles: Any food material submitted for analysis of crude
fiber and which suspected to contain more than 1% fat is first
rendered fat-free by treatment with petroleum ether (B.P 40-
60
0
C). The defatted sample is treated with boiling H
2
SO
4
and
later with boiling NaOH, and the residue left after the
subtraction of the ash is taking as fiber.
Procedures: Pre-dried fiber capsule was weighed with lid
(W1). The sample 0.5g was tare and weighed (W2). The lid was
snapped and put in a tray stand. Petroleum ether (120/260ml)
was added to the beaker. The tray stand was swirled with the
capsule in the solvent for 0.5minutes.The process was repeated
to other beakers. The capsule tray was moved to the carousel
and the stopper was then put.1.25% sulphuric acid (350ml) in
the extraction vessel was pre-heated on a hot plate. The carousel
was inserted and condenser put on and let it boil gentle. The
sulphuric acid was then discarded. The capsule was washed by
swirling in a hot water for 0.5 minute. This was then repeated
three times with fresh hot water.1.25% sodium hydroxide
(350ml) in an extraction vessel was pre-heated on a hot plate.
The carousel was inserted and the condenser put on and let it
boil for 0.5 minute. Petroleum ether (120/360ml) was added to
the beaker. The tray was swirled in the capsule in the solvent for
0.5 minute. The capsule in the tray was dried for 2 hours at
300C. It was then put in a desiccator and let it cool for
15minute. The capsule was weighed (W3). The capsule was
place in a pre-heated ashing beaker (W4) and ashed at least 4
hours at 600
0
C. The beaker was allowed to cool down in a
desiccator and weighed (W5).
Calculations:% crude fiber = {(C-(A-F)-(E-D-G)}/B # 100.
Where: A= capsule initial weight (mg), B = weight of sample
(mg), C = weight of capsule + weight of residue (mg), D =
empty crucible for ashing (mg), E = total ash (mg), F =
correction for solubility of capsule (mg), G = capsule ash (mg).
International Research Journal of Biological Sciences _______________________________________________ ISSN 2278-3202
Vol. 4(6), 4-9, June (2015) Int. Res. J. Biological Sci.
International Science Congress Association 6
Determination of Ash Content by Method of AOAC
6
:
Principle: The principle is based on the loss in weight which
occurs after igniting the sample in a muffle furnace at a
temperature of about 600
0
C which causes the organic matter to
burn completely without affecting the ash constituents.
Procedures: The ash content was determined according to the
method provided by AOAC. About Six (6) crucibles were dried
in an ovum and desiccator was used to cool the crucibles. The
crucible with the samples were introduced into furnace and set
at 600
0
C and then ignited in the furnace for about 8 hours.The
crucibles with the ash ware taken out and cooled in a desiccator
and weight (W3). % ash content is calculated as follows;
%Ash = weight of ash/weight of sample # 100
Where: W1= empty crucible weight.W2= crucible weight +
sample weight before drying.W3= weight of crucible + sample
weight after drying.
Determination of Moisture Content
6
: Principle: The principle
involved difference in weight prior to (before) and after drying
carry through 100
0
C constantly in 24 hours.
Procedures: Six empty dishes were heated in an ovum at a
temperature of about 100
o
C until a constant weight is attained
(W1). About 2g of the sample was put into each of the empty
dishes and weighted (W2). The dishes in which the sample is
put was heated at a temperature of about 100
o
c in an ovum or a
day (24hours), after which it was weighed and then reweight
after another 3hours to obtained a constant weight (W3).The
moisture content was calculated as follows;
% moisture = {W2 – W3} / {W2 – W1} # 100
W1= empty dish weight.W2= dish weight + sample weight
before drying. W3= dish weight + sample weight after drying.
Determination of Total Carbohydrate (By Difference
Method): The total carbohydrate was determined by difference
method in which the percentages of crude protein, crude fiber,
crude fiber, ash content and moisture content were subtracted
from
100 % Carbohydrate = 100% - % Protein + Fiber +% Fat +
Moisture
Specific Minerals Analysis: Sample Preparation for Specific
Mineral Analysis Using Dry Ashing
8
:
The finely grounded
sample (1g) was weight into porcelain crucible .It was ignited
into murple furnace for 6-8hours at 450
0
C until grayish ash was
obtained. It was cool on top of asbestos sheet and 1N HNO
3
(5ml) was added and evaporated on a hot plate. It was re-ignited
at 400
0
C for 10-15 minutes till a perfect whitish ash was
produced. After cooling it on top of asbestos sheet again, 1N
HCl (10ml) was added and filtered the solution into a 50ml
volumetric flask. Additional 10ml part of 0.1NHCl solution was
used to wash the porcelain crucibles as well as the filter paper.
The prepared sample was used for determination of Na, K, Ca,
Fe, and Zinc.
Determination of Sodium and Potassium using Flame
Photometry
9
, Principle: Flame photometry is based on the
flame atomization characterized by emission of certain amount
of energy. The intensity of energy is detected by photo cells at a
particular wave length which is specific to the element of
interest. The amount of current produced is measured through
the signal display.
Procedure: The flame photometer was set for sodium by
selecting the appropriate wave length 598nm and that of
potassium at 768nm.The instrument was set to 100%
transmittance. Standard solution of sodium of 0,2,4,6,8,10
(mg/l) and that of potassium 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, (mg/l) were then
aspirated into the instrument through the capillary tube and the
intensity readings were recorded. A standard curve was done by
plotting absorbance against concentration of sodium; the same
was done to the potassium. The samples were then analyzed and
the concentrations were obtained by using the following
relations.
Concentration mg/l = absorbance of sample # Slope obtained
from graph
Energy Calculation: The percent calories in black and white
Fonio were calculated from the values of crude protein, fat and
carbohydrate obtained in this experiment. First, crude protein
and carbohydrate percentages were each multiply by 4 while
that of crude fat was multiply by 9 and all the values obtained
were added
10
. The calculation was done as follows;
Energy (Kcal/100g) =
{[% C.P # 4] + [% carbohydrate # 4] + [% C.F # 9]}
Where: C.P, Crude Protein, C.F, Crude Fat
Determination of Iron, Calcium and Zinc using Atomic
Absorption Spectrophotometer
11,12
Principle: Atomic
absorption spectroscopy is technique in which free atom(s) in a
gaseous state absorbed ultraviolet (UV) radiation. The
absorbance is measured at a specific wavelength as beams of
radiation are passed through the atomized sample. The
absorbance is normally measure at wave length that corresponds
to the mineral of under question.
Procedure: The instrument was set up according to the
manufactures instruction which includes section of fuel, oxidant
gases, and burner fuel and wave length. Specific wave length
was selected for Fe, Zn and Ca (248.3, 213.9 and 422.7nm)
respectively. The sample solution was aspirated into the flame
and ions absorbances were recorded for each element.
Calibration curved for absorbance of standard solution for each
International Research Journal of Biological Sciences _______________________________________________ ISSN 2278-3202
Vol. 4(6), 4-9, June (2015) Int. Res. J. Biological Sci.
International Science Congress Association 7
metal was plotted. A plot of absorbance against concentration
gave linear graph. The slope of the graph was used to calculate
the concentration of each metal in a given sample using
absorbance values. The exact concentration of interested
element was calculated by applying the following formula.
Concentration mg/l =
Absorbance of sample # Slope obtained from graph
Results and Discussion
This study was performed to compare the nutritive value of the
locally available black and white Fonio. Using standard
procedures, the proximate composition as well as minerals of
the black and white fonio were determined and presented in
table-1 to 4
Table -1
Nutrients composition of Black Fonio
Nutrients %Composition
Protein 8.75
Fat 4.00
Fiber 1.03
Carbohydrate 76.91
Ash 2.31
Moisture 7.00
Energy 378.64 Kcal/100g
Table-2
Nutrient composition of white Fonio
Nutrients %Composition
Protein 7.11
Fat 3.00
Fibre 0.79
Carbohydrate 79.72
Ash 2.13
Moisture 7.00
Energy 374.32 Kcal/100g
Table-3
Minerals composition of Black Fonio
Mineral Composition (mg/100g)
Sodium 30.00
Potassium 8.45
Calcium 30.00
Iron 2.75
Zinc 0.75
The result shows that black Fonio contains 8.75% crude protein,
4.00% crude fat, 1.03% crude fiber, 76.91% carbohydrate,
2.31% ash, 7.00 % moisture, sodium (Na) 30mg/100g,
potassium (K) 8.45mg/100g, calcium (Ca) 30.00mg/100g, Iron
(Fe) 2.75mg/100g, Zinc (Zn) 0.75mg/100g. while that of white
Fonio was found to contained 7.11% crude protein, 3.00% crude
fat, 0.79% crude fiber, 79.72% carbohydrate, 2.13% ash, 7.00%
moisture, sodium (Na) 20.00mg/100g, Potassium (K)
5.40mg/100g, Calcium (Ca) 20.00mg/100g, Iron (Fe)
1.10mg/100g, Zinc (Zn) 0.65mg/100g. Fonio, with 7% protein,
rich in leusine , valine and methionine
4
was consider to be most
excellent grain in term of nutrients and taste
3
. It has been
suggested that the composition of both black and white Fonio is
comparable to that of white rice but having comparatively
higher cystine and methionine (sulphur amino acid) content
13,14
.
Amino acids that contain sulphur are very vital for appropriate
nerve transmission and proper functioning of the heart and
people with low meat intake depend on cereals as source of
essential amino acids
14
.
Table-4
Minerals composition of white Fonio
Mineral Composition (mg/100g)
Sodium 20.00
Potassium 5.40
Calcium 20.00
Iron 1.10
Zinc 0.65
In Nigeria Fonio products are presently recommended as
preferred carbohydrate source for patient suffering from
diabetes
14
. Black and white Fonio may probably be rich in
nutraceuticals, for instance antioxidants containing phenols and
waxes which lower cholsterol
14-16
.
It has been reported that in
part of the West Africa, black and white Fonio have play
significant role for diabetic patients
14
. The potential of cereals in
decreasing the risk of cancer as well as cholesterol lowering has
been predicted and the ability of grains to bind bile acid has
been evaluated physiologically invitro
14-16
. Many increasing
approach has encourage the use of whole grains as they are
excellent source of fiber which is important in the prevention of
constipation, cardiovascular diseases and hypertension. The
nutraceuticals found in the whole grain have found to be
beneficial in obesity, general health maintenance and
diabetes
14,16
.
Due their resistance to digestion and absorption in the small
intestine, resistance starch has been one of the interest sources
of dietary fiber. It has been suggested that Fonio contains
resistance starch which may play important role in the diseases
managements as well as heath conditions
14
. Due to their
resistance to digestion and absorption in the small intestine,
resistance starch has been one of the rich sources of dietary fiber
and it was been suggested that, Fonio contains resistance starch
which may play important role in the diseases managements as
well as heath conditions. Fonio is a good source of minerals
required by both children and pregnant women. A study found
modest zinc supplements (5.7mg/day) results in increased
growth rate compared to placebo
17
indicating that grains with
high zinc content might be beneficial to children under active
growth. The recommended daily intakes of calcium and iron for
International Research Journal of Biological Sciences _______________________________________________ ISSN 2278-3202
Vol. 4(6), 4-9, June (2015) Int. Res. J. Biological Sci.
International Science Congress Association 8
an adult male are 1,000 and 10 mg, respectively
18
.
From the data in table-3 and 4, it can be estimate that 100 g dry
weight of black and white Fonio would provide about 30 mg
and 20mg of calcium that is 3% and 2% of recommended
calcium daily intake respectively. Data from table-3 and 4 also
shows that 100g of black Fonio can supply 27.5% of
recommended daily iron intake while that of white Fonio can
supply 11% of the recommended iron intake.
Carbohydrates are main components in cereals and are the main
energy supply used by the human. Several industries uses
carbohydrates for making food and feed and important industrial
raw material which are of commercial importance such as fuels
which are ethanol-based, adhesives, and plastics that are readily
biodegradable
19
. The carbohydrates of Fonio grains can also
have many uses in industrial sectors
20
. The low-starch
gelatinization temperature and high-beta-amylase activity shows
the brewing potential of both black and white Fonio in partial
substitution of barley malt
2,4,14
.
From this study, it is well noted that black and white Fonio can
provide substantial nutrients required for proper functioning of
the body. Proper attention has to be paid to this ‘lost crop of
Africa’ due to its exceptional nutritional properties.
Conclusion
Based on the results obtained from this research, it can be
concluded the black fonio is more nutritive in terms of protein,
fat, fiber, ash content and calculated calories. The levels of these
parameters show that these grains can provide substantial
recommended daily intake of these nutrients. Proper attention
has to be paid to this ‘lost crop of Africa’ due to its exceptional
nutritional properties.
Abbreviations
AOAC, Association of Official Analytical Chemists.
AACC, America Association of Cereal Chemists.
ISO, International Organization for Standardization.
AOCS, American oil chemists society.
B.P, Boiling Point.
References
1. Vietmeyer N.D., Borlaugh N.E., Axtell J., Burton G.W.,
Harlan J.R. and Rachie K.O., (Ed) Fonio (Acha). Lost
crop in Africa Chap. 3, BOSTID Publication, 58-75
(1996)
2. Kuta D. D., Kwon-Ndung E., Dachi S., Ukwungwu M.
and Imolehin E.D., Potential role of biotechnology tools
for genetic improvement of lost crops of Africa: The case
of Fonio (Digitaria exilis and Digitaria iburua), Mini
review, Afr J Biotechnol., 2, 580-585 (2003)
3. Ntui V.O., Thirukkumaran G., Azadi P., Khan R.S.,
Nakamura I. and Mii M., Stable integration and
expression of wasabi defensin gene in “Egusi” melon
(Colocynthis citrullus L.) confers resistance to Fusarium
wilt and Alternaria leaf spot, Plant Cell Rep., 29, 943-
954 (2010)
4. Kuta D.D., Kwon-Ndung E., Dachi S., Bakare O. and
Ogunkanmi L.A., Optimization of protocols for DNA
extraction and RAPD analysis in West African Fonio
(Digitaria exilis and Digitaria iburua) germplasm
characterization, Afr. J. Biotechnol., 4, 1368-1371
(2005)
5. Kjeldahl J., Determination of Protein Nitrogen in Food
Products, Ency. Food. Sci., 439-441 (1883)
6. A.O.A.C., Official Methods of Analysis of the
Association of Official Analytical Chemists 13th edition.
Washington, D. C (1980)
7. AOAC, ISO, AACC, AOCS, The determination of crude
fiber in food using the Standard Fibrecap, 2021/2023
(2000)
8. A.O.A.C., Official methods of analysis of the
Association of official analytical chemists, Washington,
D.C (1970)
9. Mason W.B., Flame Photometry, Clinical Chemistry,
Principle and Techniques, Richard J.H, Donald C.C and
James W.W. 2
nd
edition, Harpers and Row Publishers
London, 49-64 (1974)
10. Gul S. and Safdar M., Proximate Composition and
Mineral Analysis of Cinnamon, Pak. J. of Nutr., 8, 1456-
1460 (2009)
11. Allen S.E, Max H.G, John A.P and Christopher Q.,
Chemical Analysis of Ecological materials, Black well
Scientific Publishing, London, 12-234 (1974)
12. Vanli J.C., Atomic Absorption spectrometry. Analytical
atomic Absorption Spectroscopy, Academic press, Inc.
Orlando, Florida, 11-293 (1980)
13. CIRAD, European Commission Research Headlines:
Research project brings African grain to European tables,
http://inco-fonio-en.cirad.fr/coordination. Accessed 12
may 2010, (2006)
14. Jideani I.A. and Jideani V.A., Developments on the
cereal grains Digitaria exilis (acha) and Digitaria iburua
(iburu), J Food Sci. Technol., 48, 251-259 (2011)
15. Kasarda D.D., Grains in relation to celiac disease, Cereal
Foods World, 46, 209–210 (2001)
16. Kahlon T.S., Evaluating healthful properties of cereals
and cereal fractions by their bile-acid-binding potential,
Cereal Foods World, 54, 118–121 (2009)
International Research Journal of Biological Sciences _______________________________________________ ISSN 2278-3202
Vol. 4(6), 4-9, June (2015) Int. Res. J. Biological Sci.
International Science Congress Association 9
17. Walravens P.A., Hambidge K.M. and Koepfer D.M.,
Zinc supplementation in infants with a nutritional pattern
of failure to thrive: A double-blind, controlled study,
Pediatrics, 83, 532-538 (1989)
18. Glew R.S., Amoako-Atta B., Ankar-Brewoo G., Presley
J., Chuang L-T., Millson M., Smith B.R. and Glew R.H.,
Furthering an understanding of West African plant foods:
Mineral, fatty acid and protein content of seven
cultivated indigenous leafy vegetables of Ghana, British
Food Journal, 112, 1102-1111 (2010)
19. Chibbar R.N., Ganeshan S., Båga M. and Khandelwal R.
L., Carbohydrate metabolism. In Encyclopedia of Grain
Science, Elsevier Academic Press, Oxford, 1, 168-179
(2004)
20. Ballogou V.Y., Soumanou M.M., Toukourou F. and
Hounhouigan J.D, Structure and Nutritional Composition
of Fonio (Digitaria exilis) Grains, Int. Res. J. Biological
Sci., 2, 73-79 (2013)
... Moisture content of fonio is of importance in grain processing and storage (Kawuyo, Aviara, & Okolo, 2019). The moisture contents of white and black fonio grains ranged from 7% to 17% (Annongu et al., 2019;Coda, Cagno, Edema, Nionelli, & Gobbetti, 2010;Koreissi-Dembélé, Fanou-Fogny, Hulshof, et al., 2013;Sadiq, Maiwada, Dauda, Jamilu, & Madungurum, 2015). Starch is the major component of fonio grains (Irving & Jideani, 1997). ...
... From Table 1, it is estimated that the starch contents could amount up to over 80% of fonio grains on a dry basis. The protein contents of white fonio ranged from 4.4% to 8.5%, whereas those of black fonio were from 7.9% to 10% (Annongu et al., 2019;FoodData Central, 2020;Glew et al., 2013;Jideani & Akingbala, 1993;Koreissi-Dembélé, Fanou-Fogny, Hulshof, et al., 2013;Sadiq et al., 2015). The total lipid contents of white fonio varied from 1.1% to 4.7%, whereas those of black fonio ranged from 1.3% to 4.3% (Annongu et al., 2019;FoodData Central, 2020;Glew et al., 2013;Jideani & Akingbala, 1993;Koreissi-Dembélé, Fanou-Fogny, Hulshof, et al., 2013;Ladan, Oguogho, Akos, Ayiya, & Yakubu, 2018). ...
... The total dietary fiber contents ranged from 0.5% to 18.2%, whereas those of black fonio varied from 0.5% to 4.8% (Annongu et al., 2019;Coda et al., 2010;Irving & Jideani, 1997; Koreissi-Dembélé, Fanou-Fogny, Hulshof, . The ranges of ash content of white and black fonio grains were 0.5 to 3.1 and 0.5% to 3.7%, respectively (Annongu et al., 2019;Jideani & Akingbala, 1993;Koreissi-Dembélé, Fanou-Fogny, Hulshof, 2013;Sadiq et al., 2015). Comparative studies showed that black fonio had higher protein content than white fonio (Annongu et al., 2019;Coda et al., 2010;Jideani & Akingbala, 1993;Sadiq et al., 2015). ...
Article
Fonio grains are a type of small‐seeded cereals native to Western Africa and are important cereal crops for food security. The two species are white fonio (Digitaria exilis) (commonly called acha) and black fonio (Digitaria iburua) (commonly called iburu). As a novel food, fonio has attracted attention from other parts of the world due to their attractive nutritional properties (e.g., in whole grain form and being gluten free) and potential food applications. The information regarding the functional properties and applications of fonio is rather scattered. This review summarizes the chemical composition, physicochemical and nutritional properties, and diverse food applications of fonio. The nutritional composition and processing properties of fonio are similar to other cereals. Fonio has potential to be complementary to major cereals for diverse food uses. There are research opportunities to better explore fonio grains for value‐added applications.
Article
Full-text available
Research and development on these indigenous African cereal grains, acha (Digitaria exilis Stapf) and iburu (D. iburua Stapf), is experiencing renewed interest not just in Africa but the rest of the world. It is believed that acha and iburu may have nutraceutical properties, as it is used in some areas for managing diabetes. Value addition and exploitation of fonio (acha and iburu) in the development of health or speciality foods like acha-bread, biscuit, cookies, sour dough, traditional drinks, nonfermented steamed and granulated dumpling products are gaining interest. These grains may also contribute in addressing some very relevant challenges in today's food formulation-both from functionality and health perspectives. The constraint of low yield is receiving attention in cereal breeding programmes which may give rise to a new generation of 'healthy' cereal grains in future. Further research on acha and iburu whole grains will hopefully lead to increase understanding of the health effects of grain components and to increase the intake of health-protective grain components. Moreover, with strong consumer demand for these grains due to their potential nutritional and health benefits, and because they help to satisfy the demand for a more varied cereal diet, efforts should be made to tackle the obstacles militating against production, improved quality, competitiveness and value-addition.
Article
Full-text available
Production of "Egusi" melon (Colocynthis citrullus L.) in West Africa is limited by fungal diseases, such as Alternaria leaf spot and Fusarium wilt. In order to engineer "Egusi" resistant to these diseases, cotyledonary explants of two "Egusi" genotypes, 'Ejagham' and NHC1-130, were transformed with Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain EHA101 harbouring wasabi defensin gene (isolated from Wasabia japonica L.) in a binary vector pEKH1. After co-cultivation for 3 days, infected explants were transferred to MS medium containing 100 mg l(-l) kanamycin to select transformed tissues. After 3 weeks of culture, adventitious shoots appeared directly along the edges of the explants. As much as 19 out of 52 (36.5%) and 25 out of 71 (35.2%) of the explants in genotype NHC1-130 and 'Ejagham', respectively, formed shoots after 6 weeks of culture. As much as 74% (14 out of 19) of the shoots regenerated in genotype NHC1-130 and 72% (18 out of 25) of those produced in genotype 'Ejagham' were transgenic. A DNA fragment corresponding to the wasabi defensin gene or the selection marker nptII was amplified by PCR from the genomic DNA of all regenerated plant clones rooted on hormone-free MS medium under the same selection pressure, suggesting their transgenic nature. Southern blot analysis confirmed successful integration of 1-5 copies of the transgene. RT-PCR, northern and western blot analyses revealed that wasabi defensin gene was expressed in transgenic lines. Transgenic lines showed increased levels of resistance to Alternaria solani, which causes Alternaria leaf spot and Fusarium oxysporum, which causes Fusarium wilt, as compared to that of untransformed plants.
Article
Full-text available
A study was conducted to know the nutritive value of cinnamon in the Department of Human Nutrition, NWFP Agricultural University, Peshawar. The standard procedures of AOAC (2003) were followed to analyze the proximate composition and mineral analysis. The caloric value was calculated from crude protein, crude fat, crude fiber, carbohydrate, moisture and ash content. The iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), calcium (Ca), chromium (Cr), manganese (Mn) and magnesium (Mg) were determined by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer, sodium (Na) and potassium (K) by Flame Photometer and phosphorus (P) by Spectrophotometer. The results revealed that cinnamon contained ash (2.4%), crude protein (3.5%), crude fat (4%), crude fiber (33.0%), moisture (5.1%) and carbohydrate (52.0%). While the mineral determination gave the data that cinnamon contained iron (7.0 mg/g), Zinc (2.6 mg/g), Calcium (83.8 mg/g), Chromium (0.4 mg/g), Manganese (20.1 mg/g) and Magnesium (85.5 mg/g), sodium (0.0 mg/g), Potassium (134.7 mg/g) and Phosphorus (42.4 mg/g). This study concluded that the tested cinnamon contained highest amount of carbohydrate and lowest amount of ash. Similarly, among minerals the tested cinnamon contained highest amount of potassium and no sodium at all.
Article
Fonio is an important indigenous grain crop of West Africa, but the extent of genetic diversity in fonio, its origin and phylogeny are not well understood. DNA markers allow precise characterization of plant germplasm accessions, but there is no literature report of their use in fonio. This paper reports the result of protocol optimization research for DNA isolation and RAPD analyses in fonio. High quality DNA was successfully isolated and RAPD was effectively used to study genetic similarity among fonio accessions. This result might stimulate the application of DNA markers to investigate the origin and phylogeny of fonio in Africa.
Article
Purpose The main purpose of this paper is to determine the content of amino acids, fatty acids and minerals in seven indigenous leafy vegetables (ILVs) in Ghana. Design/methodology/approach Leaves from plants growing near Kumasi were milled to a fine powder, dried to constant weight in a vacuum desiccator, and analyzed for their content of the afore‐mentioned nutrients. The plants were: Hibiscus sabdarifa, Hibiscus cannabinus, Amaranthus cruentus, Corchorus oliforius, Solanum macrocarpon, Xanthomosa sagittifolium and Vigna unguiculatus. Findings All seven ILVs contained a large amount of protein (15.5‐22.8 percent), which compared favorably to the essential amino acid pattern of a WHO standard. They all contained nutritionally useful amounts of α ‐linolenic acid and had an omega‐6/omega‐3 ratio of 0.1‐0.9. The seven ILVs contained quantities of calcium, copper, iron, magnesium, manganese, molybdenum and zinc that could contribute significantly to satisfying an individual's need for these elements. Research limitations/implications The presence of relatively large amounts of various nutritionally essential macro‐ and micronutrients in these seven ILVs does not necessarily mean these nutrients are bioavailable. Future research is required to determine the amounts of anti‐nutrients (e.g. protease inhibitors, chelators) in these vegetables, and the extent to which their protein, lipid and mineral constituents are digested and/or absorbed. Originality/value Since malnutrition (e.g. iron‐deficiency anemia, rickets, zinc deficiency, protein‐calorie malnutrition) is common in sub‐Saharan Africa, the information which is provided should increase awareness among agricultural and public health officials of the nutritional value of seven underappreciated and underutilized ILVs that are indigenous to Ghana and many other parts of Africa.
Article
The techniques of analytical, valence electron, atomic spectrometry (absorption, fluorescence and emission), by themselves, are mainly for the determination of the amount of an element in a sample which has been prepared as a . For a large fraction of trace element analysis such an approach is satisfactory. However, there are some other very important requirements in trace element analysis not now adequately being addressed by analytical atomic spectrometry. A selection of these, familiar to the present writer, will be covered in this presentation. Some interesting initiatives to “bridge the gaps” are now being made. The topics to be discussed are; elemental speciation, direct analysis of solids, elemental and natural isotope analysis using plasma sources, micro analysis by laser probe and vapour generation approaches to improved detection limits. This is not intended to be an exhaustive review of these subject areas but will present material of interest together with recently published key papers. Greatest emphasis is given to the very important topic of speciation.