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LOYALTY IN NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS: AN EXPLANATORY RESEARCH

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Abstract

Non-Profit organizations majorly play an important role in social life with their activities. These institutions perform their activities through volunteer-based membership. Therefore, loyalty is crucial not only for the companies (i.e. for profit organizations), but also for the non-profit organizations in order to maintain sustainability. Within this context, it can be said that although studies on loyalty and satisfaction about non-profit organizations can be found in literature, studies in Turkey are not satisfactorily enough. This research aims to analyse the factors affecting the loyalty that people feel towards these organizations/institutions in social voluntary project in İzmir. For the study, a questionnaire survey conducted by random sampling method and 296 people were reached. As a result of the study, “self-satisfaction from participation and satisfaction for social benefits” are the major influencers of volunteer' loyalty in non-profit organizations. Also the advantages of participating social responsibility projects both to the society and themselves are increasing the volunteers' loyalty. For future studies, a scale can be developed to measure the loyalty in non-profit organizations. Keywords: Loyalty, Non-profit Organization, Volunteerism, Social Responsibility
Journal of Global Strategic Management | V. 11 | N. 1 | 2017 -June | isma.info | 075-086 | DOI: 10.20460/JGSM. 2017.248
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LOYALTY IN NON-PROFIT
ORGANIZATIONS: AN EXPLANATORY
RESEARCH *Ali Erhan Zalluhoğlu
*Aykan Candemir
*Cihat Karslı
*Aslı Diyadin
* Ege University, Turkey
ABSTRACT
Non-Profit organizations majorly play an important role in social life with their activities. These
institutions perform their activities through volunteer-based membership. Therefore, loyalty is crucial not
only for the companies (i.e. for profit organizations), but also for the non-profit organizations in order to
maintain sustainability. Within this context, it can be said that although studies on loyalty and
satisfaction about non-profit organizations can be found in literature, studies in Turkey are not
satisfactorily enough. This research aims to analyse the factors affecting the loyalty that people feel
towards these organizations/institutions in social voluntary project in İzmir. For the study, a
questionnaire survey conducted by random sampling method and 296 people were reached. As a result of
the study, self-satisfaction from participation and satisfaction for social benefits are the major
influencers of volunteer' loyalty in non-profit organizations. Also the advantages of participating social
responsibility projects both to the society and themselves are increasing the volunteers' loyalty. For
future studies, a scale can be developed to measure the loyalty in non-profit organizations.
Keywords: Loyalty, Non-profit Organization, Volunteerism, Social Responsibility
INTRODUCTION
Nowadays; environmental pollution, limited resources of the world, unemployment problems, increased
population, natural disasters etc. have become important issues for the sustainability of the “modern
society” life. Both individuals and organizations increasingly feel the responsibilities of their behaviors
and the necessity of organizing and taking part in “social responsibility projects”. Within this context,
various studies were made out to raise awareness of people for social issues. “Social responsibility (is
the) responsibility of an organization for the impacts of its decisions and activities on society and the
environment through transparent and ethical behavior that is consistent with sustainable development
and the welfare of society; takes into account the expectations of stakeholders; is in compliance with
applicable law and consistent with international norms of behavior; and is integrated throughout the
organization… (ISO, 2007)”. With the increasing sense of social responsibility, both organizations and
individuals are trying to fulfill these responsibilities by serving the gathering where they are present
(Saran et al., 2011). Although, formerly social responsibility projects have largely been organized by the
governments, today these projects gradually begun to be organized by non-profit (NPO) and non-
governmental organizations (NGO) also by the companies.
Non-profit and non-governmental organizations are known as same in many countries, however their
scope is different. Both of them usually established to work for benefit of the human welfare, nevertheless
there are some differences between them. Non-governmental organizations known as civil society
organizations and working independently from governments. NGO's defined as characterized primarily
by humanitarian or cooperative, rather than commercial, objectives… that pursue activities to relieve
suffering, promote the interests of the poor, protect the environment, provide basic social services, or
undertake community development" (Werker and Ahmed, 2008). Non-governmental organizations have a
broader concept than non-profit organizations. Non-profit organizations encompasses a wide variety of
organizations ranging from health care, educational institutes, religious groups, and many more that differ
in structures and practices and also profit is not a top-priority in their activities (Prugsamatz, 2010; Bang
et al., 2012; Pressgrove and McKeever, 2016).
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Volunteers and volunteer loyalty have crucial roles in non-profit organizations’ sustainability and success
of their organizations just like how consumers play in terms of businesses sustainability and success.
Within the scope of this research, feel of loyalty in non-profit organization is analyzed. Social
responsibility projects in İzmir under the “community service applications” course have been examined in
this study. The research has both applied and exploratory characteristics. The aim of the study is to
explore how loyalty can be created and what factors affect the volunteer loyalty among non-profit
organizations. Although some non-profit organizations provide various benefits to their members, this
study focused on organizations which respond to community needs.
Importance of Volunteerism for NPO and Dimensions of Volunteer
Loyalty
In a societal context, non-profit organizations have taken on a critical role in the society. Non-profit
organizations include response efforts to various predictable and unpredictable challenges faced by social
situations, unemployment, environmental problems, health crisis and other humanitarian efforts geared
toward growth, development, and conservation etc. (Prugsamatz, 2010; İlhan 2013). Weisbrod (1988)
described the non- profit organizations into three related to their characteristics: These are; (i) no
individual or group is allowed to benefit from the profit (ii) non-profits are exempt on taxes from
corporate income and (iii) some non-profits may enjoy tax privileges such as subsidies, or deductibility of
donations to the organization (İlhan, 2013 adapted from Weisbrod, 1988). Despite the different
characteristics of non-profit organizations, volunteerism is vital for non-profit organizations and it is done
for the benefit of the general public with free will. There are three types of volunteers: spot volunteers
who target specific activities and conduct regular volunteer activities, second volunteer type is more
formal and committed to the organization, by working for the organization they gain a sense of
accomplishment, achievement and satisfaction. The last type of volunteer is under pressure and they feel
obliged to do the tasks because of necessity (Power, 1998; Sunney and Brian, 2003). Carvalho and
Sampaio (2016) examined the various dimensions of volunteering in non-profit organizations and
identified four (4) interrelated dimensions affecting volunteer program success, namely: centrality,
formalization, professional support, sustainability.
Activities of non-profit organizations are mostly based on volunteerism, so the loyalty and satisfaction are
very important aspects for these organizations (Pressgrove and McKeever, 2016). Organizations’ capacity
to sustain themselves and their mission in the long run is an obvious condition for the mere existence and
continuity of volunteer programmes. Bang et al. (2012), defined volunteer commitment as one’s
intentions toward an organization related to the disposed to spend time and energy to the organization.
According to Nichols (2013), volunteers are affected by socio-cultural influences and subjective
perceptions of volunteering like serious leisure, unpaid work, or activism.
Studies results show that the satisfaction of volunteers have a positive relationship with the volunteers
staying longer in the same organization. Thus, possibility of donating funds to non-profit organizations
and recommending voluntary experiences to others may be increased (Wisner et al., 2005). Volunteering
is an important mechanism to build communities in which social interaction should be both formal and
informal. Social interaction is directly or indirectly between individuals, institutional (public and
private), volunteering activities must be defined as a kind of work in which sustainable organization and
all the other qualities come together (Nunn, 2002; Wisner et al., 2005).
Creating committed and enthusiastic volunteers are important elements for the continuity of work
sustainability of the non-profit organizations. Non-profit organization’s vitality largely depends on
donation. In order to increase donor loyalty, non-profit organizations should not only improve donor
satisfaction but also organizational identification (Leipnitz, 2014). Trust and commitment is needed to
build a long-term and satisfactory relationship with stakeholders (García, González and Acebrón, 2013)
and satisfaction has enormous effects on the non-profit organization (Reheul, Van Caneghem and
Verbruggen, 2013). As Burnett (1992), for beyond the commercial marketing, the non-profit organization
should correlate with their donors who contain trust (Sargeant and Lee, 2004). According to Sargeant and
Lee (2004), commitment has a major role of fundraising practice.
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There are several researches on loyalty and its dimensions. Loyalty defined as “a deeply held
commitment to re-buy or re-patronize a preferred product/service consistently in the future, thereby
causing repetitive same-brand or same brand-set purchasing... (Oliver,1999). Loyalty is the continuation
of the relationship (Cyr et al., 2006) or in other words, loyalty is the reflection of commitment
(Evanschitzky et al., 2006). Loyalty creates an emotional connection with the organization and provides
positive feedback to the customers in their environment as well as allowing the name of the organization
to be heard and recognized (Avcikurt and Köroğlu, 2006). The way of achieving loyalty requires
regularly measuring expectations and developing offerings in line with expectations. Mollen and Wilson
(2010) and O’Brien and Toms (2008) define loyalty into two dimensions: emotional and cognitive. Some
researchers have identified it as a multidimensional concept involving emotional, cognitive, and
behavioral dimensions (Douglas and Hargadon, 2000; Heath, 2007; Marci, 2006; Mathwick and Ridgon,
2004; Rappaport, 2007; Wang, 2006; Hollebeek, 2011; Patterson et al., 2006). Although there are several
studies on loyalty to the companies, organizations, brands etc. The literature about loyalty related with
non-profit organizations is insufficient. It is seen that the concepts of volunteerism and loyalty are
examined from different perspectives excluding the non-profit organizations.
METHODOLOGY
Research objectives and constraints
Jabbour and Santos (2009) conducted interviews to identify and discuss the lack of commitment on
volunteers of a Brazilian NFP organization. The main output of the study that creating loyalty in non-
profit organization is a challenging process. Bang et al, (2012) conducted a questionnaire in non-profit
sport organizations to examine the mediating role of job satisfaction between volunteers' motivation and
commitment. They applied their study with a sample of 214 individuals who volunteered at 22 non-profit
sport organizations and they supported direct impact role of job satisfaction on commitment. Wisner et al.
(2005) explored the effects of service design and operational factors related to volunteer satisfaction in
not-for-profit organizations with their study conducted on 288 volunteers working in 43 not-for-profit
agencies. Wisner et al. also explored the factors that effect on volunteer satisfaction and loyalty.
Studies on non-profit organizations have increased recently and mostly focused on describing their
activities and effects, image of organizations or describing perception of social responsibility (Uslu and
Marangoz, 2008; Oyman, 2013; Üzüm and Dölarslan, 2013; Yalçınkaya, 2013). Yapraklı and Unalan
(2016) examine the effects of brand image of humanitarian aid organizations, commitment to these
organizations and religious involvement on the intention to donate. They used survey method and data
from 412 participants in Erzurum Province of Turkey are used to test the research hypotheses. The
findings of the study show that brand image and commitment had a significant effect on charitable
donations where the effect of religious involvement was non-significant. İlhan (2013), discusses market
failure theory on nonprofit organizations and their providing services as a third sector in the economy.
Saran et al. (2011), examined improving the consciousness of social responsibility and related practices at
universities and states the barriers to apply the social responsibility projects efficiently.
Moreover, the promotion of social responsibility campaigns is also an important topic. In this context, the
study makes a difference by trying to define elements that create loyalty in volunteers. The main
constraint of the research is based on the subjective interpretation of the participants and the acceptance
of the answers correctly. However, the need for longer loyalty-based study and lack of scale for voluntary
loyalty is another problem. In addition, time and cost constitute other important constraints.
Research method, Sample and Data Collection
The research made among students between 2013-2016 semesters in Ege University who took the social
service course in FEAS (Faculty of economics and Administrative Sciences). During this three years
period, totally 521 students are the main body of the research. Study conducted on students, because
awareness activities of non-profit organization mostly focused on younger population. Also, being a
volunteer of civil society organizations is an important characteristic for the carrier of this demographic
status. Survey method was preferred as data collection method and data were collected by convenience
sampling. Pilot study was carried out with 20 students before the data collection process, and the
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questions which were not understood were removed from the questionnaire and the form was rearranged.
A web based questionnaire was prepared also e-mailed as attached document to the students after their
projects completed. Two weeks after sending the e-mails, a follow-up e-mail was sent for non-responses.
A total of 295 students who took the course were filled, but 21 were rejected because the questionnaire
was not fully completed and 274 questionnaires were accepted. Finally 274 questionnaires were accepted
and 21 of all eliminated which cannot meet the requirements. Participants of the study perform their
projects 36 different organizations, like Turkish Red Crescent Society, Foundation for Children with
Leukaemia, Community Volunteers Foundation, various hospitals and education institutions and etc.
The questionnaire included two parts: In the first section of the questionnaire contains questions about
demographic and socio-economic variables of respondents, the second part includes 41 items for aiming
to describe loyalty in non-profit organizations. This part consists likert scale questions of 5 items (1=
Completely Disagree… 5= Completely Agree) prepared based on theories and past studies. Data were
analyzed by using SPSS (22.0) (Statistical Package of Social Science) statistic package. Descriptive
analysis, factor analysis, correlation, independent sample t-test and ANOVA were used to analyze the
data at p= 0.05 significant level.
FINDINGS
For the 274 participants, the respondents profile is given in Table 1. According to table, 143 (52.2%) of
the respondents are female and 131 (47.8%) male. Majority of them (21 years old) constitutes the 38.3%
of the sample.
Table I. Demographics Statistics
Variables
n
Valid Percent
Variables
n
Valid
Percent
Have you been involved in any foundation / association
organization before?
Male
131
47,8
Yes
130
47,4
Female
143
52,2
No
144
52,6
Total
274
100
Total
274
100
What is the reason for joining a social project?
19 and below
25
9,1
Social environment effect
33
12
20
80
29,2
I wish to help people in poor
conditions
80
29,2
21
105
38,3
My social consciousness level is
high.
100
36,5
22
40
14,6
Different necessities
61
22,3
23 and up
24
8,8
Total
274
100
Total
274
100
Where did you get information about the organization/
institution implementing the social project?
One-off project.
204
74,5
Internet and digital channels
35
12,8
I've been member for less than a
year.
52
19
Reference group
209
76,3
I've been a member over a year
18
6,6
Advertising and announcements
of the corporation
30
10,9
Total
274
100
Total
274
100
All of the participants (229) are student of Ege University in FEAS and took the social service course. As
it can be seen in Table 1 the number of participants who previously stated that they are involved in a
foundation / association organization is 144. Most of the participants attributed the reason for
participating in a social project to a higher level of social consciousness. 74.5% of the participants
perform one-off social project and only the 6.6% of the group can define as a member of any
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organization. The majority of the participants (%76,3) get information about the project from their
reference groups (i.e. friends and family members etc.). So, this may be interpreted as most of the
participants are not interested in the news related with non-profit organizations.
In the questionnaire, to determine the respondents’ loyalty for non-profit organizations, 41 items were
asked. In order to assess the reliability of the scale, Cronbach-alpha coefficient score has been used. As a
result of the reliability analysis, 17 items excluded from the attitude scale due to insufficient effect.
Table 2. Rotated Component Matrixa Scores of Items
Component
1
2
3
4
I. SATISFACTION FOR SOCIAL BENEFITS
It gives an opportunity to meet the needs of society.
.822
It gives a chance to help solve social problems.
.799
It allows looking at social issues with a different point of view.
.798
It provides a reason that work for a good idea.
.784
Joining social responsibility projects makes me feel better.
.765
It gives the opportunity to work for people who need social assistance.
.744
It enables opportunity to defend (work for) groups and individuals' rights.
.667
I take part in the social responsibility projects since I believe that people also
deserve equal conditions.
.577
II. SATISFACTION FROM ORGANIZATIONS’ PRACTICES
The services that the organization gives me satisfaction.
.824
The organization gives us the importance and cares us.
.813
I would recommend other people the organization whose social
responsibility projects I attend.
.747
I can say positive things to my friends and relatives about the organization
whose social responsibility projects I participate.
.742
Employees of the organization are also well equipped to answer questions.
.737
The organization is trustable that it will fulfil its commitment to social
service.
.727
When somebody has problems, employees of the organization are very
interested in solving these problems.
.709
III. SELF SATISFACTION FROM PARTICIPATION
It offers an opportunity to escape from my troubles.
.775
It makes me feel less lonely.
.756
It gives the opportunity to reduce the sense of guilt that people who are
luckier than others (wealth, etc.) can hear.
.716
Satisfying the need to be useful for others.
.710
I can cope with my troubles easier.
.710
It is an opportunity for others to see my work for a good job.
.691
IV. ORGANIZATIONAL COMMITMENT
I continue to work there, even if the image of the organization I have
participated in social responsibility projects is harmed.
.850
I will continue to operate in the same institution, even if other social
responsibility organizations create better opportunities for action.
.849
The institution I participate in social responsibility projects is always my first
choice
.642
Extraction Method: Principal Component Analysis.
Rotation Method: Varimax with Kaiser Normalization.a
a. Rotation converged in 7 iterations.
The Cronbach’s alpha was 95.3%, which can be assessed to be an acceptable level and factor analysis was
conducted for 24 items. For each item communalities minimum value is above 0,6 and the eigenvalue is
at least 1. Within the 95% significant level, The Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin (KMO) measuring sampling
adequacy result is 94,5 %, and the Significance of Bartlett’s test of sphericity is 0.00. In the analysis, the
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items with factor score under 50% were eliminated and finally explained variance of the model was
74,075 %. As it seen Table 2, there are four factors explored from the analysis. The factors and their
factors loading for parameters are Satisfaction For Social Benefits (24,12%; Cr. alpha: .949 ; 8),
Satisfaction From Organizations’ Practices (23,47%; Cr. alpha: .945 ; 7), Self-Satisfaction From
Participation (17,35%; Cr. alpha: .898 ; 6) and Organizational Commitment (9,16%; Cr. alpha: .776 ; 3).
Two of the factors are respondents’ benefit getting from the activities of non-profit organizations, and the
other two factors represent the loyalty dimensions of non-profit organizations.
Table 3. Independent Samples Test Scores among Gender Related to Factors
According to independent sample t-test, differences were found in gender on SSB (t=2,762, df=235,
sig=0,006), and SBS (t=3,052, df=272, sig=0,003). From the analysis, it can be seen that the female
participants (4,42) are giving more important to “satisfaction” concept than male participants (4,14). It is
also the same for SBS factor. The mean of female participants’ answer to SBS is 3,89 and the male
participants’ 3,55. So we can say female participants care to non-profit organization benefits both for
society and themselves more than male participants.
Levene's Test
for Equality of
Variances
t-test for Equality of Means
F
Sig
t
df
Sig. (2-
tailed)
Mean
Dif.
Std.
Err.Dif.
95% Confidence
Interval of the
Difference
Low
Upp.
Satisfaction For
Social Benefits
(SSB)
Equal variances
assumed
7,2
,00
2,80
272
,005
,280
,100
,083
,47
Equal variances
not assumed
2,76
235,30
,006
,280
,101
,08
,48
Satisfaction
From
Organizations’
Practice s
(SOB)
Equal variances
assumed
,969
,32
1,07
27
,28
,11
,105
-,09
,32
Equal variances
not assumed
1,06
261,9
,286
,113
,106
-,09
,32
Self Satisfaction
From
Participation
(SBS)
Equal variances
assumed
1,5
,21
3,0
272
,003
,331
,108
,117
,545
Equal variances
not assumed
3,0
265,31
,003
,331
,109
,117
,546
Organizational
Commitment
(OC)
Equal variances
assumed
,03
,84
,59
272
,552
,068
,114
-,15
,292
Equal variances
not assumed
,59
269,63
,552
,068
,114
-,15
,293
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Table 4. Independent Samples Test Scores among Membership Status Related to
Factors
Independent sample t-test conducted and differences were found among membership status according to
Satisfaction From Organizations’ Practices (t=-2,329, df=161, sig=0,021). From the analysis, it can be
seen that satisfaction level is higher in long-term volunteers (4,25) than one-off project members (4.01) to
the non-profit organization. It can be say that volunteering period is also important to understand activity
and improve loyalty to organizations.
Table 5. Correlation Statistics Between The Factors
Satisfaction From
Organizations’ Practices (SOB)
Organizational Commitment
(OC)
Satisfaction For Social Benefits
(SSB)
Pearson Correlation
,750**
,228**
Sig. (2-tailed)
,000
,000
N
274
274
Self-Satisfaction From
Participation (SBS)
Pearson Correlation
,600**
,412**
Sig. (2-tailed)
,000
,000
N
274
274
**. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).
Correlation analysis was run to find out whether there is a relationship between the factors (SSB and
SOB, SBS and OC) with a 95 % confidence level. In Table 5, it is shown that benefits create volunteers
loyalty and commitment in non-profit organizations. Both social and self-satisfaction have a positive
relationship with organization’s activities and commitment. Creation of societal benefit by non-profit
organization increase corporate loyalty on volunteers. The results show that the positive effects of non-
profit organizations on individuals and society create a sense of loyalty on members or volunteers towards
the organization.
Also the differences among “membership status” and “the reason for joining a social project” related to
defined factors analysed and no statistical differences have found. Although majority of the participants
declared that they satisfied joining non-profit organization activities or gained benefits, only the 25% of
the participants are being member of any organization.
Levene's Test for
Equality of
Variances
t-test for Equality of Means
F
Sig
t
df
Sig.
(2-
tailed
)
Mean
Dif.
Std.
Err.
Dif.
95% Confidence
Interval of the
Difference
Low
Upp.
Satisfaction For
Social Benefits
(SSB)
Equal variances
assumed
3,45
,06
-1,5
272
,134
-,174
,116
-,40
,053
Equal variances
not assumed
-1,7
175,0
,074
-,174
,097
-,36
,016
Satisfaction from
Organizations’
Practice s
(SOB)
Equal variances
assumed
5,14
,02
-2,0
272
,045
-,242
,120
-,47
-,005
Equal variances
not assumed
-2,3
161,1
,021
-,242
,104
-,44
-,036
Self Satisfaction
From Participation
(SBS)
Equal variances
assumed
,674
,41
-1,7
272
,089
-,214
,125
-,46
,033
Equal variances
not assumed
-1,8
133,2
,073
-,214
,119
-,45
,020
Organizational
Commitment
(OC)
Equal variances
assumed
,754
,38
-1,7
272
,077
-,231
,130
-,48
,025
Equal variances
not assumed
-1,8
128,6
,067
-,231
,125
-,47
,016
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Table 6. Independent Samples Test Scores Among Membership Status Related to
Continuity to Organization’ Activities & Organizational Image
Although the participants declared that their social consciousness level is high and cared social
responsibility projects, Table 6 shows that long term period organization’ members are more willingness
to continue activities of non-profit organizations. On the contrary to loyalty studies, organization image
for non-profit organizations do not important for being a member of any organizations for the statistics at
the 95% level (t=-1,22 df=272, sig=0,223).
CONCLUSION AND DISCUSSIONS
Non-profit organizations with their various activities and projects (education, health, elderly care, disaster
response, the environment, women's and children's rights, religion, etc.,) support the governments and the
society. Therefore, it can easily be said that the non-profit organizations will play an important and
increasing role for the societies in near future. Thus, organizations have to follow these developments in
order to maintain sustainability, improve themselves and adapt to changes. Loyal volunteers are
extremely important for the success of the non-profit organizations. Therefore, non-profit organizations
have to give more importance to their relationships with their volunteers to become a centre of attraction
for new volunteers.
In this study, research results indicate that Self-Satisfaction From Participation and Satisfaction For
Social Benefits “influence loyalty in non-profit organizations for social responsibility projects. Despite
the fact, even participants sensitive to the social responsibility concept and try to join social responsibility
projects, it is conjectured that only 25% of the participants are a member of any non-profit organization.
As expected, respondents' cares providing benefit to both themselves and community so this feeling
creates loyalty to the non-profit organization. So, organizations should focus more on these benefits in
order to gain more volunteer and loyalty in their promotional activities. Another critic factor that
enhances the loyalty of the participants is empowering volunteers. Also, during the activities,
Levene's Test
for Equality of
Variances
t-test for Equality of Means
F
Sig
t
df
Sig.
(2-
tailed)
Mea
n
Dif.
Std.
Err.Dif
.
95%
Confidence
Interval of the
Difference
Low
Upp.
I will continue
more activities
in this
organization.
Equal
variances
assumed
,654
,419
-3,351
272
,001
-,447
,13341
-,709
-,184
Equal
variances not
assumed
-3,743
149,120
,000
-,447
,11945
-,683
-,211
I joined the
activities
because
organization
image.
Equal
variances
assumed
,120
,729
-1,221
272
,223
-,224
,18358
-,585
,137
Equal
variances not
assumed
-1,232
121,702
,220
-,224
,18188
-,584
,135
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“recognition of volunteers” is very important for volunteers in the organization as mentioned in the
literature (Shin and Kleiner, 2003; Bang et al., 2012). Volunteers can achieve a commitment to the
organization when management gives them a chance to present their opinions.
Another interesting finding is that the corporate image has no effect on loyalty or satisfaction from
organization activities. Also membership period increase the loyalty of volunteers and reference group is
an important actor for attraction of new volunteers. In this context, it can be said that the method of word
of mouth marketing in particular is crucial for attracting volunteers to non-profit organizations. It is
possible to say that the loyalty activities to be organized for volunteer candidates will be more successful
in this process. It is noteworthy that the orientation programs that some organizations performed before
the activities during the questionnaire survey with the participants also created a sense of commitment
towards the organization.
Loyalty in non-profit organization has various aspects. Managers of non-profit organizations have to care
all dimensions such as missions of organization, needs of volunteers, resources and etc. Despite these
facts, sustainability of these organizations depends on their volunteers’ willingness. Thereby, managers of
non-profit organizations have to answer how to empower and motivate their volunteers effectively and
develop politics for their future of organizations.
Non-profit organization is still widespread concept as a third sector of economy. However there is no
scale for measuring loyalty in non-profit organization. For future studies, a scale can be developed to
measure loyalty in non-profit organizations.
Journal of Global Strategic Management | V. 11 | N. 1 | 2017 -June | isma.info | 075-086 | DOI: 10.20460/JGSM. 2017.248
84
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