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Non-Profit organizations majorly play an important role in social life with their activities. These institutions perform their activities through volunteer-based membership. Therefore, loyalty is crucial not only for the companies (i.e. for profit organizations), but also for the non-profit organizations in order to maintain sustainability. Within this context, it can be said that although studies on loyalty and satisfaction about non-profit organizations can be found in literature, studies in Turkey are not satisfactorily enough. This research aims to analyse the factors affecting the loyalty that people feel towards these organizations/institutions in social voluntary project in İzmir. For the study, a questionnaire survey conducted by random sampling method and 296 people were reached. As a result of the study, “self-satisfaction from participation and satisfaction for social benefits” are the major influencers of volunteer' loyalty in non-profit organizations. Also the advantages of participating social responsibility projects both to the society and themselves are increasing the volunteers' loyalty. For future studies, a scale can be developed to measure the loyalty in non-profit organizations. Keywords: Loyalty, Non-profit Organization, Volunteerism, Social Responsibility
Journal of Global Strategic Management | V. 11 | N. 1 | 2017 -June | | 075-086 | DOI: 10.20460/JGSM. 2017.248
RESEARCH *Ali Erhan Zalluhoğlu
*Aykan Candemir
*Cihat Karslı
*Aslı Diyadin
* Ege University, Turkey
Non-Profit organizations majorly play an important role in social life with their activities. These
institutions perform their activities through volunteer-based membership. Therefore, loyalty is crucial not
only for the companies (i.e. for profit organizations), but also for the non-profit organizations in order to
maintain sustainability. Within this context, it can be said that although studies on loyalty and
satisfaction about non-profit organizations can be found in literature, studies in Turkey are not
satisfactorily enough. This research aims to analyse the factors affecting the loyalty that people feel
towards these organizations/institutions in social voluntary project in İzmir. For the study, a
questionnaire survey conducted by random sampling method and 296 people were reached. As a result of
the study, self-satisfaction from participation and satisfaction for social benefits are the major
influencers of volunteer' loyalty in non-profit organizations. Also the advantages of participating social
responsibility projects both to the society and themselves are increasing the volunteers' loyalty. For
future studies, a scale can be developed to measure the loyalty in non-profit organizations.
Keywords: Loyalty, Non-profit Organization, Volunteerism, Social Responsibility
Nowadays; environmental pollution, limited resources of the world, unemployment problems, increased
population, natural disasters etc. have become important issues for the sustainability of the “modern
society” life. Both individuals and organizations increasingly feel the responsibilities of their behaviors
and the necessity of organizing and taking part in “social responsibility projects”. Within this context,
various studies were made out to raise awareness of people for social issues. “Social responsibility (is
the) responsibility of an organization for the impacts of its decisions and activities on society and the
environment through transparent and ethical behavior that is consistent with sustainable development
and the welfare of society; takes into account the expectations of stakeholders; is in compliance with
applicable law and consistent with international norms of behavior; and is integrated throughout the
organization… (ISO, 2007)”. With the increasing sense of social responsibility, both organizations and
individuals are trying to fulfill these responsibilities by serving the gathering where they are present
(Saran et al., 2011). Although, formerly social responsibility projects have largely been organized by the
governments, today these projects gradually begun to be organized by non-profit (NPO) and non-
governmental organizations (NGO) also by the companies.
Non-profit and non-governmental organizations are known as same in many countries, however their
scope is different. Both of them usually established to work for benefit of the human welfare, nevertheless
there are some differences between them. Non-governmental organizations known as civil society
organizations and working independently from governments. NGO's defined as characterized primarily
by humanitarian or cooperative, rather than commercial, objectives… that pursue activities to relieve
suffering, promote the interests of the poor, protect the environment, provide basic social services, or
undertake community development" (Werker and Ahmed, 2008). Non-governmental organizations have a
broader concept than non-profit organizations. Non-profit organizations encompasses a wide variety of
organizations ranging from health care, educational institutes, religious groups, and many more that differ
in structures and practices and also profit is not a top-priority in their activities (Prugsamatz, 2010; Bang
et al., 2012; Pressgrove and McKeever, 2016).
Journal of Global Strategic Management | V. 11 | N. 1 | 2017 -June | | 075-086 | DOI: 10.20460/JGSM. 2017.248
Volunteers and volunteer loyalty have crucial roles in non-profit organizations’ sustainability and success
of their organizations just like how consumers play in terms of businesses sustainability and success.
Within the scope of this research, feel of loyalty in non-profit organization is analyzed. Social
responsibility projects in İzmir under the “community service applications” course have been examined in
this study. The research has both applied and exploratory characteristics. The aim of the study is to
explore how loyalty can be created and what factors affect the volunteer loyalty among non-profit
organizations. Although some non-profit organizations provide various benefits to their members, this
study focused on organizations which respond to community needs.
Importance of Volunteerism for NPO and Dimensions of Volunteer
In a societal context, non-profit organizations have taken on a critical role in the society. Non-profit
organizations include response efforts to various predictable and unpredictable challenges faced by social
situations, unemployment, environmental problems, health crisis and other humanitarian efforts geared
toward growth, development, and conservation etc. (Prugsamatz, 2010; İlhan 2013). Weisbrod (1988)
described the non- profit organizations into three related to their characteristics: These are; (i) no
individual or group is allowed to benefit from the profit (ii) non-profits are exempt on taxes from
corporate income and (iii) some non-profits may enjoy tax privileges such as subsidies, or deductibility of
donations to the organization (İlhan, 2013 adapted from Weisbrod, 1988). Despite the different
characteristics of non-profit organizations, volunteerism is vital for non-profit organizations and it is done
for the benefit of the general public with free will. There are three types of volunteers: spot volunteers
who target specific activities and conduct regular volunteer activities, second volunteer type is more
formal and committed to the organization, by working for the organization they gain a sense of
accomplishment, achievement and satisfaction. The last type of volunteer is under pressure and they feel
obliged to do the tasks because of necessity (Power, 1998; Sunney and Brian, 2003). Carvalho and
Sampaio (2016) examined the various dimensions of volunteering in non-profit organizations and
identified four (4) interrelated dimensions affecting volunteer program success, namely: centrality,
formalization, professional support, sustainability.
Activities of non-profit organizations are mostly based on volunteerism, so the loyalty and satisfaction are
very important aspects for these organizations (Pressgrove and McKeever, 2016). Organizations’ capacity
to sustain themselves and their mission in the long run is an obvious condition for the mere existence and
continuity of volunteer programmes. Bang et al. (2012), defined volunteer commitment as one’s
intentions toward an organization related to the disposed to spend time and energy to the organization.
According to Nichols (2013), volunteers are affected by socio-cultural influences and subjective
perceptions of volunteering like serious leisure, unpaid work, or activism.
Studies results show that the satisfaction of volunteers have a positive relationship with the volunteers
staying longer in the same organization. Thus, possibility of donating funds to non-profit organizations
and recommending voluntary experiences to others may be increased (Wisner et al., 2005). Volunteering
is an important mechanism to build communities in which social interaction should be both formal and
informal. Social interaction is directly or indirectly between individuals, institutional (public and
private), volunteering activities must be defined as a kind of work in which sustainable organization and
all the other qualities come together (Nunn, 2002; Wisner et al., 2005).
Creating committed and enthusiastic volunteers are important elements for the continuity of work
sustainability of the non-profit organizations. Non-profit organization’s vitality largely depends on
donation. In order to increase donor loyalty, non-profit organizations should not only improve donor
satisfaction but also organizational identification (Leipnitz, 2014). Trust and commitment is needed to
build a long-term and satisfactory relationship with stakeholders (García, González and Acebrón, 2013)
and satisfaction has enormous effects on the non-profit organization (Reheul, Van Caneghem and
Verbruggen, 2013). As Burnett (1992), for beyond the commercial marketing, the non-profit organization
should correlate with their donors who contain trust (Sargeant and Lee, 2004). According to Sargeant and
Lee (2004), commitment has a major role of fundraising practice.
Journal of Global Strategic Management | V. 11 | N. 1 | 2017 -June | | 075-086 | DOI: 10.20460/JGSM. 2017.248
There are several researches on loyalty and its dimensions. Loyalty defined as “a deeply held
commitment to re-buy or re-patronize a preferred product/service consistently in the future, thereby
causing repetitive same-brand or same brand-set purchasing... (Oliver,1999). Loyalty is the continuation
of the relationship (Cyr et al., 2006) or in other words, loyalty is the reflection of commitment
(Evanschitzky et al., 2006). Loyalty creates an emotional connection with the organization and provides
positive feedback to the customers in their environment as well as allowing the name of the organization
to be heard and recognized (Avcikurt and Köroğlu, 2006). The way of achieving loyalty requires
regularly measuring expectations and developing offerings in line with expectations. Mollen and Wilson
(2010) and O’Brien and Toms (2008) define loyalty into two dimensions: emotional and cognitive. Some
researchers have identified it as a multidimensional concept involving emotional, cognitive, and
behavioral dimensions (Douglas and Hargadon, 2000; Heath, 2007; Marci, 2006; Mathwick and Ridgon,
2004; Rappaport, 2007; Wang, 2006; Hollebeek, 2011; Patterson et al., 2006). Although there are several
studies on loyalty to the companies, organizations, brands etc. The literature about loyalty related with
non-profit organizations is insufficient. It is seen that the concepts of volunteerism and loyalty are
examined from different perspectives excluding the non-profit organizations.
Research objectives and constraints
Jabbour and Santos (2009) conducted interviews to identify and discuss the lack of commitment on
volunteers of a Brazilian NFP organization. The main output of the study that creating loyalty in non-
profit organization is a challenging process. Bang et al, (2012) conducted a questionnaire in non-profit
sport organizations to examine the mediating role of job satisfaction between volunteers' motivation and
commitment. They applied their study with a sample of 214 individuals who volunteered at 22 non-profit
sport organizations and they supported direct impact role of job satisfaction on commitment. Wisner et al.
(2005) explored the effects of service design and operational factors related to volunteer satisfaction in
not-for-profit organizations with their study conducted on 288 volunteers working in 43 not-for-profit
agencies. Wisner et al. also explored the factors that effect on volunteer satisfaction and loyalty.
Studies on non-profit organizations have increased recently and mostly focused on describing their
activities and effects, image of organizations or describing perception of social responsibility (Uslu and
Marangoz, 2008; Oyman, 2013; Üzüm and Dölarslan, 2013; Yalçınkaya, 2013). Yapraklı and Unalan
(2016) examine the effects of brand image of humanitarian aid organizations, commitment to these
organizations and religious involvement on the intention to donate. They used survey method and data
from 412 participants in Erzurum Province of Turkey are used to test the research hypotheses. The
findings of the study show that brand image and commitment had a significant effect on charitable
donations where the effect of religious involvement was non-significant. İlhan (2013), discusses market
failure theory on nonprofit organizations and their providing services as a third sector in the economy.
Saran et al. (2011), examined improving the consciousness of social responsibility and related practices at
universities and states the barriers to apply the social responsibility projects efficiently.
Moreover, the promotion of social responsibility campaigns is also an important topic. In this context, the
study makes a difference by trying to define elements that create loyalty in volunteers. The main
constraint of the research is based on the subjective interpretation of the participants and the acceptance
of the answers correctly. However, the need for longer loyalty-based study and lack of scale for voluntary
loyalty is another problem. In addition, time and cost constitute other important constraints.
Research method, Sample and Data Collection
The research made among students between 2013-2016 semesters in Ege University who took the social
service course in FEAS (Faculty of economics and Administrative Sciences). During this three years
period, totally 521 students are the main body of the research. Study conducted on students, because
awareness activities of non-profit organization mostly focused on younger population. Also, being a
volunteer of civil society organizations is an important characteristic for the carrier of this demographic
status. Survey method was preferred as data collection method and data were collected by convenience
sampling. Pilot study was carried out with 20 students before the data collection process, and the
Journal of Global Strategic Management | V. 11 | N. 1 | 2017 -June | | 075-086 | DOI: 10.20460/JGSM. 2017.248
questions which were not understood were removed from the questionnaire and the form was rearranged.
A web based questionnaire was prepared also e-mailed as attached document to the students after their
projects completed. Two weeks after sending the e-mails, a follow-up e-mail was sent for non-responses.
A total of 295 students who took the course were filled, but 21 were rejected because the questionnaire
was not fully completed and 274 questionnaires were accepted. Finally 274 questionnaires were accepted
and 21 of all eliminated which cannot meet the requirements. Participants of the study perform their
projects 36 different organizations, like Turkish Red Crescent Society, Foundation for Children with
Leukaemia, Community Volunteers Foundation, various hospitals and education institutions and etc.
The questionnaire included two parts: In the first section of the questionnaire contains questions about
demographic and socio-economic variables of respondents, the second part includes 41 items for aiming
to describe loyalty in non-profit organizations. This part consists likert scale questions of 5 items (1=
Completely Disagree… 5= Completely Agree) prepared based on theories and past studies. Data were
analyzed by using SPSS (22.0) (Statistical Package of Social Science) statistic package. Descriptive
analysis, factor analysis, correlation, independent sample t-test and ANOVA were used to analyze the
data at p= 0.05 significant level.
For the 274 participants, the respondents profile is given in Table 1. According to table, 143 (52.2%) of
the respondents are female and 131 (47.8%) male. Majority of them (21 years old) constitutes the 38.3%
of the sample.
Table I. Demographics Statistics
Valid Percent
Have you been involved in any foundation / association
organization before?
What is the reason for joining a social project?
19 and below
Social environment effect
I wish to help people in poor
My social consciousness level is
Different necessities
23 and up
Where did you get information about the organization/
institution implementing the social project?
One-off project.
Internet and digital channels
I've been member for less than a
Reference group
I've been a member over a year
Advertising and announcements
of the corporation
All of the participants (229) are student of Ege University in FEAS and took the social service course. As
it can be seen in Table 1 the number of participants who previously stated that they are involved in a
foundation / association organization is 144. Most of the participants attributed the reason for
participating in a social project to a higher level of social consciousness. 74.5% of the participants
perform one-off social project and only the 6.6% of the group can define as a member of any
Journal of Global Strategic Management | V. 11 | N. 1 | 2017 -June | | 075-086 | DOI: 10.20460/JGSM. 2017.248
organization. The majority of the participants (%76,3) get information about the project from their
reference groups (i.e. friends and family members etc.). So, this may be interpreted as most of the
participants are not interested in the news related with non-profit organizations.
In the questionnaire, to determine the respondents’ loyalty for non-profit organizations, 41 items were
asked. In order to assess the reliability of the scale, Cronbach-alpha coefficient score has been used. As a
result of the reliability analysis, 17 items excluded from the attitude scale due to insufficient effect.
Table 2. Rotated Component Matrixa Scores of Items
It gives an opportunity to meet the needs of society.
It gives a chance to help solve social problems.
It allows looking at social issues with a different point of view.
It provides a reason that work for a good idea.
Joining social responsibility projects makes me feel better.
It gives the opportunity to work for people who need social assistance.
It enables opportunity to defend (work for) groups and individuals' rights.
I take part in the social responsibility projects since I believe that people also
deserve equal conditions.
The services that the organization gives me satisfaction.
The organization gives us the importance and cares us.
I would recommend other people the organization whose social
responsibility projects I attend.
I can say positive things to my friends and relatives about the organization
whose social responsibility projects I participate.
Employees of the organization are also well equipped to answer questions.
The organization is trustable that it will fulfil its commitment to social
When somebody has problems, employees of the organization are very
interested in solving these problems.
It offers an opportunity to escape from my troubles.
It makes me feel less lonely.
It gives the opportunity to reduce the sense of guilt that people who are
luckier than others (wealth, etc.) can hear.
Satisfying the need to be useful for others.
I can cope with my troubles easier.
It is an opportunity for others to see my work for a good job.
I continue to work there, even if the image of the organization I have
participated in social responsibility projects is harmed.
I will continue to operate in the same institution, even if other social
responsibility organizations create better opportunities for action.
The institution I participate in social responsibility projects is always my first
Extraction Method: Principal Component Analysis.
Rotation Method: Varimax with Kaiser Normalization.a
a. Rotation converged in 7 iterations.
The Cronbach’s alpha was 95.3%, which can be assessed to be an acceptable level and factor analysis was
conducted for 24 items. For each item communalities minimum value is above 0,6 and the eigenvalue is
at least 1. Within the 95% significant level, The Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin (KMO) measuring sampling
adequacy result is 94,5 %, and the Significance of Bartlett’s test of sphericity is 0.00. In the analysis, the
Journal of Global Strategic Management | V. 11 | N. 1 | 2017 -June | | 075-086 | DOI: 10.20460/JGSM. 2017.248
items with factor score under 50% were eliminated and finally explained variance of the model was
74,075 %. As it seen Table 2, there are four factors explored from the analysis. The factors and their
factors loading for parameters are Satisfaction For Social Benefits (24,12%; Cr. alpha: .949 ; 8),
Satisfaction From Organizations’ Practices (23,47%; Cr. alpha: .945 ; 7), Self-Satisfaction From
Participation (17,35%; Cr. alpha: .898 ; 6) and Organizational Commitment (9,16%; Cr. alpha: .776 ; 3).
Two of the factors are respondents’ benefit getting from the activities of non-profit organizations, and the
other two factors represent the loyalty dimensions of non-profit organizations.
Table 3. Independent Samples Test Scores among Gender Related to Factors
According to independent sample t-test, differences were found in gender on SSB (t=2,762, df=235,
sig=0,006), and SBS (t=3,052, df=272, sig=0,003). From the analysis, it can be seen that the female
participants (4,42) are giving more important to “satisfaction” concept than male participants (4,14). It is
also the same for SBS factor. The mean of female participants’ answer to SBS is 3,89 and the male
participants’ 3,55. So we can say female participants care to non-profit organization benefits both for
society and themselves more than male participants.
Levene's Test
for Equality of
t-test for Equality of Means
Sig. (2-
95% Confidence
Interval of the
Satisfaction For
Social Benefits
Equal variances
Equal variances
not assumed
Practice s
Equal variances
Equal variances
not assumed
Self Satisfaction
Equal variances
Equal variances
not assumed
Equal variances
Equal variances
not assumed
Journal of Global Strategic Management | V. 11 | N. 1 | 2017 -June | | 075-086 | DOI: 10.20460/JGSM. 2017.248
Table 4. Independent Samples Test Scores among Membership Status Related to
Independent sample t-test conducted and differences were found among membership status according to
Satisfaction From Organizations’ Practices (t=-2,329, df=161, sig=0,021). From the analysis, it can be
seen that satisfaction level is higher in long-term volunteers (4,25) than one-off project members (4.01) to
the non-profit organization. It can be say that volunteering period is also important to understand activity
and improve loyalty to organizations.
Table 5. Correlation Statistics Between The Factors
Satisfaction From
Organizations’ Practices (SOB)
Organizational Commitment
Satisfaction For Social Benefits
Pearson Correlation
Sig. (2-tailed)
Self-Satisfaction From
Participation (SBS)
Pearson Correlation
Sig. (2-tailed)
**. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).
Correlation analysis was run to find out whether there is a relationship between the factors (SSB and
SOB, SBS and OC) with a 95 % confidence level. In Table 5, it is shown that benefits create volunteers
loyalty and commitment in non-profit organizations. Both social and self-satisfaction have a positive
relationship with organization’s activities and commitment. Creation of societal benefit by non-profit
organization increase corporate loyalty on volunteers. The results show that the positive effects of non-
profit organizations on individuals and society create a sense of loyalty on members or volunteers towards
the organization.
Also the differences among “membership status” and “the reason for joining a social project” related to
defined factors analysed and no statistical differences have found. Although majority of the participants
declared that they satisfied joining non-profit organization activities or gained benefits, only the 25% of
the participants are being member of any organization.
Levene's Test for
Equality of
t-test for Equality of Means
95% Confidence
Interval of the
Satisfaction For
Social Benefits
Equal variances
Equal variances
not assumed
Satisfaction from
Practice s
Equal variances
Equal variances
not assumed
Self Satisfaction
From Participation
Equal variances
Equal variances
not assumed
Equal variances
Equal variances
not assumed
Journal of Global Strategic Management | V. 11 | N. 1 | 2017 -June | | 075-086 | DOI: 10.20460/JGSM. 2017.248
Table 6. Independent Samples Test Scores Among Membership Status Related to
Continuity to Organization’ Activities & Organizational Image
Although the participants declared that their social consciousness level is high and cared social
responsibility projects, Table 6 shows that long term period organization’ members are more willingness
to continue activities of non-profit organizations. On the contrary to loyalty studies, organization image
for non-profit organizations do not important for being a member of any organizations for the statistics at
the 95% level (t=-1,22 df=272, sig=0,223).
Non-profit organizations with their various activities and projects (education, health, elderly care, disaster
response, the environment, women's and children's rights, religion, etc.,) support the governments and the
society. Therefore, it can easily be said that the non-profit organizations will play an important and
increasing role for the societies in near future. Thus, organizations have to follow these developments in
order to maintain sustainability, improve themselves and adapt to changes. Loyal volunteers are
extremely important for the success of the non-profit organizations. Therefore, non-profit organizations
have to give more importance to their relationships with their volunteers to become a centre of attraction
for new volunteers.
In this study, research results indicate that Self-Satisfaction From Participation and Satisfaction For
Social Benefits “influence loyalty in non-profit organizations for social responsibility projects. Despite
the fact, even participants sensitive to the social responsibility concept and try to join social responsibility
projects, it is conjectured that only 25% of the participants are a member of any non-profit organization.
As expected, respondents' cares providing benefit to both themselves and community so this feeling
creates loyalty to the non-profit organization. So, organizations should focus more on these benefits in
order to gain more volunteer and loyalty in their promotional activities. Another critic factor that
enhances the loyalty of the participants is empowering volunteers. Also, during the activities,
Levene's Test
for Equality of
t-test for Equality of Means
Interval of the
I will continue
more activities
in this
variances not
I joined the
variances not
Journal of Global Strategic Management | V. 11 | N. 1 | 2017 -June | | 075-086 | DOI: 10.20460/JGSM. 2017.248
“recognition of volunteers” is very important for volunteers in the organization as mentioned in the
literature (Shin and Kleiner, 2003; Bang et al., 2012). Volunteers can achieve a commitment to the
organization when management gives them a chance to present their opinions.
Another interesting finding is that the corporate image has no effect on loyalty or satisfaction from
organization activities. Also membership period increase the loyalty of volunteers and reference group is
an important actor for attraction of new volunteers. In this context, it can be said that the method of word
of mouth marketing in particular is crucial for attracting volunteers to non-profit organizations. It is
possible to say that the loyalty activities to be organized for volunteer candidates will be more successful
in this process. It is noteworthy that the orientation programs that some organizations performed before
the activities during the questionnaire survey with the participants also created a sense of commitment
towards the organization.
Loyalty in non-profit organization has various aspects. Managers of non-profit organizations have to care
all dimensions such as missions of organization, needs of volunteers, resources and etc. Despite these
facts, sustainability of these organizations depends on their volunteers’ willingness. Thereby, managers of
non-profit organizations have to answer how to empower and motivate their volunteers effectively and
develop politics for their future of organizations.
Non-profit organization is still widespread concept as a third sector of economy. However there is no
scale for measuring loyalty in non-profit organization. For future studies, a scale can be developed to
measure loyalty in non-profit organizations.
Journal of Global Strategic Management | V. 11 | N. 1 | 2017 -June | | 075-086 | DOI: 10.20460/JGSM. 2017.248
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... Thus, in the case of prosocial behavior such as donating to charities, satisfaction occurs when donors realize that their behavior leads to a change in the lives of other people who are in need (Park et al., 2021). Zalluhoğlu et al. (2017) explained this by identifying two types of satisfaction in the charity context; self-satisfaction and satisfaction with social benefits offered to others. ...
... Later, Melián-Alzola and Martín-Santana (2020) reported a path from service quality to donor satisfaction to donor loyalty in blood bank services in Spain. Zalluhoğlu et al. (2017) argued that there are two types of satisfaction in the charity context: self-satisfaction and satisfaction for social benefits. Both types were found to influence donors' loyalty to not-for-profit organizations. ...
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Charity organizations represent an avenue for donors to express themselves by ful- flling their self-esteem and self-actualization needs. Thus, investigating the brand personality of charity organizations and its efect on donors’ responses is a worth- while investigation that has received scant attention from marketing scholars. This research examines the efect of charity brand experience on charity brand person- ality, donor satisfaction, and donors’ behavioral intentions. A survey was distrib- uted to a sample of donors of fve charity organizations in Alexandria, Egypt. The hypothesized relationships were examined using structural equation modeling. Find- ings generally supported the hypothesized relationships except for the direct efect of brand personality on intentions to re-donate. Academic and practical implications were also presented.
... becomes a major goal for non-profit organizations (Zalluhoglu, 2017;Suki, 2010;Oh, 2017) The library is no exception, as it is considered as a non-profit organization in the field of information services. Library users become a determinant of the survival of the library, hence, it is important for libraries to determine how to get new users and maintain old users. ...
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The library is an organization that continues to grow and develop along with the behavior of its users. Users who will continue to use the library despite the emergence of many other sources of information, such as the internet, are needed for library sustainability. This study aims to determine the relationship between service quality and satisfaction on user loyalty in-state college libraries in Surabaya, Indonesia. The research method used is quantitative by distributing questionnaires through Google form to 500 respondents of state academic library users with the criteria of having used services in the library. The analysis technique is Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) with the aim of testing the model. Data processing software used is SPSS and Smart PLS. The results of the study are as follows: 1) Service quality has a significant effect on user satisfaction, with a contribution of 79.6%; 2) Service quality has a significant effect on user loyalty, with a contribution of 60.7%; 3) User satisfaction has a significant effect on loyalty, with a contribution of 23.8%; 4) Service quality has a significant effect on loyalty by mediating user satisfaction with a contribution of 19%.
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Bu çalışma, tüketici davranışı teorisi kapsamında seçmen davranışını ve siyasal parti sadakati oluşumunu ve seçmenlerin kişisel özelliklerinin parti sadakati oluşumu üzerindeki düzenleyicilik etkilerini anlamaya odaklanmıştır. Bu kapsamda, bir araştırma modeli oluşturulmuş ve test edilmiştir. Araştırmaya konu olan veriler 401 seçmenden elde edilmiştir. Araştırma sonuçları seçmenin bilgi araştırma, politik bilgi, güven ve tatmin düzeyinin, parti sadakati oluşumunda önemli belirleyiciler olduğunu ortaya koymaktadır. Bunun yanı sıra araştırma sonuçları parti sadakati oluşumu konusunda, seçmenin güven düzeyinin önemli bir faktör olduğunu ve seçmenlerin parti sadakati oluşumunda, güveninin merkezi bir rol oynadığını da göstermektedir. Ayrıca uygulama sonuçları, sadakat oluşumunda, seçmenin cinsiyet ve eğitim düzeyi gibi kişisel özellikleri açısından farklılıklar olduğunu göstermektedir.
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ZET Bu çalışmada; termal otel işletmelerinde müşteri sadakatini arttırabilecek niteliklerin belirlenmesi; bununla birlikte, bu niteliklerin, işletmeler tarafından ne düzeyde karşılanıp karşılanmadığı ve müşterilerin bu işletmelere ne ölçüde sadık kalacaklarının belirlenmesi amaçlanmıştır.. Bu amaçla Balıkesir-Gönen Termal Otel işletmelerinde bir alan araştırması yapılmıştır. Araştırma verileri yüz yüze mülakat yöntemiyle toplanmıştır. Araştırma bulgularına göre; işletmeye ulaşılabilirlik (işletmenin müşterinin ikamet ettiği yere yakın olması) müşteri sadakati artırabilecek en önemli nitelik olarak ortaya çıkmıştır. Bunun yanında araştırmada, müşterilerin sadakatlerini arttırabilecek diğer önemli nitelikler de belirlenmiş ve bu nitelikler ile işletmelerin bu nitelikleri karşılama düzeyi arasında anlamlı bir fark bulunmuştur. Çalışma sonunda elde edilen sonuçlar çerçevesinde termal otel işletmelerine bazı önerilerde bulunulmuştur. Anahtar Kelimeler: Termal otel işletmeleri, müşteri sadakati, sadakat nitelikleri AN INVESTIGATION TO DETERMINE THE ATTRIBUTES WHICH INCREASE THE CUSTOMER LOYALTY IN THE THERMAL HOTEL ESTABLISHMENT ABSTRACT This study aimed to determine the attributes which increase customer loyalty in thermal hotel establishments; identify how far these establishments meet these attributes and whether customers become loyal to these establishments. Emprical data was collected from the thermal hotels in Gonen, Balikesir by face to face interviews. According to the research findings, accessibility (hotel being close to the customers' residence) was found the most important attribute which increases the costomer loyalty. In addition, other related attributes were also identified and a meaningful difference was observed between these attributes and the level of hotels' attributes. Based on the research findings, several suggestions were proposed for the thermal hotel establishments.
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Z Bu araştırmanın amacı kar amacı gütmeyen insani yardım kuruluşlarının marka imajı ile bu kuruluşlara olan bağlılık ve dini ilgilenimin bağışta bulunma niyetine etkisini incelemektir. Marka imajı, tüketicinin markaya karşı hissettiği duygu ve düşüncelerin toplamıdır. Bağlılık, güven duygusu içerisinde kurum ile olan ilişkiyi uzun vadeli yürütmektir. Dini ilgilenim ise bireylerin ve toplumun değer ve tutumlarında önemli bir rol oynayan etkileyici bir unsurdur. Bu çalışma Erzurum il sınırlarında yaşayan katılımcılara uygulanmış olup 412 anket değerlendirmeye alınmıştır. Verilerin analizinde SPSS 20 istatistik programı kullanılmış olup, anketi cevaplayanların demografik özellikleri de incelenmiş ve faktör analizi, güvenilirlik testleri, t-testi ve regresyon analizleri yapılmıştır. Bağışta bulunmada marka imajı ve bağlılığın etkisinin olduğu, dini ilgilenimin etkisinin ise olmadığı bulunmuştur. ABSTRACT The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of brand image of humanitarian aid organizations, commitment to these organizations and religious involvement on the intention to donate. Brand image is a function of what consumers feel and think about brand. Commitment is about maintaining long term relations with an organization through a feeling of trust. Religious involvement is an important factor influential on personal and societal values and attitudes. The research utilizes survey method and data from 412 participants in Erzurum Province of Turkey are used to test the research hypotheses. The collected data is analyzed by SPSS 20 software package through descriptive, frequency, factor analysis, reliability tests and 1 Prof. Dr., Atatürk Üniversitesi, İktisadi ve İdari Bilimler Fakültesi, İşletme Bölümü, 25240 Erzurum [] 2 Araş. Gör., Atatürk Üniversitesi, İktisadi ve İdari Bilimler Fakültesi, İşletme Bölümü, 25240 Erzurum []
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Through a survey of organizational stakeholders (N = 660), this study contributes to the understanding of nonprofit public relations in three key areas. First, a new five-factor scale to measure perceptions of the relationship cultivation strategies of stewardship was tested. Second, group differences between organization stakeholder types were explored. Third, a new working model that extends previous organization-public relationship (OPR) models to include variables of loyalty and behavioral intentions was advanced. Findings revealed theoretical, measurement, and practical applications.
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This paper discusses nonprofit organizations as providers of public goods in the context of market failure theory. The paper defines common terms, elaborates on existing theory regarding non-profits and the market, and ties the argument to the current conversation in Public Administration. The author's argument is that the establishment of non-profit organizations as community solutions to fill the void of market failure is congruent with the communitarian and implicitly Anti Federalist perspective in the Public Administration discourse. Due to urbanization and urban migration related problems, Turkey is facing market failures in the provision of public goods similar to those of the progressive era in the US. As government falls short of providing necessary services, third sector organizations step up to the task. Currently Turkey's third sector is rather loosely structured and needs to be developed to be able to compensate for the shortcomings of the private and public sectors provision of these goods. ÖZET Bu makale kar amacı gütmeyen kuruluşların (KAGK) kamu hizmeti sağlamalarını pazar yetersizliği teorisi (market failure theory) bağlamında ele almaktadır. Ortak kavramlar oluşturulduktan sonra, KAGK ve pazar arasındaki ilişkiyi ele alan teoriler gözden geçirilerek kamu yönetimi literatürüyle ilişkilendirilmiştir. Yazar, KAGK'ların pazar yetersizliği sonucunda, hizmet ihtiyacını gidermek için komüteryen çözümler olarak gelişmelerinin kamu yönetiminde komüteryen (Communitarian) ve Anti Federalist görüşüyle uyuştuğunu iddia etmektedir. Kentleşme ve kente göç sonucunda Türkiye'de kamu hizmetlerinin yeterli ölçüde sağlanması aksamıştır. Bu ABD'de Progressive dönemde (1890-1920) yaşananlara benzemektedir. Devletin tedarik etmekte yetişemediği hizmetleri doğal bir süreç içinde KAGK'lar üstlenmiştir. Günümüzde Türkiye'nin üçüncü sektörü tam yapılanmamış olup, var olan eksiklikleri telafi edebilmesi için geliştirilmesi gerekmektedir. Anahtar Kelimeler: Kar amacı gütmeyen kuruluşlar, kamu yararı, Pazar yetersizliği teorisi JEL Sınıflaması: L31, H41
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to complement and test prescriptive volunteer management proposals by examining how volunteers are actually managed and exploring factors other than prescribed best practice to assess volunteer management effectiveness. Design/methodology/approach The authors use qualitative methods to study five Portuguese non-profit organisations, selected for having active volunteer programmes while presenting diverse sizes, organisation styles and levels of reliance upon volunteers. Interviews were conducted between February and August 2011 with board representatives, volunteer managers and volunteers. Findings This paper assesses volunteer management practices in these organisations, and further identifies a number of interrelated dimensions affecting volunteer programme success, namely: centrality, formalisation, professional support, sustainability and a minimum set of practices. It also uncovers weakness points that inhibit further development, including lack of a strategic approach and limited capacity to diversify sources of financing. Research limitations/implications This is an exploratory study, with a limited number of cases and interviews. Practical implications This study may help volunteer managers focus their attention in aspects other than prescribed management practice. Although a minimum set of identified practices are vital, the dimensions it uncovers have a pivotal role in the success of volunteer programmes. Originality/value This set of intertwined dimensions has not been specifically addressed in the literature. They go beyond the more conventionally prescribed volunteer management practices, and provide a promising framework for analysing the effectiveness and sustainability of volunteer management.
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the mediating role of job satisfaction in the relationship between volunteers' motivation and affective commitment in non-profit sport organizations. Design/methodology/approach: A mail survey was conducted with a sample of 214 individuals who volunteered at 22 non-profit sport organizations in a Midwestern state of the USA. Findings: Results from structural equation modeling analysis supported the partial mediation role of job satisfaction. The values factor of volunteers' motivation had a significant direct impact on affective commitment, and job satisfaction partially mediated the relationship between values and affective commitment. Research limitations/implications: Although volunteer motivation influences the level of organizational commitment, volunteers who are motivated by their values would be more satisfied with their volunteer experience and consequently be more committed to the non-profit sport organization. Originality/value: Little research has specifically addressed volunteer commitment and its links to volunteer motivation and job satisfaction in the context of non-profit sport organizations. Therefore, the study contributes to the understanding of volunteers' motivation and how it influences commitment toward non-profit sport organizations.
According to recent findings, nonprofit organizations should address the relationships of nonprofit service quality, satisfaction, loyalty, and organizational identification when planning and evaluating donor surveys. This article presents a donor satisfaction barometer that can be used to gain insights into the strength of these key relationships and thereby establish a basis for calculated relevant indices. With such indices, nonprofit organizations can compare stakeholder performance over time and benchmark themselves against other organizations. Data from 2,599 blood donors to one section of the German Red Cross, collected through the proposed donor satisfaction barometer, show that service quality drives satisfaction, and donor satisfaction and organizational identification both exert significant positive effects on donor loyalty. Therefore, nonprofit organizations should use a combined strategic approach that improves both donor satisfaction and organizational identification to increase donor loyalty. The successful application of the donor satisfaction barometer also suggests its value for other nonprofit industries and offers important insights for managers.