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Theories and Concepts for Human Behavior in Environmental Preservation

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This paper reviews vital behavioral and environmental theories that are capable of nurturing pro-environmental citizenry. Theories are developed to explain, predict, and enhance the understanding of phenomena. Theories challenge and extend the frontiers of knowledge within the boundaries of critical bounding assumptions. Theories vary in their development on the basis of the concepts and methods employed and empirical test undertaken. The testability of a theory is one of its essential feature. An integrative application of different behavioral and environmental theories could prove to be invaluable in solving contemporary environmental problems. The models and theories reviewed in this paper include; primitive models (behavioural change model, environmentally responsible behaviour model, reasoned/responsible action theory), planned behaviour theory, environmental citizenship model, model of human interaction with the environment, the value-belief-norm theory of environmentalism, health belief theory and diffusion of innovation model. This paper concludes that none of these theories can independently entirely explain human-environment interaction, but a combination of these theories will undoubtedly provide further insights and possible solutions to the increasing 21st century environmental problems posed by humans and her technology.
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J Environ Sci Public Health 2017; 1 (2): 120-133 120
Journal of Environmental Science and Public Health
doi: 10.26502/JESPH.012
Volume 1, Issue 2 Review Article
Theories and Concepts for Human Behavior in Environmental
Preservation
Elijah A. Akintunde*
Department of Environmental Management, Institute of Life and Earth Sciences, Pan African University, University
of Ibadan, Nigeria
*Corresponding Author: Elijah A. Akintunde, Department of Environmental Management, Institute of Life and
Earth Sciences, Pan African University, University of Ibadan, Nigeria, Tel: +2348068241066; E-mail:
elyaaaak@gmail.com
Received: 31 July 2017; Accepted: 22 August 2017; Published: 30 August 2017
Abstract
This paper reviews vital behavioral and environmental theories that are capable of nurturing pro-environmental
citizenry. Theories are developed to explain, predict, and enhance the understanding of phenomena. Theories
challenge and extend the frontiers of knowledge within the boundaries of critical bounding assumptions. Theories
vary in their development on the basis of the concepts and methods employed and empirical test undertaken. The
testability of a theory is one of its essential feature. An integrative application of different behavioral and
environmental theories could prove to be invaluable in solving contemporary environmental problems. The models
and theories reviewed in this paper include; primitive models (behavioural change model, environmentally
responsible behaviour model, reasoned/responsible action theory), planned behaviour theory, environmental
citizenship model, model of human interaction with the environment, the value-belief-norm theory of
environmentalism, health belief theory and diffusion of innovation model. This paper concludes that none of these
theories can independently entirely explain human-environment interaction, but a combination of these theories will
undoubtedly provide further insights and possible solutions to the increasing 21st century environmental problems
posed by humans and her technology.
Keywords: Environmental Theory; Behavioral theory; Human-Environment interaction; Environmental
preservation
J Environ Sci Public Health 2017; 1 (2): 120-133 121
1. Introduction
For several centuries, the environment has provided habitation for humans and numerous organism but the insatiable
needs of humans have driven them to devise strategies for survival and adaptation. Several of these strategies,
especially technology, have had direct and indirect negative consequences on the immediate environment, resulting
in the degradation of the latter. Many of today's environmental problems are increasingly the outcomes of individual
actions, personal consumer decisions, and the activities of small and large businesses. Nevertheless, the fact remains
that the healthiness of the world’s economy and people is inextricably bound to the wellbeing of the environment.
This implies that now, much more than previously, there is a greater need to understand patterns, connections,
systems and root causes of the degrading environment. A very strong tool for nipping the 21st century environmental
problems, which are becoming lot more alarming in the bud, is environmental education. One veritable tool for
achieving this feat is a proper understanding and the application of behavioural models and theories.
Theory is a well-established principle that has been developed to explain some aspect of the natural world. He stated
further that theories arise from observations and testings that have been carried out repeatedly and they incorporate
facts, predictions, laws, and tested assumptions that are widely accepted. The theoretical framework thus provides a
platform for expressing a theory of a research study. It presents and describes the theory that explains why the
research problem under study exists [1].
There is a close relationship between concepts and theories, such that, the constituents of a theory are concepts and
principles. A concept is a symbolic depiction of an actual thing. It is the building block of the theory. The main
difference between the theoretical and the conceptual framework is that a conceptual framework is the idea of the
researcher on how the problem of the research will have to be explored. This is established on the theoretical
framework, which lies on a much broader scale of resolution. The theoretical framework thrives that have been
tested repeatedly over time that express the findings of numerous investigations on how phenomena occur. This
framework provides a general representation of relationships between things in a given phenomenon. On its part, the
conceptual framework describes the relationship between specific variables identified in the study. It furthermore
outlines the input, process and output of an entire investigation [2]. A model is a blueprint for action, describing
what happens in reality in a universal way. Models are used to describe the application of theories for a particular
case. In a nutshell, theories are well-established principles developed to elucidate dimensions of the natural world,
they are made up of concepts and applied by employing models.
A theory presents a systematic way of understanding behaviors, events and/or situations. It is a set of interrelated
definitions, concepts, and propositions that predicts or explains events or situations by specifying relationships
among the variables [3]. The notion of generality, or broad application, is important. Thus, theories are by their
nature abstract and not content- or topic-specific. Although numerous theoretical models can express the same
general ideas, each theory uses a unique vocabulary to articulate the specific features considered to be significant.
Additionally, there is a variation in theories in the extent to which they have been developed conceptually and tested
empirically. A very crucial feature of a theory is its ability to be tested [3]. Numerous theories and concepts exist for
J Environ Sci Public Health 2017; 1 (2): 120-133 122
understanding Human Behaviors in Environmental Preservation. Few of these theories are reviewed below
alongside their application to environmental preservation. These theories and concepts enhance further
understanding as to why people participate in different environmentally influencing behaviors. It is however evident,
that no single theory, gives a perfect explanation of the complete interactions and relationships among variables
influencing Human Behavior in Environmental Preservation. Models and theories to be reviewed include the
following; Primitive models (Behavioural change model, Environmentally Responsible Behaviour model,
Reasoned/Responsible Action theory), Planned behaviour theory, Environmental Citizenship model, Model of
Human Interaction with the Environment, The Value-Belief-Norm Theory of Environmentalism, Model of Diffusion
of innovation and Health Belief Theory.
To properly examine the concept of Environmentally Responsible Behavior (ERB) there are 3 theories that can aid
its understanding [4]. These are the Primitive models, Model of environmentally responsible behaviour proposed by
Hines et al. [5] and Ajzen and Fishbein’s theory of reasoned/responsible action [6].
1.1 Primitive models
Primitive models are the traditional, ERB field’s precursors entertained beliefs that were not founded on rigorous
experimentation, but rather on several assumptions interpreted from previous works [7]. These models were founded
on the assumptions that educating the public on various ecological and environmental issues could alter human
behaviour.
1.2 Behavioural change model
This reasoning was directly associated with the supposition that if people were better informed, they would become
more aware of environmental problems and consequently, would be motivated to behave in an environmentally
responsible manner. Many other similar models, as will be discussed subsequently, linked knowledge to attitudes
and attitudes to behaviour. Thus, as evident in Figure 1, when knowledge increases, environmentally favourable
attitudes that lead to responsible environmental actions are developed [7]. Figure 1 illustrates the relationships
emanating from the models proposed at that time [4].
Figure 1: Behavioural Change Model [7].
Nevertheless, ulterior research refuted the arguments of those that saw the principles of human behavioural change
in this model. As a result of this, the legitimacy of such simplistic linear model was not recognized or supported for
a long time [7]. Researchers then focused their attention on a hypothesis that they would quickly verify and accept
Knowledge
Awareness
or
Attitudes
Action
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over the course of the following years: that a multitude of variables interact in different degrees to influence the
embracing of environmentally responsible behaviour.
The behavioural model, though very simplistic, provides a base for the consideration of possible relationship
existing between environmental knowledge, environmental awareness and attitude and how these can translate to
action or inaction. A good knowledge of environmental variables may not necessarily imply good and sustainable
environmental behavior. On the other hand, lack of environmental knowledge or awareness may also not necessarily
imply a poor environmental practice. Therefore other intervening factors like the Locus of control, intention to act
and personal responsibility need to be considered. While a line of possible relationship can be deciphered through
this model, reality is far more complex than this linear trend, hence a more advanced model, incorporating this line
of relationship is needed to offer a succinct explanation of the interacting variables of human behavior in
environmental preservation.
1.3 Theory of environmentally responsible behavior (ERB)
The ERB theory was proposed by Hines, Hungerford and Tomera [5]. The model argues that possessing an intention
of acting is a major factor influencing ERB. The Model of Responsible Environmental Behavior indicates that the
following variables; intention to act, locus of control (an internalized sense of personal control over the events in
one’s own life), attitudes, sense of personal responsibility, and knowledge .suggested whether a person would adopt
a behavior or not.
Figure 2 presents the interactions likely to develop ERB. This model considers the major variables that play a part in
the individual process of ERB adoption. According to the model, the internal control centre has a very considerable
impact on the intention of acting, which determines an individual’s ERB substantially. This model also highlights
the existence of a relationship between the control centre, attitudes of individuals and their intention to act. The
authors asserted that the control centre directly affects an individual’s attitudes which can lead to an improved
intention of acting and improved behaviour. Thus, the theory concentrates more on existing interactions between
parameters that influence a person’s behaviour than on the singular impact of a single variable.
Figure 2: Theory of Environmentally Responsible Behavior (ERB) [12].
Intention
of acting
Control
centre
Personal
responsibility
Attitudes
Knowledge
Environmentally
responsible
behaviour
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In waste management processes, no single factor is responsible for current behaviors or sufficient to initiate behavior
or cause behavior change. For instance, people pile up their waste materials in the middle of the streets in large cities
like Ibadan, Port Harcourt, Jos etc., despite regulations from waste management authorities, prohibiting these acts.
Many of these flouters do so at odd hours when law enforcement agencies are not available, others are influenced to
indiscriminately dump these waste materials because they see others doing so, yet some still find ways of decently
disposing off their waste materials.
From the model in Figure 2, knowledge alone is grossly insufficient to act responsibly towards the environment,
while some individuals’ knowledge on the environment and its regulations could prompt them to have a good
attitude which could translate to good intentions to act, other individuals may go through the internal and external
control, such as being influenced by the actions of others or holding strongly to a belief to act rightly despite the
actions of others towards the environment. Although, separate constructs of attitudes, control center and intention of
acting may not be enough for creating an intention to act, united under one overarching concept they become a base
on which predispositions for pro-environmental behavior are formed.
1.4 Reasoned/Responsible action theory
This theory was proposed by Ajzen and Fishbein [8]. The Reasoned Action Theory assumes that human behavior is
grounded in rational thought, and the model uses the Principle of Compatibility, which predicts that attitudes reflect
behavior only to the extent that the two refer to the same valued outcome state of being (evaluative disposition) [8].
The theory stipulates that the intention of acting has a direct effect on behaviour, and that it can be predicted by
attitudes. These attitudes are shaped by subjective norms and beliefs, and situational factors influence these
variables’ relative importance. Reasoned Action Theory accounts for times when people have good intentions, but
translating intentions into behavior is thwarted due to lack in confidence or the feeling of lack of control over the
behavior [9]. Figure 3, illustrates these relationships graphically.
Figure 3: Theory of Reasoned/Responsible Action [10].
Intention
of acting
Behaviour
Attitudes
Subjective
norms and
beliefs
J Environ Sci Public Health 2017; 1 (2): 120-133 125
In a study published in 1995, Glenda Hanna tried to verify the coherence and validity of this Ajzen and Fishbein’s
model [8]. Focusing on factors preceding the adoption of ERB, proposed a model inspired by that of Ajzen and
Fishbein, the model however took the influence of previous experiences with nature into account. Shown in figure 4,
preceding factors, for instance, past experience and demographic factors, interact with an individual’s knowledge
and ability to act. This interaction contributes to developing environmentally favourable attitudes towards relevant
issues that in turn lead to reinforcing the intention to act responsibly. Finally, these intentions are given concrete
expression through the individual’s specific actions [10].
Figure 4: Conceptual model for preceding factors of ERB [10].
Figure 5: The Theory of Reasoned Action [11].
Preceding
factors
Beliefs and
knowledge
about nature
Attitude toward
the
environment
Intention of
Acting
Environmentally
Responsible
behaviour
J Environ Sci Public Health 2017; 1 (2): 120-133 126
The theory of Reasoned Action is important to the extent that it provides a foundation for the understanding of why
people may not act in favor of the environment, despite having good intentions either due to their lack of confidence
or for the reason that they feel they lack control above the behavior. Furthermore, as asserted by Azjen and Fishbein
[8], on the basis of different experiences and different normative beliefs, people may form different beliefs on the
consequences of performing a behavior. These beliefs, in turn determine attitudes and subjective norms which then
determine intention and the corresponding behavior. As illustrated in figure 5, better understanding of a behavior
can be gained by tracing its determinants back to underlying beliefs, and thus influence the behavior by changing a
adequate number of these beliefs.
The model gives further explanations as to how good intentions for the environment are not enough in themselves to
propel an action. Attitudes and subjective norms, as seen in figure 5, contribute to behavioral intentions, which can
be used to predict behavior. Subjective norms in this context denote an individual’s beliefs about whether their
society’s members—family, friends, and co-workersbelieve that the individual should or should not participate in
a specific behavior. The social environment has been proven to mediate the consequence of environmental attitude
on environmental behaviors [13]. Similarly, Hanna’s proposition gives a foundation for the incorporation of
demographic characteristics as they influence individuals’ attitudes towards the environment, positively or
negatively.
2. Theory of Planned Behavior
The Planned Behavior Theory was proposed by [14], this model of planned environmental behavior considers the
intention to act and objective situational factor as direct determinants of pro-environmental behavior. The Intention
itself is considered summarizing the interplay of cognitive variables which include; (knowledge of action strategies
and issues, action skills) as well as personality variables (locus of control, attitudes and personal responsibility).
The Planned Behavior Theory grew out of the Theory of Reasoned Action and it suggests that human behavior is
influenced by three belief constructs: beliefs about consequences; expectations of others and things that may support
or prevent behavior[15]. A strong premise of the theory is that, at the conceptual level, links among influences on
behavior and their effects are captured through one of the components of the model or relationships in the model.
The application of this model to this study is that, the model provides further explanations into the connection
between knowledge, attitude, behavioral intention and actual behavior as they influence waste management
practices. Knowledge is not a specific component in the model but “attitudes are a function of beliefs” [8]; since in
this context, beliefs refer to knowledge about a specific behavior. Azjen’s model therefore, allows for representation
of cognitive elements through affective elements by their influence on beliefs. For instance, when a person
understands that he/she has control over a certain situation, his/her behavioral intentions reflect this understanding as
much as his/her beliefs as to the outcome of a certain behavior.
J Environ Sci Public Health 2017; 1 (2): 120-133 127
3. The Environmental Citizenship Model
This model was proposed by Hungerford and Volk [7]. The Hungerford Volk Model arrays three stages of
educational involvement ranging from first exposure (entry) to real involvement (empowerment), and then suggests
that each stage has certain knowledge and attitude characteristics.
In the Environmental Citizenship Model, Hungerford and Tomera grouped the variables that influence whether a
person takes action into three categories, as evident in Figure 6. These are;
Entry-level variablessuch as general sensitivity to and knowledge of the environment
Ownership variablesincluding in-depth knowledge, personal commitment, and resolve
Empowerment variablessuch as action skills, locus of control, and intention to act
Figure 6: Environmental Citizenship Model [7].
This theory is vitally important because of its potential to evolve a citizenry that is touched with the feelings of the
environment, who will bear its burdens to the extent of possessing skills that can enable them act in the interest of
the environment. One popular environmental variable for instance is that of solid waste. This theory could become
applicable such that whether it be purchase of goods or undertaking of services, one thing will be paramount in the
minds of the citizens; sustainability of the environment. Similarly, when it comes to the generation, disposal and
Major
Minor
Knowledge
ology
Major
about
investment
issues and
Minor
Knowledge
of behavior
both
and
A
commitment
issue
Major
Knowledge
and skill in
Locus of
(expectancy
Intention to
Minor
about
Entry Level Ownership
Level
Empowerment
variable
Citizen’s
Behavior
J Environ Sci Public Health 2017; 1 (2): 120-133 128
management of wastes; citizens will be most concerned with a sustainable manner of waste generation and
management hinged on avoidance, reduction, reuse and recycling.
In application, the Hungerford Volk Model identifies numerous variables required to be an environmentally literate
citizen. Secondly, the model provides a basis for the classification and separation of environmental literacy variables
according to their importance either as a major variable or a minor variable. Also, the model provides a
framework/scale to identify the level of an individual in the literacy ladder, such that one can tell if a citizen is in the
entry level, ownership level, empowerment level or has grown to become an environmentally responsible citizen.
4. Model of Human Interaction with the Environment
The model of human interaction with the environment was proposed by Hammond in 1995 [16]. This model
describes four interactions between human activity and the environment. These are;
4.1 Source: From the environment, people derive minerals, energy, food, fibers, and other natural resources of use
in economic activity, thus potentially depleting these resources or degrading the biological systems (Such as
soils) on which their continued production depends;
4.2 Sink: Natural resources are transformed by industrial activity into products (such as pesticides) and energy
services that are used or disseminated and ultimately discarded or dissipated, thus creating pollution and wastes
that (unless recycled) flow back into the environment;
4.3 Life support: The earth's ecosystemsespecially unmanaged ecosystemsprovide essential life-support
services, ranging from the breakdown of organic wastes to nutrient recycling to oxygen production to the
maintenance of biodiversity; as human activity expands and degrades or encroaches upon ecosystems, it can
reduce the environment's ability to provide such services;
4.4 Impact on human welfare: Polluted air and water and contaminated food affect human health and welfare
directly.
Figure 7: Model of Human Interaction with the Environment [16].
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This model expresses how the human activities bear imprints on the environment. While this model concerns itself
with the entirety of human activities, knowledge of interacting variables in the model enhances understanding of
possible outcomes for different behaviours within the environment.
5. The Value-Belief-Norm Theory of Environmentalism (Paul Stern 1999)
The Value Belief Norm (VBN) Theory was proposed by Stern [17]. The value-belief-norm (VBN) theory of
environmentalism has its roots in some of the above theoretical accounts linking value theory, norm-activation
theory, and the New Environmental Paradigm (NEP) perspective through a causal chain of five variables leading to
behavior: personal values (especially altruistic values), shown in figure 8. This chain of five variables, grouped into
categories of values, beliefs, and norms; influences whether a person is likely to adopt some environmental
behaviors.
Figure 8: Value-Belief-Norm Theory of Environmentalism [17].
VBN theory measures from other theories to account for three types of nonactivist environmentalism: these include
environmental citizenship, private-sphere behavior, and policy support (willingness to sacrifice) [17]. The discovery
was that the VBN cluster of variables was far stronger in predicting each behavioral indicator than the other theories,
even when other theories were taken in combination [18]. On the VBN, behavior that will be environmentally
significant is dauntingly complex, both in its variety and in the causal influences on it. Stern affirmed that, while a
general theory is still yet to be arrived at, enough is known to present a framework that can increase theoretical
coherence. This framework will include typologies of environmentally significant behaviors and their causes and a
growing set of empirical propositions about these variables [18].
The Value Belief Norm theory, among the hitherto discussed theories, provides a more elucidative explanation of
the human- environment interaction and how these interactions can affect each other, taking into consideration a
relatively ample number of variables responsible for cause and action. Furthermore, the theory is well applicable to
this study because:
The Value Belief Norm approach offers a good account for the causes of the general predisposition toward
pro-environmental behavior.
Environmental practices depend on a broad range of causal factors, both general and behavior-specific. A
general theory of environmentalism may therefore not be very useful for changing specific behaviors.
J Environ Sci Public Health 2017; 1 (2): 120-133 130
Different types of environmental practices have different causes. These causal factors may vary greatly
across behaviors and individuals, hence, each target behavior should be theorized separately.
In addition to the models and theories discussed above, two theories have been identified that affect environmental
behavior [19]. These are the theory of diffusion of innovation and the health belief theory.
6. Diffusion of Innovation Model (Everett Rogers 1962)
In 1962, Everett Rogers introduced the concept of innovation diffusion [19]. The theory purports that change
spreads in a population through a normal distribution of willingness to accept new ideas. At the level of the
individual, behavioral adoption occurs through the stages of knowledge, persuasion, decision, implementation and
confirmation [19]. Several studies have considered and applied diffusion theory [20]. The theory was popularized
with the general public in Malcolm Gladwell’s 2000 bestselling book The Tipping Point: How Little Things Can
Make a Big Difference. According to diffusion theory, behaviors are affected across a community through change
agents. There are four elements that would affect a change agent’s own behavior while diffusing innovation and
these are: involvement; social support; response information and; intrinsic control [21].
This model is important because of its ability to identify and assess the environmental literacy inducing information
possessed by individuals, with respect to the content, sources, quality and effect; within a social context, social
process and social support as upheld by this model.
7. Health Belief Theory
Beliefs help shape behavior. While enduring, beliefs are not fixed individual characteristics, but rather are acquired
through primary socialization [22]. The Health Belief Model focuses on two aspects of an individual’s views of
health and behavior. These views are threat perception and behavioral evaluation [23]. Threat perception or
perceived risk appraisal is founded on one’s perceived susceptibility to illness and the anticipated severity of the
consequences of such an illness. The Health Belief Model submits that, anytime there is an increase in an
individual’s assessed level of risk, there is an increase in the likelihood that the individual will adopt recommended
prevention behaviors [24]. Behavioral evaluation, also known as coping appraisal [25] relates to the belief that an
available course of action will be beneficial and the anticipated barriers or costs of embarking on an action do not
outweigh the benefits [26]. In addition to these core components of the model, there are demographic, socio-
psychological and structural variables, as well as ‘cues to action’ [24]. Cues to action are the stimuli necessary to
initiate or trigger engagement in the desired, healthy actions. Cues could come in the form of media campaigns or
the illness of a family member, relative or close friend [27].
The Health Belief Model has been extensively used in health education to predict behavior change and research
continues to reveal validity in the model. Over time, much of the work of environmental and conservation education
has been framed to address the four core components of the Health Belief Model [19]. The concepts of issue
relevance and cues to action, for example, are prevalent in the Guidelines for Excellence of the National Project for
J Environ Sci Public Health 2017; 1 (2): 120-133 131
Excellence in Environmental Education. Therefore, making the concepts explicit and focusing on the secondary
variables may benefit environmental education [19].
Tenets of this theory could be applied in environmental studies for prediction of behavior change, particularly a
study like this one which also bears an interplay with health in terms of some negative environmental practices that
can lead to the incidence/prevalence of diseases. Also, the Health Belief Theory will enable the researcher to assert
if the fear of negative outcomes from bad environmental practices will propel individuals to imbibe pro-
environmental practices or not. Furthermore, since pro-environmental behavior is a mixture of self-interest (e.g.,
pursuing a strategy that minimizes one’s own health risk) and of concern for other people, the next generation, other
species, or whole ecosystems (e.g. preventing air pollution that may cause risks for others’ health and/or the global
climate), this model can as such provide a good base for a better understanding for such cause and action.
The discourse of environmental education and waste management cuts across numerous areas especially for the
reason that it deals with human behavior which is in itself a complex variable. Hence several concepts, models and
theories have evolved over the years to attempt an explanation into this interaction.
In conclusion, an amalgamation of these models and theories can create relational paths to finding long lasting
solutions to various environmental problems created by different human behaviors. For instance, the Environmental
Citizenship Model (ECM), the Value Belief Norm theory and the Reasoned Action Theory could be integrated in a
way that the Environmental Citizenship model provides a framework/scale to identify the level of an individual in
the environmentally literacy ladder. The ECM can help determine if a citizen is in the environmental entry level,
ownership level, and empowerment level; along with the likely environmental behavior a citizen would demonstrate.
The ECM is insufficient since it makes no provision for the biospheric, altruistic and egoistic values of the
individual, thus, the Value Belief Norm theory (VBN) can be complementary to the ECM. Furthermore, the VBN
specifies the kind of pro environmental behavior, be it activism, non-activist public sphere behavior, private sphere
behavior and behaviors in communities, which are not emphasized in the ECM. The Reasoned Action Theory
complements the ECM and VBN by providing a better understanding that good intentions towards the environment
are not enough in themselves to propel an action. It further explains that attitudes and subjective norms, contribute to
behavioral intentions, which can be used to predict behavior. The models and theories reviewed will undoubtedly
prove invaluable in the quest for nurturing a citizenry who will engage the environment sustainably.
8. Acknowledgement
Warm gratitude to the African Union Commission for its support for this paper through The Pan African University,
(Institute of Life and Earth Sciences, Nigeria) scholarship. I thank Prof. S.B Agbola and Dr.W.B. Wahab for their
supervision, I also thank the editor and the reviewers.
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... It summarizes the relationship between all the cognitive variables that include knowledge of actions, strategies and issues in addition to the personality variables such as attitudes, and personal responsibility. [30] The following The theory of planned behavior states that the behavioral achievement is dependent on two main things; intention and behavioral control. It has six main constructs that represent individuals' control over their behaviors which are illustrated in the below Figure 2 -16; [30] There is a number of limitations to the theory of planned behavior. ...
... [30] The following The theory of planned behavior states that the behavioral achievement is dependent on two main things; intention and behavioral control. It has six main constructs that represent individuals' control over their behaviors which are illustrated in the below Figure 2 -16; [30] There is a number of limitations to the theory of planned behavior. One of which is the assumption that individuals have the resources and the opportunity to perform a desired behavior successfully regardless of the intention. ...
... Furthermore, the theory states the constructs of the perceived behavioral control, but it failed to explain or state the actual control over the behavior. [30] ...
Thesis
The profound impact of daylight on users is broadly recognized in the fields of architecture and lighting. In particular, the interplay of light with the architectural surrounding is a central design element; the diversity of daylight in space is widely acknowledged as a source of interest and stimulation that enriches our spatial experience. However, there is limited knowledge available on how light and specifically daylighting affect occupants. Moreover, we have limited knowledge on the impact of space function and of regional differences on human perception. This thesis investigates the effect of light and specifically daylighting on users’ experience, and the human responses in the context of Mosques. The investigation is carried out using the theoretical and analytical approaches to research in order to contribute in the substantial aforementioned knowledge gaps. The theoretical part consists of three chapters; Architecture and Psychology, Light and Architecture, and The Philosophy of phenomenology. While the analytical part is divided into two chapters; Chapter 5 analyzes international and national precedents in which light was the main protagonist and design influencer based on a set of criteria. Through the first two chapters of the literature review, we have drawn out the criteria of evaluation of the comparative analysis of the international and national precedents. The criteria are Geometry, Materials, and Light. After the analysis of each precedent on its own, we came up with a matrix that analyzes them together in order to reach a final conclusion as well as the prototype on which we will conduct the Empirical study. The conclusion we’ve reached is the necessity of integration of architectural and psychological aspects in order to create a building that is user centered and fulfils the physical and psychological needs. Finally, the Empirical study was conducted which is considered the core of the study. The analysis is carried out using the interpretive phenomenological analysis (IPA). IPA is qualitative research method that aims to examine the lived experience in a certain context to provide a detailed examination of the phenomenon. In order to adapt this method, certain procedure took place. The first phase of the empirical study involves data gathering where the mosque will be documented. The second phase was an online survey which was conducted to investigate the main research questions regarding the phenomenology of light in mosques. From this survey we were able to cutdown the number of participants which we carried out the interviews with -which is the main part of this phase of the empirical study. Documentation of the interviews will follow the IPA method for documentation. The third phase of the study which was the analysis of the data collected from the interviews and through which we have reached a transcript that puts into consideration the participants point of view with respect to the previous literature review. The conclusion we’ve reached through the analysis is that Lighting design in mosques is capable of affecting the users physically, psychologically, and spiritually. Hence, when designing a building it is only proper to carry out an investigation of the building typology, the needs of its users (the three levels of needs), and the context in which the building will be sited. This will ensure the complete functionality of the building on the three dimensions.
... Though the practice is important, the theoretical underpinnings are equally important, and the two are mutually supportive. Literature (Akintunde, 2017;Tidwell et al., 2018;Weber et al., 2019) indicates that practices that are informed by good theories tend to achieve better results. A theory-driven framework for ESM (Reed et al., 2018;Tidwell et al., 2018) is supposed to show relationships between concepts and theories, demonstrating that concepts are symbolic depiction of the actual, and the building block of the theory (Akintunde, 2017). ...
... Literature (Akintunde, 2017;Tidwell et al., 2018;Weber et al., 2019) indicates that practices that are informed by good theories tend to achieve better results. A theory-driven framework for ESM (Reed et al., 2018;Tidwell et al., 2018) is supposed to show relationships between concepts and theories, demonstrating that concepts are symbolic depiction of the actual, and the building block of the theory (Akintunde, 2017). Apart from the frameworks not showing the underpinning theories and relationships between the theories and the concepts, the frameworks are also not explicit regarding feedback, although some of them allude casually to monitoring mechanisms. ...
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The phenomenon of poor environmental sanitation, which is a global challenge, but most so in developing countries, requires that the solution to it be both conceptually and theoretically sound and clear enough for translation into practice. The purpose of this paper was to develop a theory-anchored conceptual framework to guide Environmental Sanitation Management (ESM) in developing countries. Data were obtained from scholarly databases such as Scopus, PubMed, and Google Scholar as well as grey literature through predetermined material selection and screening processes, and analysed qualitatively using the narrative, configurative synthesis approach. The review revealed that, among the key conceptual issues in ESM are environmental sanitation education (software), regulation (software) and infrastructure (hardware), which are managed by the government and private sector stakeholders, using various frameworks. However, while the existing frameworks recognise important concepts and variables, the frameworks are unclear regarding the theories underpinning the concepts and the relationships among the variables, thus, making it difficult for one to establish the synergies among the issues to be translated into practice. Arguing that inadequate application of systems thinking, participatory processes and behavioural change mechanisms is the key missing link in the previous ESM frameworks, a theory-anchored ESM framework is developed to fill this gap. It is recommended that conceptualisation and implementation of ESM programmes in developing countries be driven by a framework of hardware and software solutions that are underpinned by the systems, behavioural change and participation theories in order to comprehensively address the complexities of ESM in developing countries for sustainable development.
... Responding to the increasing number of environmental problems, the effort to improve the responsible environmental behavior (REB) needs to be done (Akpofure, 2018). Someone who has an REB will feel that their environment is their responsibility (Akintunde, 2017). They will act actively to protect the environment in their daily lives (Pan, Chou, Morrison, Huang, & Lin, 2018). ...
... Then, through a significance test obtained a significance value smaller than alpha, so it can be concluded that the regression equation model is significant. REB is considered as the primary provider of a student to be an individual who is responsible for their environment (Akintunde, 2017). They will try to maintain their environmental conditions while doing daily activities (Pan et al., 2018). ...
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Notwithstanding that many efforts to overcome environmental problems have been carried out by several parties, yet the issues still occur. Improving students’ responsible environmental behavior (REB) can be an alternative to solve environmental problems. This study aimed to analyze the relation between the both variables (i.e. naturalist intelligence and personality) and students’ REB at SJHS 51 of Bandung. The research was carried out using quantitative descriptive method through a correlational approach. Naturalist intelligence, personality, and REB data were collected using questionnaires. The research data were analyzed using multiple linear regression at α = 0.05. The research results showed that there was a relation between: (1) naturalist intelligence and REB;. (2) personality and REB; and (3) the both predictor variables and REB. Therefore, empowering the both competencies (naturalist intelligence and personality) is the essential step to improve students’ REB.
... Behaviour: It is the actiona practical term. The behaviour of humans is based on the knowledge or rational thought that is intended for a pre-planned and desirable outcome (Akintunde, 2017). ...
Article
Purpose This study aims to examine peoples’ perception of climate change. It assessed their attitude, behavioural motivation for mitigating and adapting to climate change in the two capital cities of South Asia: Islamabad in Pakistan and Dhaka in Bangladesh. Design/methodology/approach This study used the quantitative research technique based on responses of 800 close-ended questions embedded in a close-ended questionnaire, which were filled-out from randomly selected sample of respondents. The primary data was analysed and presented through tabulation. For binary dependent variables, the standardised logistic coefficients were projected for more reliable estimates. Findings The findings reveal that the population of both capital cities have a low personal perception of climate change. Also, the dwellers of both cities have a low level of motivation to take mitigative and adaptive measures against climatic hazards. The results of the logistic regression model further indicate that the people who believe that climate change is a threat to their lives are more likely to adopt mitigative and adaptive strategies. This mostly applies to the people with a relatively higher income and education level. Research limitations/implications This study implies to create awareness and sensitise the local community in both the capitals and beyond through information dissemination. Further, the availability of toolkits to handle emergencies remains imperative in registering attitudinal and behavioural changes to reduce the impacts of climate variability in poor localities. Originality/value This research study analysed the link between climate change mitigation and energy conservation from the societal attributes of perception, motivation, attitude and behaviour, which remains essential for community-based mitigation against climatic hazards.
... The theoretical framework puts forwards the structure that captures the theory in a research study (Akintunde 2017). Figure 11.1 shows the conceptual framework for this research. ...
Chapter
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Urban rivers are very crucial for any city and often have to bear the burden of pollution and various other discharges from its catchment area. There are many such waste streams which flow into urban rivers, out of which one is that of sacred waste. It is the waste generated out of worship or puja offerings, mostly from Hindu ritual practices. In Hinduism, rivers are treated as gods and nature is given high respect. In fact, that is the reason that the largest and the national river of India, Ganga, is referred to as mother, but strangely enough it is one of the five most polluted rivers in the world. It is this conflict that forms the basis of the research. For this research, Adi Ganga is chosen which is considered as the original flow of the Ganga to the Bay of Bengal as it flows past Kolkata. However, with time, this channel became more of a gutter, and the main flow of the Ganga is now the Hooghly by Kolkata. In spite of this, Adi Ganga is still considered extremely holy, and all the rituals associated with Ganga is still being performed here. Now, the sacred waste has few toxic and hazardous components, and this research tries to explain the factors leading to disposal of toxic and hazardous sacred waste disposal. To study this, case study approach was decided upon with three sub-cases. The sites were chosen such that basic characteristics remain same but the scale varies. From the literature two main factors came up – individual or internal and situational or external factors. While there are other factors in play, the most prevalent individual factor for Site A is noticed to be values and personal norms, while for Site B and Site C, the most prevalent individual factor is (lack of) knowledge. The most prevalent situational factor for all the sites was found to be subjective norm. As an outcome of the research, the recommendations are to consider sacred waste as a separate waste stream for policy framework, subsidise eco-friendly paints, provide alternative options before banning plastic, and raise awareness regarding environment, amongst others. Keywords Urban river • Sacred • Waste • Rituals • Idols
... Therefore, what matters is the practical and appropriate use of a model or theory in analyzing a behavior. In this regard, Akintunde (2017) emphasized this issue in a study entitled "theories and concepts for human behavior in environmental preservation". This researcher concluded that the planned behavior theory (PBT), the environmental citizenship model, the model of human-environmental interactions, as well as the VBN and health belief theories could not independently fully explain the human-environmental interaction. ...
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Access to water has always been a source of tension and has been and continues to be a conflict among stakeholders. In the meantime, villagers and farmers have a major stake in analyzing water conflicts. Water conflicts investigation is possible from different perspectives, one of the most important being the human ecological angle. This research aimed to study the human ecological analysis of water conflict in Iran's rural areas. For this purpose, ethical approach and VBN theory were used to measure water conflict behavior (WCB). This study is a descriptive-correlational, ex-post facto and causal relationship that was conducted using a survey. The statistical population was rural people in Zarrineh River watershed basin, Kurdistan province, Iran (N=14910) which 380 of them were selected as a sample using stratified random sampling method. The research instrument was a questionnaire which was confirmed by a panel of experts and its reliability was determined using the Cronbach's alpha coefficient. The findings showed that most of the villagers were at open water conflict level and their dominant environmental attitude was egoistic and WCB was significantly higher in them. Based on VBN theory the causal chain model of environmental value attitudes (EVA), beliefs and norms affecting WCB was presented and tested. The results indicate a crisis in water resources management, especially from the point of view of human ecology, which further reveals the need for fundamental changes to create and establish appropriate environmental insights in water stakeholders.
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This article analyzes the main determinants of pro-environmental concern of European tourists when they make holiday decisions. Tourist environmental concern depends not only on individual and travel-related attributes, but also on the characteristics of the tourists’ place of residence. Thus, this article simultaneously applies micro and macro approaches using hierarchical linear models, which can estimate variations in tourists’ environmental concern because of between-country and within-country differences. Specifically, the heterogeneous pattern across European countries in the level of environmental concern is mainly explained by between-country economic, cultural, and environmental differences. Within-country variability in the level of pro-environmental concern is mainly explained by individual and travel-related variables, and particularly by the characteristics of the destination. The results demonstrate that environmental concern varies depending on whether the destination is booked via a last-minute offer or not, whether it is a traditional or emergent destination, and whether the trip is abroad or domestic.
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