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Recent advances in wearable technology tend towards standalone wearables. Most of today's wearable devices and applications still rely on a paired smartphone for secure Internet communication, even though many current generation wearables are equipped with Wi-Fi and 3G/4G network interfaces that provide direct Internet access. Yet it is not clear if such communication can be efficiently and securely supported through existing protocols. Our findings show that it is possible to use secure and efficient direct communication between wearables and the Internet

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... In addition to being fitness tracking devices and complementary devices to smartphones, wearables find applications in a number of other domains that include healthcare, finance, sports, and transportation. While the majority of today's wearables rely on a paired smartphone for communication, there is an increasing trend towards stand-alone wearables with mobile network communication to facilitate higher mobility, especially for fitness tracking by eliminating the need of carrying the smartphone [8]. ...
... Takeaway: On average SIM-enabled wearable users are active one day a week and three hours per day and the more a user is active the more she generates data/transactions. Also, users have very few apps installed on average requiring Internet connectivity (i.e., 8), and only a very limited number is used every day (i.e., 1-2 apps). Furthermore, we observed that the users who own a SIM-enabled wearable consume more data and generate more transactions. ...
Conference Paper
Recent advances are driving wearables towards stand-alone devices with cellular network support (e.g. SIM-enabled Apple Watch series-3). Nonetheless, a little has been studied on SIM-enabled wearable traffic in ISP networks to gain customer insights and to understand traffic characteristics. In this paper, we characterize the network traffic of several thousand SIM-enabled wearable users in a large European mobile ISP. We present insights on user behavior, application characteristics such as popularity and usage, and wearable traffic patterns. We observed a 9% increase in SIM-enabled wearable users over a five month observation period. However, only 34% of such users actually generate any network transaction. Our analysis also indicates that SIM-enabled wearable users are significantly more active in terms of mobility, data consumption and frequency of app usage compared to the remaining customers of the ISP who are mostly equipped with a smartphone. Finally, wearable apps directly communicate with third parties such as advertisement and analytics networks similarly to smartphone apps.
... Such a setup can cause significant performance degradation to the high-end wearables that demand high-data rates, e.g., AR/VR/MR or XR applications [198]. Therefore, direct Internet connectivity-enabled devices equipped with IEEE 802.11 or cellular modules are expected to get more attention in the nearest future [199]. Moreover, some other long-range non-cellular connectivity solutions such as NB-IoT, LoRa, Sigfox, etc., are also expected to enter the wearables industry, opening directions for many new wearable IoT applications [200]. ...
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Personal mobile devices such as smartwatches, smart jewelry, and smart clothes have launched a new trend in the Internet of Things (IoT) era, namely the Internet of Wearable Things (IoWT). These wearables are small IoT devices capable of sensing, storing, processing, and exchanging data to assist users by improving their everyday life tasks through various applications. However, the IoWT has also brought new challenges for the research community to address such as increasing demand for enhanced computational power, better communication capabilities, improved security and privacy features, reduced form factor, minimal weight, and better comfort. Most wearables are battery-powered devices that need to be recharged-therefore, the limited battery life remains the bottleneck leading to the need to enhance the energy efficiency of wearables, thus, becoming an active research area. This paper presents a survey of energy-efficient solutions proposed for diverse IoWT applications by following the systematic literature review method. The available techniques published from 2010 to 2020 are scrutinized, and the taxonomy of the available solutions is presented based on the targeted application area. Moreover, a comprehensive qualitative analysis compares the proposed studies in each application area in terms of their advantages, disadvantages, and main contributions. Furthermore, a list of the most significant performance parameters is provided. A more in-depth discussion of the main techniques to enhance wearables' energy efficiency is presented by highlighting the trade-offs involved. Finally, some potential future research directions are highlighted. INDEX TERMS Wearables, Internet of Wearable Things, energy consumption, wearable applications, energy efficiency, computing, systematic literature review.
... Previously, this was due to the limitations of hardware resources, as long-range communication chipsets such as Wi-Fi or mobile phones did not equip the wearables. Later, although more and more handheld devices support Wi-Fi connectivity, the lack of support in portable operating systems allows secure direct communication and slow growth in the development of third-party applications for wearables [37]. However, mobile equipment is continuously increasing [38], and there is a growing demand for devices that connect directly to the Internet [39]. ...
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A large amount of data, called the big data, generated by the devices that are part of the Internet of Things, is expected in the coming years. This scenario creates challenges for sending, processing, and storing all data centrally in the cloud. Recent works propose a decentralization of the processing and storage of this data in local devices close to the user to solve such challenges. This paradigm, called dew computing, has been gaining attention from academia. Several works apply this proposal through devices such as desktops, laptops, and smartphones. However, after a systematic review, no studies were found that applied this proposal to smart wearable devices. Thus, this work shows the research, evaluation, analysis, and discussion of smartwatches for the dew computing environment. The results of this work showed that smartwatches could extend local device functionalities through performing services, cooperating with decentralizing cloud computing, and helping to reduce the negative impacts of the big data.
... One important extension of OAuth is its flexibility towards the runtime environment as it makes no assumptions about runtime capabilities. This allows to support OAuth even for native apps on mobile devices (Denniss & Bradley, 2018) and holds the potential to link to apps, appliances, and devices without visual user interfaces, such as wearables, securely into complex scenarios and experiences (Kolamunna et al. 2017). ...
Conference Paper
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Identity management gains increasing relevance for mobile learning as mobile learning needs to be integrated into more complex learning scenarios. This paper discusses the different authorization strategies for mobile learning apps and an architecture for abstracting the relation between device-level and organisational trust domains. This architecture provides the foundation for authorization strategies that allow secure and transparent integration of native mobile learning apps into more complex learning environments. This paper discusses the implementation of a trust agent that creates a transparent layer that simplifies the user experience and reduces application complexity.
The popularity of wearable devices is growing exponentially, with consumers using these for a variety of services. Fitness devices are currently offering new services such as shopping or buying train tickets using contactless payment. In addition, fitness devices are collecting a number of personal information such as body temperature, pulse rate, food habits and body weight, steps-distance travelled, calories burned and sleep stage. Although these devices can offer convenience to consumers, more and more reports are warning of the cybersecurity risks of such devices, and the possibilities for such devices to be hacked and used as springboards to other systems. Due to their wireless transmissions, these devices can potentially be vulnerable to a malicious attack allowing the data collected to be exposed. The vulnerabilities of these devices stem from lack of authentication, disadvantages of Bluetooth connections, location tracking as well as third party vulnerabilities. Guidelines do exist for securing such devices, but most of such guidance is directed towards device manufacturers or IoT providers, while consumers are often unaware of potential risks. The aim of this paper is to provide cybersecurity guidelines for users in order to take measures to avoid risks when using fitness devices.
The computational effort required to guarantee the security of a communication, due to the complexity of the cryptographic algorithms, heavily influences the energy consumption and consequently the energy demand of the involved parties. This energy request makes secure communication with low energy consumption a non-trivial issue. The aim of this work is to study, as well as evaluate, the way in which the cryptographic primitives used in secure communication protocols affect the workload of the CPU and, therefore, the energy expenditure of the interacting devices. Through the aforementioned analysis, attention will be focused on the need to consider with greater sensitivity the possibility of operating/undergoing cyber-attacks using the power consumption induced by secure communications. The main focus is to exaggerate the workload of the target devices in order to produce the maximum energy consumption and have a kind of Denial-of-Service attack. The paper studies the contribution of energy consumption introduced by the different part of “secure” primitives within the TLS protocol. As a conclusion, it is shown how Cryptography is often used not in the proper way, i.e., it may introduce costs that are sometimes higher than the value of the “goods” to protect.
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The majority of available wearable devices require communication with Internet servers for data analysis and storage, and rely on a paired smartphone to enable secure communication. However, wearable devices are mostly equipped with WiFi network interfaces, enabling direct communication with the Internet. Secure communication protocols should then run on these wearables itself, yet it is not clear if they can be efficiently supported. In this paper, we show that wearable devices are ready for direct and secure Internet communication by means of experiments with both controlled and Internet servers. We observe that the overall energy consumption and communication delay can be reduced with direct Internet connection via WiFi from wearables compared to using smartphones as relays via Bluetooth. We also show that the additional HTTPS cost caused by TLS handshake and encryption is closely related to number of parallel connections, and has the same relative impact on wearables and smartphones.
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Written by industry experts, this book aims to provide you with an understanding of how to design and work with wearable sensors. Together these insights provide the first single source of information on wearable sensors that would be a valuable addition to the library of any engineer interested in this field. Wearable Sensors covers a wide variety of topics associated with the development and application of various wearable sensors. It also provides an overview and coherent summary of many aspects of current wearable sensor technology. Both industry professionals and academic researchers will benefit from this comprehensive reference which contains the most up-to-date information on the advancement of lightweight hardware, energy harvesting, signal processing, and wireless communications and networks. Practical problems with smart fabrics, biomonitoring and health informatics are all addressed, plus end user centric design, ethical and safety issues.
Conference Paper
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PDAs and smart phones are increasingly being used as handheld computers. Today, their network connectivity and their usages for various tasks over the Internet require privacy and authenticity. In this paper, we conduct a comprehensive and comparative study of the performance of the SSL protocol for PDA and laptop clients, both in WEP secured and open Wi-Fi environments. Unlike previous studies [1], [2], the measurements are at sub-protocol granularity allowing for researchers to consider appropriate optimizations for these resource-constrained devices. Unsurprisingly, we find that SSL handshake costs 3 times more at a PDA client than it does for a laptop client, but surprisingly most of the delay comes from network latency and other PDA architecture issues, not cryptographic computation. This suggests that more effort should be spent in minimizing communication rounds in future cryptographic protocols that will be used by PDAs, even at the cost of more cryptographic operations.
Conference Paper
Increased user concern over security and privacy on the Internet has led to widespread adoption of HTTPS, the secure version of HTTP. HTTPS authenticates the communicating end points and provides confidentiality for the ensuing communication. However, as with any security solution, it does not come for free. HTTPS may introduce overhead in terms of infrastructure costs, communication latency, data usage, and energy consumption. Moreover, given the opaqueness of the encrypted communication, any in-network value added services requiring visibility into application layer content, such as caches and virus scanners, become ineffective. This paper attempts to shed some light on these costs. First, taking advantage of datasets collected from large ISPs, we examine the accelerating adoption of HTTPS over the last three years. Second, we quantify the direct and indirect costs of this evolution. Our results show that, indeed, security does not come for free. This work thus aims to stimulate discussion on technologies that can mitigate the costs of HTTPS while still protecting the user's privacy.
Conference Paper
We report results from a measurement study on the role of the most popular end-to-end security protocol Transport Layer Security (TLS) in the energy consumption of a mobile device. We measured energy consumed by TLS transactions between a Nokia N95 and several popular Web services over WLAN and 3G network interfaces. Our detailed analysis corroborates some earlier results but also reveals, contrary to earlier studies, that the transmission and I/O energy, both in the TLS handshake and the record protocol, far exceed the required computational energy by the actual cryptographic algorithms and that with transactions larger than 500KB, the energy required to transmit the actual data clearly outranks the TLS energy overhead. In addition, we note that the energy consumption varies remarkably between measured services.
Security is becoming an everyday concern for a wide range of electronic systems that manipulate, communicate, and store sensitive data. An important and emerging category of such electronic systems are battery-powered mobile appliances, such as personal digital assistants (PDAs) and cell phones, which are severely constrained in the resources they possess, namely, processor, battery, and memory. This work focuses on one important constraint of such devices-battery life-and examines how it is impacted by the use of various security mechanisms. In this paper, we first present a comprehensive analysis of the energy requirements of a wide range of cryptographic algorithms that form the building blocks of security mechanisms such as security protocols. We then study the energy consumption requirements of the most popular transport-layer security protocol: Secure Sockets Layer (SSL). We investigate the impact of various parameters at the protocol level (such as cipher suites, authentication mechanisms, and transaction sizes, etc.) and the cryptographic algorithm level (cipher modes, strength) on the overall energy consumption for secure data transactions. To our knowledge, this is the first comprehensive analysis of the energy requirements of SSL. For our studies, we have developed a measurement-based experimental testbed that consists of an iPAQ PDA connected to a wireless local area network (LAN) and running Linux, a PC-based data acquisition system for real-time current measurement, the OpenSSL implementation of the SSL protocol, and parameterizable SSL client and server test programs. Based on our results, we also discuss various opportunities for realizing energy-efficient implementations of security protocols. We believe such investigations to be an important first step toward addressing the challenges of energy-efficient security for battery-constrained systems.
The last couple of years has seen a growing momentum towards using the Internet for conducting business. One of the key enablers for business applications is the ability to setup secure channels across the internet. The Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) protocol provides this capability and it is the most widely used transport layer security protocol. In this paper we investigate the performance of SSL both from a latency as well as a throughput point of view. Since SSL is primarily used to secure web transactions, we use the SPECWeb96 benchmark suitably modified for use with the SSL protocol. We benchmark two of the more more popular webservers that are in use today and find that they are a couple of orders of magnitude slower when it comes to serving secure web pages. We investigate the reason for this deficiency by instrumenting the SSL protocol stack with a detailed profiling of the protocol processing components. Based on our findings we suggest two modifications to the protocol that red...
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