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Abstract

Objective: Health and well-being (HWB) are material to sustainable business performance. Yet, corporate reporting largely lacks the intentional inclusion of HWB metrics. This brief report presents an argument for inclusion of HWB metrics into existing standards for corporate reporting. Methods and results: A Core Scorecard and a Comprehensive Scorecard, designed by a team of subject matter experts, based on available evidence of effectiveness, and organized around the categories of Governance, Management, and Evidence of Success, may be integrated into corporate reporting efforts. Conclusions: Pursuit of corporate integrated reporting requires corporate governance and ethical leadership and values that ultimately align with environmental, social, and economic performance. Agreement on metrics that intentionally include HWB may allow for integrated reporting that has the potential to yield significant value for business and society alike.
... niosh/twh/wellbq/default.html). 2 Well-being, as it relates to working people, is defined and operationalized in diverse ways. [3][4][5][6] As noted by Schulte et al, 7 "…some definitions focus on the state of the individual worker, whereas others focus on working conditions, and some focus on life conditions." (pe32) In the literature, different indicators of well-being are linked to a host of outcomes of value to individuals, organizations, and society, such as employee retention, financial success, workability, productivity, absenteeism, early retirement, physical and mental health, and happiness, among others. ...
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Objective: This article describes development of the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Worker Well-being Questionnaire (WellBQ). Methods: The NIOSH WellBQ was developed through literature reviews and expert panel recommendations. We drew from a representative sample of the civilian, noninstitutionalized, U.S. working population to pilot the questionnaire. Psychometric analyses were performed on data from 975 respondents to finalize items and optimize validity. Results: The final questionnaire consists of 16 scales, five indices, and 31 single items across five domains: (1) work evaluation and experience, (2) workplace policies and culture, (3) workplace physical environment and safety climate, (4) health status, and (5) home, community, and society (experiences and activities outside of work). The instrument demonstrated adequate reliability and validity. Conclusions: The NIOSH WellBQ is a reliable and valid instrument that comprehensively measures worker well-being.
... For example, improved culture of health, increased company performance in the marketplace, enhanced corporate image, and improved retention of talent. [15][16][17][18][19][20][21][22][23] A more inclusive list of these benefits is presented in Table 1. As a result, it may be concluded that movement and CRF benefits both the worker and the company, an observation supported by health, social, and economic benefits. ...
Chapter
This chapter describes the way the PRECEDE-PROCEED model has been applied to the workplace setting.
... For example, improved culture of health, increased company performance in the marketplace, enhanced corporate image, and improved retention of talent. [15][16][17][18][19][20][21][22][23] A more inclusive list of these benefits is presented in Table 1. As a result, it may be concluded that movement and CRF benefits both the worker and the company, an observation supported by health, social, and economic benefits. ...
Article
The purpose of this article is to highlight approaches to increase movement, physical activity (PA), and cardiorespiratory fitness, and reduce sedentary behavior (SB) in the context of the workplace. A deliberate strategy that will enable the successful promotion of movement at the workplace includes a business plan and rationale, an organizing framework, prioritization of interventions that are known to generate outcomes, and alignment of programmatic solutions with strong program design principles. Recommended principles of design include leadership, relevance, partnership, comprehensiveness, implementation, engagement, communications, being data-driven, and compliance. Specific evidence-based intervention examples are presented in the context of a socio-ecological framework including the individual, group, communications environment, physical environment, and policy domains. Increased movement at the workplace, as a result of promoting PA and reducing SB, generates important health outcomes across physical, mental, social, and economic domains and these benefits extend across the individual and organizational levels.
... Data on the benefits of promoting emotional well-being might convince employers to incorporate relevant measures and interventions. Forward thinking companies are linking emotional well-being to business metrics [114]. ...
Article
Lifestyle-related diseases have common risk factors: physical inactivity, poor diet, inadequate sleep, high stress, substance use, and social isolation. Evidence is mounting for the benefits of incorporating effective methods that promote healthy lifestyle habits into routine health care treatments. Research has established that healthy habits foster psychological and physiological health and that emotional well-being is central to achieving total well-being. The Happiness Science and Positive Health Committee of the American College of Lifestyle Medicine aims to raise awareness about strategies for prioritizing emotional well-being. The Committee advocates for collaborative translational research to adapt the positive psychology and behavioral medicine evidence base into methodologies that address emotional well-being in nonmental health care settings. Another aim is to promote health system changes that integrate evidence-based positive-psychology interventions into health maintenance and treatment plans. Also, the Committee seeks to ameliorate health provider burnout through the application of positive psychology methods for providers' personal health. The American College of Lifestyle Medicine and Dell Medical School held an inaugural Summit on Happiness Science in Health Care in May 2018. The Summit participants recommended research, policy, and practice innovations to promote total well-being via lifestyle changes that bolster emotional well-being. These recommendations urge stakeholder collaboration to facilitate translational research for health care settings and to standardize terms, measures, and clinical approaches for implementing positive psychology interventions. Sample aims of joint collaboration include developing evidence-based, practical, low-cost behavioral and emotional assessment and monitoring tools; grants to encourage dissemination of pilot initiatives; medical record dashboards with emotional well-being and related aspects of mental health as vital signs; clinical best practices for health care teams; and automated behavioral programs to extend clinician time. However, a few simple steps for prioritizing emotional well-being can be implemented by stakeholders in the near-term.
... As que trataram da mensuração propuseram KPIs para Relatos Integrados que decifrassem a sustentabilidade de uma empresa (Oshika & Saka, 2017) e métricas de saúde e bem-estar para os Relatos Integrados (Pronk et al., 2018). A única pesquisa que abordava a classificação de informações propôs uma codificação para as categorias de risco divulgadas por empresas mineradoras (Moloi, 2015). ...
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Atualmente, as empresas são cobradas cada vez mais a disseminar comunicados prestando contas de seu papel social e ambiental baseado no conceito de sustentabilidade. O Relato Integrado (RI) apresenta uma proposta de incorporação de dados financeiros e não financeiros relevantes sobre as atividades empresariais, integrando voluntariamente as preocupações sociais e ambientais às atividades operacionais e à tomada de decisões das empresas. Nesse sentido, este artigo tem como objetivo analisar o desenvolvimento da Responsabilidade Social Corporativa (RSC) na produção científica internacional sobre RI nas perspectivas da plataforma teórica, paradigmas de pesquisa, metodologias de investigação utilizadas e processo contábil. Para tanto, realizou-se uma revisão na base indexadora Scopus, pertinente à produção científica sobre o tema. Na análise dos dados consideram-se 52 artigos, publicados em revistas acadêmicas, no período de 2010 a junho de 2019, aplicando-se revisão estruturada da literatura para levantamento dos dados e utilizando a análise bibliométrica para tratamento e exame do seu conteúdo. Os resultados do estudo evidenciam a pouca ênfase dada à questão social e ambiental nas pesquisas acadêmicas sobre Relato Integrado, principalmente no que tange ao reconhecimento, classificação, mensuração e divulgação de eventos dessa natureza nesse tipo de relatório. O desafio está em desenvolver redes de pesquisa fortes e atuantes, com pesquisadores de diferentes áreas atuando de forma interdisciplinar na investigação de questões sociais, ambientais e de sustentabilidade em pesquisas de RI. Uma rede, apenas, foi identificada com duas publicações, revelando o pouco interesse no estudo de elementos que associem as práticas de RSC no processo de adoção e divulgação do RI pelas empresas. Também é importante que haja maior integração entre acadêmicos e profissionais, para que os resultados das pesquisas tenham resultados efetivos e práticos.
... 13 Several tools exist that include OSH-related content within an integrated tool for measuring, tracking, and evaluating health and well-being at an employer level. [17][18][19][20] However, few tools are available that are designed to measure the level and type of OSH-wellness integration at the employer level. A team of Harvard researchers has been rigorously developing and testing integration measurement tools for several years. ...
Article
Objective: The aim of this study was to describe levels of integration between occupational safety and health (OSH) and workplace wellness programs/practices/policies ("programs") among participants in an insurer-sponsored wellness grant program. Methods: We analyzed survey responses about year 1 of an insurer-sponsored grant to start a wellness program from 220 small- and medium-sized employers. Responses yielded 25 indicators of OSH-wellness integration, and 10 additional indicators to summarize multiple responses. Results: At least half of the employers (N = 220) reported some level of integration within five of seven categories of OSH-wellness integration. Employers sometimes considered ergonomics, safety, or substance exposure hazards while designing their wellness program (15%) or reduced such hazards to support their wellness program (24%). Few meaningful differences were observed by employer size. Conclusion: Although high levels of integration were unusual, some degree of integration was common for most indicator categories.
... Hence, considering the role of physical activity in the creation of a business case for investment in workforce health is connected to a much larger play than merely the impact of activity on illness prevention or management. Rather, it fits perfectly with the need to address noncommunicable disease prevention and sustainable development goals as major public health objectives (20,21). ...
Article
Purpose In the Covid-19 pandemic era, corporate responsibility and accountability for maintaining employee health and safety, particularly from this pernicious virus, have become a matter of major social and economic importance. From an accountability through action perspective, this study aims to set out to evaluate the potential occupational health and safety accountability consequences of the Covid-19 pandemic. Design/methodology/approach This paper is based upon purposive sampling of several sets of publicly available data including published research literature addressing corporate social responsibility and accountability, and the literature more specifically addressing occupational health and safety (OHS) and its reporting. Also included are recent Web-based reports and articles concerning Covid-19-related OHS government and industry sponsored guidelines for employers and their workplaces across the UK and Australia. Findings The findings of this research highlight that firstly, the extant literature on OHS has been predominantly functionalist in its approach and that accountability through action provides an opportunity to make employers more visibly accountable for their response to Covid-19. Secondly, the paper highlights that despite recent progress on OHS issues significant concerns remained in the pre-Covid-19 era and that emerging regulations and legal obligations on employees have the potential to make OHS issues a prominent part of corporate social responsibility research. Originality/value Disease and mental health statistics reveal the potential significance of their expansion in the Covid-19 environment, and regulatory and legal liability concerns emerge as potential drivers of renewed corporate as well as researcher attention to OHS issues. Implications for the emergence of a broader range of accountability forms and visibilities are also canvassed.
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This study aims to explore the different forms of corporate governance in the health sector, how they interact, and analyze the emerging research trend through a systematic literature review (SLR) in the period 2015-2019. The Scopus and ISI Web of Science databases were used to select the 167 articles analyzed. The coverage of corporate governance research was centred on adapting the PRISMA analysis, highlighting the environment which corporate governance belongs to and analysis of the co-occurrence of the keywords used in the studies. Through Grounded theory, a conceptual model was developed, emphasizing the main attributes that influence governance at the macro-, meso- and micro-levels, in the health area, and raising a future agenda for future research in this area: (1) quality of health care, (2) corporate social responsibility in health, (3) health risk management and (4) global health governance. The results of this research aim to guide governments towards emerging regulatory trends, warning about the risks of the impact of corporate governance on health, or the lack of it, on the quality of services. Analysis of the quality of health care is intrinsically related to the environment, although this aspect has received little attention from researchers.
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Objective: The research objective was to test the hypothesis that corporate health and wellness contributed positively to South African companies' financial results. Methods: The past share market performance of eligible healthy companies, based on Discovery's Healthy Company Index, was tracked under three investment scenarios and compared with the market performance on the basis of the JSE FTSE All Share Index. Results: The evidence supports the hypothesis that a culture of health and wellness provides a financial advantage, in so far as the portfolio of healthy companies consistently outperformed the market over the selected simulations. Conclusions: Given the limitations of the investigation, namely small sample size, the brevity of the period of investigation, and the reliance on accessibility sampling, the research provides the first and preliminary evidence supportive of the direct financial benefits of companies' wellness programs.
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Objective: To compare utility of employee well-being to health risk assessment (HRA) as predictors of productivity change. Methods: Panel data from 2189 employees who completed surveys 2 years apart were used in hierarchical models comparing the influence of well-being and health risk on longitudinal changes in presenteeism and job performance. Absenteeism change was evaluated in a nonexempt subsample. Results: Change in well-being was the most significant independent predictor of productivity change across all three measures. Comparing hierarchical models, well-being models performed significantly better than HRA models. The HRA added no incremental explanatory power over well-being in combined models. Alone, nonphysical health well-being components outperformed the HRA for all productivity measures. Conclusions: Well-being offers a more comprehensive measure of factors that influence productivity and can be considered preferential to HRA in understanding and addressing suboptimal productivity.
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Objective: To explore the link between companies investing in the health and well-being programs of their employees and stock market performance. Methods: Stock performance of C. Everett Koop National Health Award winners (n = 26) was measured over time and compared with the average performance of companies comprising the Standard and Poor's (S&P) 500 Index. Results: The Koop Award portfolio outperformed the S&P 500 Index. In the 14-year period tracked (2000-2014), Koop Award winners' stock values appreciated by 325% compared with the market average appreciation of 105%. Conclusions: This study supports prior and ongoing research demonstrating a higher market valuation-an affirmation of business success by Wall Street investors-of socially responsible companies that invest in the health and well-being of their workers when compared with other publicly traded firms.
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Objective: The aim of the study was to evaluate the stock performance of publicly traded companies that received high scores on the HERO Employee Health Management Best Practices Scorecard in Collaboration with Mercer based on their implementation of evidence-based workplace health promotion practices. Methods: A portfolio of companies that received high scores in a corporate health and wellness self-assessment was simulated based on past market performance and compared with past performance of companies represented on the Standard and Poor's (S&P) 500 Index. Results: Stock values for a portfolio of companies that received high scores in a corporate health and wellness self-assessment appreciated by 235% compared with the S&P 500 Index appreciation of 159% over a 6-year simulation period. Conclusions: Robust investment in workforce health and well-being appears to be one of multiple practices pursued by high-performing, well-managed companies.
Article
Background: The pandemic of physical inactivity is associated with a range of chronic diseases and early deaths. Despite the well documented disease burden, the economic burden of physical inactivity remains unquantified at the global level. A better understanding of the economic burden could help to inform resource prioritisation and motivate efforts to increase levels of physical activity worldwide. Methods: Direct health-care costs, productivity losses, and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) attributable to physical inactivity were estimated with standardised methods and the best data available for 142 countries, representing 93·2% of the world's population. Direct health-care costs and DALYs were estimated for coronary heart disease, stroke, type 2 diabetes, breast cancer, and colon cancer attributable to physical inactivity. Productivity losses were estimated with a friction cost approach for physical inactivity related mortality. Analyses were based on national physical inactivity prevalence from available countries, and adjusted population attributable fractions (PAFs) associated with physical inactivity for each disease outcome and all-cause mortality. Findings: Conservatively estimated, physical inactivity cost health-care systems international $ (INT$) 53·8 billion worldwide in 2013, of which $31·2 billion was paid by the public sector, $12·9 billion by the private sector, and $9·7 billion by households. In addition, physical inactivity related deaths contribute to $13·7 billion in productivity losses, and physical inactivity was responsible for 13·4 million DALYs worldwide. High-income countries bear a larger proportion of economic burden (80·8% of health-care costs and 60·4% of indirect costs), whereas low-income and middle-income countries have a larger proportion of the disease burden (75·0% of DALYs). Sensitivity analyses based on less conservative assumptions led to much higher estimates. Interpretation: In addition to morbidity and premature mortality, physical inactivity is responsible for a substantial economic burden. This paper provides further justification to prioritise promotion of regular physical activity worldwide as part of a comprehensive strategy to reduce non-communicable diseases. Funding: None.
Article
Objectives: To describe (a) a conceptual approach, (b) measurement tools and data collection processes, (c) characteristics of an integrated feedback report and action plan, and (d) experiences of three companies with an integrated measurement approach to worker safety and health. Methods: Three companies implemented measurement tools designed to create an integrated view of health protection and promotion based on organizational- and individual-level assessments. Feedback and recommended actions were presented following assessments at baseline and 1-year follow-up. Measurement processes included group dialogue sessions, walk-through, online surveys, and focus groups. Results: The approach and measurement tools generated actionable recommendations and documented changes in the physical (eg, safety hazards) and psychosocial (eg, health and safety culture) work environment between baseline and 1-year follow-up. Conclusions: The measurement tools studied were feasible, acceptable, and meaningful to companies in the SafeWell study.
Article
To better understand how integrating health and safety strategies in the workplace has evolved and establish a replicable, scalable framework for advancing the concept with a system of health and safety metrics, modeled after the Dow Jones Sustainability Index. Seven leading national and international programs aimed at creating a culture of health and safety in the workplace were compared and contrasted. A list of forty variables was selected, making it clear there is a wide variety of approaches to integration of health and safety in the workplace. Depending on how well developed the culture of health and safety is within a company, there are unique routes to operationalize and institutionalize the integration of health and safety strategies to achieve measurable benefits to enhance the overall health and well-being of workers, their families, and the community.