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Proximate Composition and Nutritional Value of Three Macroalgae: Ascophyllum nodosum, Fucus vesiculosus and Bifurcaria bifurcata

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Proximate composition (moisture, protein, lipid and ash content) and nutritional value (fatty acid, amino acid and mineral profile) of three macroalgae (Ascophyllum nodosum, Fucus vesiculosus and Bifurcaria bifurcate) were studied. Chemical composition was significantly (p < 0.001) different among the three seaweeds. In this regard, the B. bifurcata presented the highest fat content (6.54% of dry matter); whereas, F. vesiculosus showed the highest protein level (12.99% dry matter). Regarding fatty acid content, the polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) were the most abundant followed by saturated fatty acids (SFAs) and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs). On the other hand, the three seaweeds are a rich source of K (from 3781.35 to 9316.28 mg/100 g), Mn (from 8.28 to 1.96 mg/100 g), Na (from 1836.82 to 4575.71 mg/100 g) and Ca (from 984.73 to 1160.27 mg/100 g). Finally, the most abundant amino acid was glutamic acid (1874.47–1504.53 mg/100 dry matter), followed by aspartic acid (1677.01–800.84 mg/100 g dry matter) and alanine (985.40–655.73 mg/100 g dry matter).
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marine drugs
Proximate Composition and Nutritional Value of
Three Macroalgae: Ascophyllum nodosum,
Fucus vesiculosus and Bifurcaria bifurcata
JoséM. Lorenzo 1, *ID , Rubén Agregán1, Paulo E. S. Munekata 2, Daniel Franco 1ID ,
Javier Carballo 3, Selin ¸Sahin 4, Ramón Lacomba 5and Francisco J. Barba 6, *ID
1Centro Tecnológico de la Carne de Galicia, Adva. Galicia n4, Parque Tecnológico de Galicia,
San Cibrao das Viñas
, 32900 Ourense, Spain; (R.A.); (D.F.)
Department of Food Engineering, Faculty of Animal Science and Food Engineering, University of São Paulo,
225 Duque de Caxias Norte Ave, Jardim Elite, Pirassununga, São Paulo 13.635-900, Brazil;
Area de Tecnologia de los Alimentos, Facultad de Ciencias de Ourense, Universidad de Vigo, 32004 Ourense,
4Department of Chemical Engineering, Engineering Faculty, Istanbul University, Avcilar, 34320 Istanbul,
5Grupo Alimentario Citrus (GAC), Avda. dels Gremis, Parcela 28 Pol. Ind. Sector 13 del Túria,
Riba-roja de Túria, 46394 València, Spain;
6Nutrition and Food Science Area, Preventive Medicine and Public Health, Food Science,
Toxicology and Forensic Medicine Department, Universitat de València, Avda. Vicent Andrés Estellés, s/n,
Burjassot, 46100 València, Spain
*Correspondence: (J.M.L.); (F.J.B.); Tel.: +34-988548277 (J.M.L.);
+34-963544972 (F.J.B.); Fax: +34-988548276 (J.M.L.); +34-963544954 (F.J.B.)
Received: 8 August 2017; Accepted: 8 November 2017; Published: 15 November 2017
Proximate composition (moisture, protein, lipid and ash content) and nutritional value (fatty
acid, amino acid and mineral profile) of three macroalgae (Ascophyllum nodosum,Fucus vesiculosus and
Bifurcaria bifurcate) were studied. Chemical composition was significantly (p< 0.001) different among
the three seaweeds. In this regard, the B. bifurcata presented the highest fat content (6.54% of dry
matter); whereas, F. vesiculosus showed the highest protein level (12.99% dry matter). Regarding fatty
acid content, the polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) were the most abundant followed by saturated
fatty acids (SFAs) and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs). On the other hand, the three seaweeds
are a rich source of K (from 3781.35 to 9316.28 mg/100 g), Mn (from 8.28 to 1.96 mg/100 g), Na (from
1836.82 to 4575.71 mg/100 g) and Ca (from 984.73 to 1160.27 mg/100 g). Finally, the most abundant
amino acid was glutamic acid (1874.47–1504.53 mg/100 dry matter), followed by aspartic acid
(1677.01–800.84 mg/100 g dry matter) and alanine (985.40–655.73 mg/100 g dry matter).
Ascophyllum nodosum;Fucus vesiculosus;Bifurcaria bifurcate; seaweeds; fatty acid profile;
amino acid content; minerals; chemical composition
1. Introduction
Seaweeds have been traditionally consumed as food in many cultures, and have been used as
condiments, fertilizers, and as source of phycocolloids such as alginate, agar, and carrageenan for
industrial applications [
]. Seaweeds are traditionally divided into three main groups corresponding
to the phylum: green (Chlorophyta), red (Rhodophyta) and brown (Phaeophyta), depending on their
chemical composition and nutritional value [5].
Mar. Drugs 2017,15, 360; doi:10.3390/md15110360
Mar. Drugs 2017,15, 360 2 of 11
Seaweeds are consumed in Asia as part of the daily diet. Nowadays, brown algae (66.5%) are the
most consumed species, followed by red (33%) and green (5%) algae. Today, Japan, China and South
Korea, are the countries with the greatest seaweed consumption [
]. Seaweeds are an excellent nutrient
source, containing high amounts of macro- and micronutrients [
], as well as bioactive compounds
(e.g., catechins such as gallocatechin, epicatechin and catechingallate, flavonols, and flavonol
glycosides) with high antioxidant and health beneficial properties [
]. Food, pharmaceutical,
and cosmetic industries have shown interest in the recovery of antioxidant compounds (isolated
compounds and/or complex extract mixtures) assisted by conventional (solid-liquid or liquid-liquid
extraction, Soxhlet, etc.) and innovative processing technologies (high-pressure, supercritical-CO
), electrotechnologies, microwave- and ultrasound-assisted extraction, among others) [
Several authors [
] have reported that the chemical composition of seaweeds varies according
to maturity, habitats, environmental conditions, and species. A comprehensive study of nutritional
(protein and amino acids, fat and fatty acids, carbohydrates, minerals, and vitamins) and bioactive
compounds such as polyphenols, carotenoids, etc., from each seaweed, which can exert some beneficial
properties on health, is necessary. There are many brown types of seaweeds found in the Spanish
coast and the details of their chemical and nutritional composition are needed in order to fulfil the
growing demand for Spanish seaweeds and their derived products. Thus, the aim of the present study
was to evaluate the chemical and nutritional properties of three different brown seaweeds A. nodosum,
F. vesiculosus and B. bifurcata from the Galician coast.
2. Results and Discussion
2.1. Chemical Composition of Seaweeds
The proximate composition of the three seaweeds is summarized in Table 1. As can be seen the
moisture content showed significant (p< 0.001) differences among the three macroalgae, since the
lowest value was observed in B. bifurcata (7.95%).
Table 1.
Proximate composition of the three seaweeds studied (mean
standard deviation values)
(n= 5).
Parameters Seaweed
A. nodosum F. vesiculosus B. bifurcata
Moisture (g/100 g algae) 11.08 ±0.53 a11.23 ±0.08 a7.95 ±0.06 b
Protein (g/100 g DW) 8.70 ±0.07 a12.99 ±0.04 b8.92 ±0.09 c
Lipid (g/100 g DW) 3.62 ±0.17 a3.75 ±0.20 a6.54 ±0.27 b
Ash (g/100 g DW) 30.89 ±0.06 a20.71 ±0.04 b31.68 ±0.41 c
DW: dry weight of seaweed.
Means in the same row not followed by a common superscript letter are significantly
different (p< 0.05; Duncan test).
This finding is in close agreement with the data reported by Rodrigues et al. [
], who also noticed
that the moisture content of different edible seaweeds species ranged from 8.0 g/100 g of dry weight
(DW) in dried Gracilaria gracilis to 11.8 g/100 g of DW in dried Osmundea pinnatifida. In addition,
Gómez-Ordoñez et al. [
] also reported similar moisture contents (between 6.64% and 9.86%) in
several edible seaweeds from the northwestern Spanish coast. However, Chan & Matanjun [
] found
lower moisture content (5.32%) in freeze-dried Gracilaria changii seaweed.
F. vesiculosus specie presented the highest protein content (12.99 g/100 DW), followed by
B. bifurcata (8.92 g/100 DW) and the A. nodosum (8.70 g/100 DW). These results are in agreement with
the data reported by Fleurence [
], who also noticed low protein content (<15 g/100 DW) in most of
the brown seaweeds industrially exploited (F. vesiculosus,A. nodosum,Laminaria digitata and Himanthalia
elongata). Similar values were found by Gómez-Ordoñez et al. [
] and Alves et al. [
] in B. bifurcata
(10.92 g/100 DW and 8.57 g/100 g DW, respectively) and by Chan & Matanjun [
] in G. changii
Mar. Drugs 2017,15, 360 3 of 11
(12.57 g/100 DW). However, these values were lower than those obtained by
Rodrigues et al. [16]
for brown (14.4–16.9 g/100 DW), red (20.2–23.8 g/100 DW) and green (18.8 g/100 DW) seaweed
species. In addition, our values were lower than those observed by Fleurence [
] in other seaweed
species such as Porphyra tenera (47 g/100 DW) and Palmaria palmata (35 g/100 DW). On the contrary,
Sánchez-Machado, López-Cervantes, et al. [
] obtained lower protein content (5.46 g/100 DW) in
H. elongata dried seaweed. According to Denis et al. [
], the protein content of seaweed changes
during the year, having the maximum content during winter and the beginning of spring, and the
minimum content during summer and early autumn periods. In addition, the protein level varied
among different algal species, geographic areas, seasons, or environmental conditions [22].
In general, seaweeds exhibit low fat content (bellow 4%) [
], which varies significantly through
the year [
]. Extractable lipid showed significant (p< 0.001) differences among seaweeds, since the
highest levels were observed in B. bifurcata (6.54% DW). Our values were similar to those reported
by Peinado et al. [
], who found the contents ranging from 3.95 to 4.64% DW in F. vesiculosus and by
Gómez-Ordoñez et al. [
] and Alves et al. [
], who observed fat levels of 5.67% DW and 5.81% DW
in B. bifurcata, respectively. On the other hand, ash contents were high and ranged from 20.71% DW
to 31.68% DW for F. vesiculosus and B. bifurcata, respectively. These findings are in agreement with
the data reported by Alves et al. [
] and Gómez-Ordoñez et al. [
] in B. bifurcata (34.31% DW and
30.15% DW, respectively) and by Peinado et al. [
] in F. vesiculosus (21–19% DW). The high ash levels
constitute an important characteristic of seaweeds, and are higher than those observed in terrestrial
vegetables [7]. It is known that high amounts of ash are linked with high levels of minerals.
2.2. Mineral Content of Seaweeds
The mineral content of the three macroalgae is given in Table 2. Among the macrominerals,
K (3781.35–9316.28 mg/100 g DW) was the most abundant element in the three seaweeds studied,
followed by Na (1836.82–4575.71 mg/100 g DW) and Ca (984.73–1160.27 mg/100 g DW). A similar
trend was reported by other authors [
], who found that K was the main mineral element
followed by Na. On the other hand, B. bifurcata presented a Na/K ratio lower than that observed in the
other seaweeds (0.19 vs. 0.58 vs. 1.21, for the B. bifurcata,F. vesiculosus and A. nodosum, respectively),
which is really interesting from the nutritional viewpoint, because high Na/K ratio diets and the
hypertension incidence are closely linked [
]. Thus, B. bifurcata could be useful for the regulation of
the Na/K ratio of diets. In addition, Rodrigues et al. [
] suggested that seaweeds with low ratios of
Na/K are useful as salt replacers.
The values of manganese in the three macroalgae ranged from 528.04 mg/100 g DW to
867.82 mg/100 g DW, for B. bifurcata and A. nodosum, respectively, differing significantly (p< 0.001)
among species. These values were higher than those reported by Chan et al. [
] in G. changii
(436.13 mg/100 g DW) and lower than the data previously found by Rodrigues et al. [
] in Sargassum
muticum (1504 mg/100 g DW) and Codium tomentosum (1046 mg/100 g DW).
On the other hand, Ca contents also showed significant (p< 0.001) differences among seaweeds,
showing the highest Ca level in F. vesiculosus (1160.27 mg/100 DW). In this regard, Moreiras et al. [
noticed that Wakame and Sea Spaghetti seaweed species contained approximately eight times more Ca
than milk and they could be an excellent source of Ca for the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis,
for growing children, and for pre- and post-menopausal women. Phosphorous, the least abundant
macromineral, was also detected in F. vesiculosus and B. bifurcata, ranging from 169.54 mg/100 g DW to
193.57 mg/100 g DW for F. vesiculosus and B. bifurcata, respectively.
A. nodosum and F. vesiculosus also contained iron (ranged from 13.34 mg/100 g DW to
18.99 mg/100 g DW) and Mg (from 1.96 mg/100 DW to 8.28 mg/100 g DW). Our Fe values were
higher than those obtained by Rupérez [
] for Porphyra tenera (10.3 mg/100 g DW), but less than those
found by Rao et al. [
] for Porphyra vietnamensis (33 mg/100 g DW). In this regard, F. vesiculosus can
be a useful to provide the daily intake of iron and to prevent the anemia caused by iron deficiency [
Mar. Drugs 2017,15, 360 4 of 11
Table 2. Mineral profile of the three seaweeds studied (mean ±standard deviation values) (n= 5).
Minerals (mg/100 g DW) Seaweed
A. nodosum F. vesiculosus B. bifurcata
Ca 984.73 ±47.26 a1160.27 ±23.10 b996.42 ±12.83 a
Fe 13.34 ±0.90 a18.99 ±0.32 bn.q.
K 3781.35 ±13.40 a3745.05 ±36.01 a9316.28 ±101.94 b
Mg 867.82 ±12.01 a732.37 ±5.35 b528.04 ±8.25 c
Mn 1.96 ±0.69 a8.28 ±1.07 bn.q.
Na 4575.71 ±50.05 a2187.51 ±36.90 b1836.82 ±52.12 c
P n.q. 193.57 ±1.13 a169.54 ±1.41 b
Zn n.q. n.q. n.q.
Cu n.q. n.q. n.q.
Total 10,224.91 ±64.32 a8045.96 ±94.44 b12,848.97 ±142.01 c
n.q. = not quantified. DW: dry weight of seaweed.
Means in the same row not followed by a common superscript
letter are significantly different (p< 0.05; Duncan test).
2.3. Amino Acid Content of Seaweeds
The amino acid (AA) composition of the three seaweeds evaluated is summarized in Table 3.
The total AA contents were 7.48, 11.90 and 7.32 g/100 g DW (p< 0.001), for A. nodosum,F. vesiculosus,
and B. bifurcata, respectively; and these values were comparable to corresponding crude protein levels
(Table 1), thus showing that the amount of non-protein nitrogenous materials in these seaweeds
was negligible.
Table 3.
Amino acid profile of the three seaweeds studied (mean
standard deviation values) (n= 5).
Amino Acids (mg/100 g DW) Seaweed
A. nodosum F. vesiculosus B. bifurcata
Essential amino acids
Threonine 363.22 ±17.12 a613.08 ±33.62 b360.27 ±38.25 a
Valine 353.89 ±32.95 a582.70 ±36.73 b372.82 ±49.05 a
Methionine 147.59 ±18.71 a218.21 ±20.20 b178.41 ±18.08 a
Isoleucine 295.26 ±25.73 a507.82 ±32.42 b299.73 ±37.74 a
Leucine 537.37 ±38.87 a862.14 ±57.02 b524.59 ±61.38 a
Phenylalanine 340.13 ±17.74 a541.53 ±25.72 b330.05 ±32.32 a
Lysine 431.72 ±38.40 a800.28 ±74.20 b393.06 ±56.57 a
Histidine 126.46 ±10.65 a194.59 ±8.73 b138.76 ±12.70 a
Arginine 316.79 ±14.05 a557.87 ±38.44 b330.11 ±42.41 a
Total EAA 2912.42 ±204.93 a4878.22 ±304.12 b2927.79 ±346.84 a
Non-essential amino acids
Tyrosine 162.85 ±24.50 a327.01 ±30.59 b175.00 ±30.90 a
Asparagine 846.64 ±38.87 a1677.01 ±156.39 b800.84 ±105.55 a
Serine 378.62 ±13.57 ab 630.54 ±47.00 a357.10 ±36.87 b
Glutamic acid 1714.55 ±133.17 a1974.47 ±150.67 b1504.53 ±178.74 a
Glycine 417.70 ±12.89 a651.24 ±30.84 b390.14 ±29.42 a
Alanine 655.73 ±34.75 a985.40 ±69.50 b846.65 ±82.87 c
Proline 399.24 ±11.70 a575.19 ±39.15 b318.40 ±40.96 c
Cysteine 0.00 ±0.00 a205.23 ±25.43 b0.00 ±0.00 a
Total NEAA 4575.33 ±198.91 a7026.10 ±512.60 b4392.67 ±502.38 a
Total AA 7487.76 ±400.31 a11,904.32 ±816.67 b7320.46 ±848.14 a
Relative Amount EAA (%) 38.87 ±0.71 a40.99 ±0.26 b39.99 ±0.31 c
DW: dry weight of seaweed.
Means in the same row not followed by a common superscript letter are significantly
different (p< 0.05; Duncan test). EAA: Essential Amino acids.
Mar. Drugs 2017,15, 360 5 of 11
The three seaweeds studied contained all the essential amino acids (EAAs) (excluding cysteine
in the A. nodosum and B. bifurcata). The EAAs content ranged from 3075.28 mg/100 g DW
5205.23 mg/100 g
DW for the A. nodosum and F. vesiculosus, respectively, showing significant
differences among species. The EAA/total AA ratio suggests that more than 40% of the AAs were
EAAs. This ratio was lower than the data reported by Chan et al. [
], who observed the ratios (above
55%) in G. changii, but comparable to Porphyra umbilicalis (36.87%), Undaria pinnatifida (42.72%) and
H. elongata (40.82%) reported by Cofrades et al. [
]. In the essential fraction, leucine was the most
abundant, ranging from 524.59 mg/100 g DW to 862.14 mg/100 g DW for B. bifurcata and F. vesiculosus,
respectively, followed by lysine (393.06–800.28 mg/100 g DW), threonine (360.27–613.08 mg/100 g
DW) and valine (353.89–582.70 mg/100 g DW). These findings were not in agreement with those
reported by Chan et al. [
], who observed that arginine was found to be the highest EAA in G. changii,
representing 18.69% of the total AAs. On the other hand, glutamic and aspartic acids were the major
amino acids found in the non-essential fraction and theses two AAs accounted between 30.67% and
34.20% of the total AAs, for the FV and AN species, respectively. The sum of aspartic and glutamic
acids was higher than data reported by other authors [
] who found values below 25% in different
seaweed species. According to Saini et al. [
], the special flavor and taste of seaweeds in linked to
the glutamic and aspartic acids contents. The next highest NEEA were alanine > glycine > serine >
proline. Finally, the protein quality of FV seaweed is better than those the other ones, because cysteine
is lacking in the AN and BB species.
The nutritional quality of the three seaweeds studied is shown in Table 4. The chemical score
(CS) for each of the essential amino acids with respect to the pattern protein, as proposed by Food and
Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO)/World Health Organization (WHO)/United
Nations (UNU) [32] for humans (children > 1-year old and adults) was calculated.
Table 4. Nutritional quality of protein for the three seaweeds studied.
Amino Acid IOM/FNB
A. nodosum (CS) F. vesiculosus (CS) B. bifurcata (CS)
Histidine 1.8 1.5 96.8 99.8 103.7
Isoleucine 2.5 3.0 113.1 130.3 112.0
Leucine 5.5 5.9 104.7 112.5 99.7
Lysine 5.1 4.5 110.3 136.9 97.9
Met + Cys 2.5 1.6 105.9 203.8 125.0
Phe + Tyr 4.7 3.8 152.1 176.0 149.0
Threonine 2.7 2.3 181.5 125.0 175.6
Valine 3.2 3.9 104.3 115.0 107.2
IAEE 118.4 133.9 118.8
Seaweeds: A. nodosum =Ascophyllum nodosum;F. vesiculosus =Fucus vesiculosus; and B. bifurcate =Bifurcaria bifurcata.
Pattern proteins are expressed in (g/100 g protein). Values of CS and IEAA (Index Essential Amino Acids) are
referred only respect to FAO/WHO/UNU (2007) protein pattern.
The profile of the Institute of Medicine, Food and Nutrition (FNB) [
] is also shown for
comparative purposes. The analysis of the CS allows the order of the restrictive amino acids to
be determined. Concentration of all the essential amino acids were above the FAO/WHO/UNU [32]
except for histidine in the A. nodosum and F. vesiculosus and leucine and lysine in B. bifurcata. Thus,
histidine was the most limiting AA found in A. nodosum and F. vesiculosus and lysine seemed to be the
limiting AA in B. bifurcata. This is in agreement with the data found by Cofrades et al. [
], who found
that the most limiting AA in the brown seaweeds was lysine. However, Chan et al. [
] observed that
methionine was the most limiting AA found in G. changii.
2.4. Fatty Acid Profile of Seaweeds
Table 5shows the fatty acid profile of the three seaweeds studied. The polyunsaturated
fatty acids (PUFAs) were the most abundant, ranging from 43.47% to 48.19% for the A. nodosum
Mar. Drugs 2017,15, 360 6 of 11
and F. vesiculosus, respectively. This result is in agreement with the data previously reported by
authors [13,17,19]
, who found that PUFAs were the main fatty acids in seaweeds. However,
Pen et al. [34]
Maehre et al. [15]
observed higher saturated fatty acid (SFA) content in different
seaweed species.
In the present study, the percentage of fatty acid differed significantly (p< 0.001) among seaweeds.
In this regard, the highest oleic acid (C18:1n-9) content (27.83–19.94%) was found in A. nodosum and
F. vesiculosus, whereas B. bifurcata presented the highest arachidonic acid (C20:4n-6) level (15.24%).
A similar trend was reported by Peinado et al. [
] and Ortiz et al. [
], who observed that oleic acid was
the main fatty acid in seaweed samples. On the contrary, Chan et al. [
] and
Alves et al. [19]
that docosahexaenoic acid (C22:6n-3; DHA) and palmitic acid (C16:0) were the most abundant fatty
acids in G. changgi and B. bifurcata, respectively. These differences on the fatty acid profile could be due
to differences among species, as well as other abiotic factors such as light, salinity, and nutrients [36].
Table 5. Fatty acid profile of the three seaweeds studied (mean ±standard deviation values) (n= 5).
Fatty Acids Seaweed
A. nodosum F. vesiculosus B. bifurcata
C14:0 9.40 ±0.11 a11.38 ±0.11 b4.52 ±0.46 c
C14:1n-5 0.28 ±0.00 a0.10 ±0.00 b0.00 ±0.00 c
C15:0 0.30 ±0.00 a0.37 ±0.00 b0.17 ±0.01 c
C16:0 13.42 ±0.46 a14.66 ±0.36 b17.35 ±0.43 c
C16:1n-7 2.24 ±0.01 a1.18 ±0.02 b2.51 ±0.16 c
C17:0 0.41 ±0.14 a0.82 ±0.15 b0.54 ±0.02 a
C17:1n-7 0.29 ±0.00 a0.20 ±0.00 b1.87 ±0.07 c
C18:0 0.76 ±0.01 a1.06 ±0.08 b1.75 ±0.13 c
C18:1n-11 trans 0.00 ±0.00 a0.00 ±0.00 a3.57 ±0.13 b
C18:1n-9 cis 27.83 ±0.26 a19.94 ±0.31 b12.61 ±0.35 c
C18:1n-7 cis 0.45 ±0.05 a0.39 ±0.04 a0.52 ±0.03 b
C18:2n-6 trans 0.11 ±0.00 a0.06 ±0.00 a5.68 ±0.21 b
C18:2n-6 cis 7.47 ±0.12 a6.43 ±0.08 b1.92 ±0.06 c
C20:0 0.22 ±0.01 a0.39 ±0.01 b1.89 ±0.18 c
C18:3n-6 0.54 ±0.01 a0.56 ±0.01 a0.42 ±0.05 b
C20:1n-9 0.07 ±0.01 a0.53 ±0.01 b4.18 ±0.12 c
C18:3n-3 4.45 ±0.03 a7.59 ±0.11 b3.97 ±0.09 c
C18:2n-7 (CLA) 0.00 ±0.00 a0.00 ±0.00 a0.87 ±0.10 b
C21:0 0.00 ±0.00 a0.00 ±0.00 a0.71 ±0.07 b
C20:2n-6 5.05 ±0.02 a6.46 ±0.09 b1.44 ±0.01 c
C22:0 0.22 ±0.00 a0.22 ±0.00 a0.34 ±0.02 b
C20:3n-6 0.74 ±0.04 a0.69 ±0.02 b0.42 ±0.04 c
C22:1n-9 0.00 ±0.00 a0.00 ±0.00 a0.73 ±0.04 b
C20:3n-3 0.33 ±0.01 a0.21 ±0.00 b0.00 ±0.00 c
C20:4n-6 17.25 ±0.26 a15.86 ±0.24 b15.24 ±0.37 c
C22:2n-6 0.29 ±0.01 a0.39 ±0.01 b1.76 ±0.09 c
C20:5n-3 7.24 ±0.08 a9.94 ±0.14 b4.09 ±0.08 c
C24:0 0.41 ±0.00 a0.36 ±0.01 b0.34 ±0.03 b
C24:1n-9 0.00 ±0.00 a0.00 ±0.00 a0.53 ±0.06 b
C22:6n-3 0.00 ±0.00 a0.00 ±0.00 a11.10 ±1.13 b
SFA 25.14 ±0.49 a29.26 ±0.34 b27.62 ±0.77 c
MUFA 31.15 ±0.23 a22.33 ±0.33 b26.51 ±0.48 c
PUFA 43.47 ±0.54 a48.19 ±0.62 b46.91 ±1.37 b
n-3 12.02 ±0.11 a17.74 ±0.25 b19.16 ±1.03 c
n-6 31.45 ±0.42 a30.44 ±0.38 b26.87 ±0.48 c
n-6/n-3 2.62 ±0.01 a1.72 ±0.01 b1.41 ±0.07 c
Results expressed as percentage of total fatty acid analyzed.
means in the same row not followed by a common
superscript letter are significantly different (p< 0.05; Duncan test). Saturated fatty acids: SFA. Monounsaturated
fatty acids: MUFA. Polyunsaturated fatty acids: PUFA.
Mar. Drugs 2017,15, 360 7 of 11
Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) (C20:5n-3) represented from 4.09 to 9.94% of the total fatty acids,
whereas docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) was only detected in B. bifurcata (11.10% of the total fatty
acids). Other studies reported similar EPA percentages in brown algae [
]. In another work,
Maehre et al. [15]
found that none of the algae contained DHA, whereas the EPA content varied
considerably among species.
On the other hand, Western country diets are deficient in n-3 fatty acids due to the low seafood
consumption versus the high intake of n-6 fatty acid from vegetable oil. In this regard, the World Health
Organization (WHO) [
] recommended a n-6/n-3 ratio below 10. In our study, we observed n-6/n-3
ratio ranging from 2.62 to 1.41, placing the three macroalgae studied according WHO recommendations.
This outcome is in agreement with those reported by other authors [
] who found n-6/n-3 ratios
between 4.1 and 0.02.
3. Material and Methods
3.1. Algal Material
The brown seaweeds, A. nodosum,F. vesiculosus and B. bifurcata used in the present study, were
kindly supplied by Portomuiños Company (A Coruña, Spain). They were collected from August to
September 2015, in the Atlantic Ocean, in the area of Camariñas (A Coruña, Spain). The samples were
grinded to obtain powder with a particle size lower than 0.8 mm, using a conventional mincer. Then,
the seaweeds were passed through a 0.8 mm mesh sieve and stored under vacuum in plastics bags at
20 C until analysis.
3.2. Chemical Composition
Moisture, protein, and ash were determined following the ISO recommendations (ISO
1442:1997 [
], ISO 937:1978 [
], and ISO 936:1998 [
], respectively). Moisture content was determined
by measuring sample (3 g) weight loss at 105
C in an oven (Memmert UFP 600, Schwabach,
Germany), until constant weight. Kjeldahl total nitrogen method was used to determine protein
percentage (total nitrogen content was multiplied
6.25). Five hundred milligrams of seaweed were
subjected to reaction with H
O was employed as a catalyst) in a digester (Gerhardt
Kjeldatherm KB, Bonn, Germany), then the organic nitrogen was transformed into (NH
, and
distilled in alkali condition (Gerhardt Vapodest 50 carroused, Bonn, Germany). Ash content was
assessed by determining seaweed (3 g) weight loss in a muffle furnace (Carbolite RWF 1200, Hope
Valley, UK) at 600
C until constant weight. Lipids were determined using the method proposed by
Ortiz et al. [35]
with some modifications. Lipids from each seaweed (20 g) were extracted with 300 mL
of CHCl
O (1:2:0.8), overnight under dark condition. Then, 79 mL of chloroform and
79 mL of water were added to each sample, obtaining a final solvent ratio of CHCl
of 1:1:0.9 by volume. NaCl (5%) was added and then, samples were centrifuged at 4000 rpm during
10 min. Chloroform phase was concentrated under vacuum condition in order to recover the lipids,
which were gravimetrically measured.
3.3. Amino Acid Content
Amino acids were extracted following the method proposed by Lorenzo et al. [
]. Amino acids
were derived using 6-aminoquinolyl-N-hydroxysuccinimidyl carbamate (Waters AccQ-Fluor reagent
kit) and determined by RP-HPLC (Waters 2695 Separations Module + Waters 2475 Multi Fluorescence
Detector + Waters AccQ-Tag amino acids analysis column). The amino acids content was expressed in
mg/100 g of dry matter.
Mar. Drugs 2017,15, 360 8 of 11
3.4. Protein Quality: Chemical Score of Amino Acids
The chemical score (CS) of the essential amino acids was determined using a protein pattern
recommended by FAO/WHO/UNU [
] as reference protein applying the next equation (Equation (1)):
CS =
g EAA in tested protein
g EAA in pattern protein ×100 (1)
The essential amino acids index (EAA) value was also assessed according to the Equation (2) [
EAA =100 ×n
×. . . . . . j
a,b,c, . . . , j= content of Phe, Tyr, Val, Met, Thr, Lys, His, Ile and Leu in seaweeds.
ap,bp,cp, . . . , jp= content of Phe, Tyr, Val, Met, Thr, Lys, His, Ile and Leu in protein standard [32].
n= number of amino acids used.
3.5. Fatty Acid Profile
The lipids extracted (50 mg) were used to determine fatty acid profile. Total fatty acids
were transesterified using the method previously by Domínguez et al. [
]. A GC equipment
(GC-Agilent 6890 N; Agilent Technologies Spain, S.L., Madrid, Spain) with a flame ionization
detector was used for the separation and quantification of the fatty acids methyl esters (FAMEs)
using the chromatographic conditions proposed by Domínguez et al. [
]. Individual FAMEs were
identified by comparing their retention times with those of authentic standards (Supelco 37 component
FAME Mix, Sigma-Aldrich, Barcelona, Spain). C18:1n-7 cis (Supelco cis-11-Vaccenic methyl ester),
C18:1n-11 trans (trans-11-vaccenic methyl ester) and C18:2n-7 (CLA) (Matreya LLC Methyl 9(z),
11 (E)-octadecadienoate) were not included in the commercial mix. In addition, nonadecanoic acid
(C19:0) was used as internal standard, which was added to the samples prior to methylation. Data
were expressed in g/100 g of FAME.
3.6. Mineral Profile
The ash samples obtained by ISO recommended standard method [
] were dissolved in 10 mL
of 1M HNO
. Mineral (Ca, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, P, Zn and Cu) was determined by inductively coupled
plasma-optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES), using a Thermo-Fisher ICAP 6000 plasma emission
spectrometer (Thermo-Fisher, Cambridge, UK), following the method proposed by Lorenzo et al. [
All determinations were made in triplicate.
3.7. Statistical Analysis
The differences in proximate composition, amino acid, fatty acid and mineral profiles among the
three seaweeds studied were examined using an ANOVA test. Least-squares means were compared
among seaweeds using the Duncan’s post hoc test (significance level p< 0.05). The values were given
in terms of mean values
standard deviations. All statistical analysis were performed using IBM
SPSS Statistics®21 software (IBM Corporation, Armonk, NY, USA).
4. Conclusions
Among the three seaweeds studied (A. nodosum,F. vesiculosus, and B. bifurcata),B. bifurcata
had the highest level of lipid and ash. It should also be noted that although B. bifurcata had the
highest total mineral and K contents, F. vesiculosus presented the highest Ca, Fe, Mn, and P contents,
while A. nodosum presented the highest Mg, and Na contents. This fact is of a great importance,
Mar. Drugs 2017,15, 360 9 of 11
especially when seaweeds are used to extract targeted minerals to be used in diets. F. vesiculosus
had the highest protein content. The three seaweeds studied contained all the essential amino acids
(excluding Cys in the A. nodosum and B. bifurcata). Glu and Asp acids were the predominant amino
acids found in the non-essential fraction and theses two amino acids accounted between 30.67% and
34.20% of the total amino acids, for the F. vesiculosus and A. nodosum, respectively. Concentration of
all the essential amino acids were above the chemical score established by FAO/WHO/UNU except
for His in the A. nodosum and F. vesiculosus seaweeds and Leu and Lys in the B. bifurcata. Regarding
fatty acids, polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) were the predominant fatty acids in the three seaweeds
evaluated, ranging from 43.47% to 48.19% for A. nodosum and F. vesiculosus, respectively. The highest
oleic acid content (27.83–19.94%) was found in A. nodosum and F. vesiculosus, whereas B. bifurcata
presented the highest arachidonic acid level (15.24%). Moreover, the n-6/n-3 ratio ranged from 2.62 to
1.41, placing the three macroalgae studied according to WHO recommendations (n-6/n-3 ratio < 10).
The authors thank INIA (Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Agrarias y Alimentarias,
Spain) for granting Ruben Agregán with a predoctoral scholarship (CPR2014-0128).
Author Contributions:
JoséM. Lorenzo, Rubén Agregán, Paulo E. S. Munekata, Daniel Franco and Javier Carballo
conceived, designed and performed the experiments; Selin ¸Sahin, Ramón Lacomba and Francisco J. Barba
supervised the study, wrote and reviewed the manuscript. All authors have read and approved the
final manuscript.
Conflicts of Interest:
The authors declare no conflict of interest, and the founding sponsors had no role in the
design of the study; in the collection, analyses, or interpretation of data; in the writing of the manuscript, and in
the decision to publish the results.
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(CC BY) license (
... The estimated protein content (around 11 wt.%) is directly related with the nitrogen-to-protein conversion factor used, being one of the main reasons of the differences between the literature values; in the present study a factor of 5 was considered more accurate for this kind of biomass (instead of the traditional used 6.25), according to the study of Angell et al. [29]. Despite that, the obtained protein content is in the range of those reported in the literature (8.7-15.1 wt.%) [5,6,25,26,28,32,33,[35][36][37][38]. ...
... In terms of macrominerals, Lorenzo et al. [35] reported a different mineral profile of fresh brown seaweeds from the Atlantic Coast, where K (3745-9316 mg/100 g) presented the highest content, followed by Na (1837-4576 mg/100 g), Ca (985-1160 mg/100 g) and Mg (528-868 mg/100 g), being much higher than that obtained in the present study. The same trend is also reported by Rupérez [44], who studied the mineral profile of commercial edible seaweeds (K (4322-11,579 mg/100 g) > Na (3818-7064 mg/100 g) > Ca (931-1005 mg/100 g) > Mg (659-1181 mg/100 g)), and Michalak et al. [14] concerning the mineral profile of a brown seaweed (Fucus sp.) used to produce an algal compost (K (4390 mg/100 g) > Na (3515 mg/100 g) > Ca (1310 mg/100 g) > Mg (805 mg/100 g)); the last referred study presented micromineral content (Cu, Ni and Zn) close to that obtained in the present study. ...
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... Moreover, the clinical trials using seaweed-based drugs or extracts to treat neurodegenerative disorders will be presented, showing the real potential and limitations that a specific metabolite or extract may have as a new therapeutic agent considering the recent approval of a seaweed-based drug to treat Alzheimer's disease. centuries in Asian countries as part of the daily diet, with brown macroalgae being the most consumed (66.5%), followed by red (33%) and green (5%) algae [7]. ...
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New trends in food development, especially for healthier meat products, have led to the use of new ingredients, including non-meat proteins, to partially or completely replace meat proteins. Non-meat proteins are used for economy, functionality and composition (nutrition and health), for ethical and technological reasons, to obtain meat analogues, and for the sake of sustainability. However, it is important to realize that incorporating non-meat proteins in meat products produces sensory changes in the final product and other changes that affect processing and conservation. This chapter reviews several different non-meat proteins (of animal, plant and microbial origin) and their potential use in the formulation of meat products, and discusses their technological, functional and sensory effects on the final product.
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We evaluated the functional properties and nutritional composition of six dried commercially valuable edible seaweeds Porphyra sp., Undaria pinnatifida, Saccharina sp., Hizikia fusiformis, Gracilaria sp., and Sargassum sp. in the current study. The proximate composition of the dried seaweeds revealed that Porphyra sp. had a high total crude protein content (38.58 ± 0.16 %) followed by Undaria sp. (23.03 ± 0.30%), Saccharina sp. (11.39 ± 0.09%), H. fusiformis (18.77 ± 0.01%), Gracilaria sp. (18.30 ± 0.13%), and Sargassum sp. (13.56 ± 0.04%). Fatty acid profiling showed high MUFA content in Sargassum sp. (1.09 %); this seaweed also contained 0.84% saturated fatty acid and 0.48% PUFA. On the other hand, U. pinnatifida was rich in macro elements (297.57 ± 11.09 mg/100g) and Gracilaria sp. had high micromineral content (6397.35 ± 89.42 µg/100g). Functional properties of the powdered seaweed were also evaluated. The water–holding capacity of Porphyra sp. (8.82 ± 0.40 g water/g algal sample) was better than H. fusiformis (6.22 ± 0.30 g water/g algal sample). Oil holding capacity of Gracilaria sp. (3.23 ± 0.08 g oil/g algal samples) was higher than U. pinnatifida (1.92 ± 0.22 g oil/g algal sample). Further, H. fusiformis had a good foaming capacity (38.0 ± 2.0 %). Based on the results obtained herein, it could be summarized that the seaweeds studied were nutritionally rich (containing minerals that are vital for human health), and could be used as a functional food and in various food formulations.
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Eicosapolyenoic fatty acids are integral components of oomycete pathogens that can act as microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs) to induce disease resistance in plants. Defense inducing eicosapolyenoic fatty acids include arachidonic (AA) and eicosapentaenoic acids, and are strong elicitors in solanaceous plants with bioactivity in other plant families. Similarly, extracts of the brown seaweed, Ascophyllum nodosum, used in sustainable agriculture as a biostimulant of plant growth, may also induce disease resistance. A. nodosum, similar to other macroalgae, is rich in eicosapolyenoic fatty acids, which comprise as much as 25% of total fatty acid composition. We investigated the response of roots and leaves from AA or a commercial A. nodosum extract (ANE) on root-treated tomatoes via RNA sequencing, phytohormone profiling, and disease assays. AA and ANE significantly altered transcriptional profiles relative to control plants, inducing numerous defense-related genes with both substantial overlap as well as differences in gene expression patterns. Root treatment with AA and, to a lesser extent, ANE also altered both salicylic acid and jasmonic acid levels while inducing local and systemic resistance to oomycete and bacterial pathogen challenge. Thus, our study highlights overlap in both local and systemic defense induced by AA and ANE, with potential for inducing broad-spectrum resistance against pathogens.
Meat products are an excellent source of high biological value proteins, in addition to the high content of minerals, vitamins, and bioactive compounds. However, meat products contain compounds that can cause a variety of adverse health effects and pose a serious health threat to humans. In this sense, this chapter will address recent strategies to assist in the development of healthier meat products. The main advances about the reduction of sodium and animal fat in meat products will be presented. In addition, strategies to make the lipid profile of meat products more nutritionally advantageous for human health will also be discussed. Finally, the reduction of substances of safety concern in meat products will be addressed, including phosphates, nitrites, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, heterocyclic aromatic amines, as well as products from lipid and protein oxidation.
Pigments-producing microorganisms are quite common in Nature. However, there is a long journey from the Petri dish to the market place. Twenty-five years ago, scientists wondered if such productions would remain a scientific oddity or become an industrial reality. The answer is not straightforward as processes using fungi, bacteria or yeasts can now indeed provide carotenoids or phycocyanin at an industrial level. Another production factor to consider is peculiar as Monascus red colored food is consumed by more than one billion Asian people; however, still banned in many other countries. European and American consumers will follow as soon as “100%-guaranteed” toxin-free strains (molecular engineered strains, citrinin gene deleted strains) will be developed and commercialized at a world level. For other pigmented biomolecules, some laboratories and companies invested and continue to invest a lot of money as any combination of new source and/or new pigment requires a lot of experimental work, process optimization, toxicological studies, and regulatory approval. Time will tell whether investments in pigments such as azaphilones or anthraquinones were justified. Future trends involve combinatorial engineering, gene knock-out, and the production of niche pigments not found in plants such as C50 carotenoids or aryl carotenoids.
Seaweeds are considered one of the most potential yet renewable marine resources in the food, pharmacy, as well as cosmetic industries. A great deal of interest has been developed to extract bioproducts from seaweeds because of their numerous health-beneficial effects. Seaweed-derived bioproducts such as polysaccharides, fatty acids, natural pigments, proteins, and bioactive peptides exhibit many beneficial biological activities including antiviral, antioxidative, anticancer, brain development, neuroprotective, and immunomodulatory activities. However, in order to be used in pharmacological industries, green environmental-friendly technologies to refine bioproducts from seaweeds need to be developed. This contribution focuses on the development of bioproducts from seaweeds and elaborates the development of environmental-friendly technologies to extract bioproducts from seaweeds, their biological activities, health benefit effects, as well as potency in pharmacological industries.
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Marine microalgae and seaweeds (microalgae) represent a sustainable source of various bioactive natural carotenoids, including β-carotene, lutein, astaxanthin, zeaxanthin, violaxanthin and fucoxanthin. Recently, the large-scale production of carotenoids from algal sources has gained significant interest with respect to commercial and industrial applications for health, nutrition, and cosmetic applications. Although conventional processing technologies, based on solvent extraction, offer a simple approach to isolating carotenoids, they suffer several, inherent limitations, including low efficiency (extraction yield), selectivity (purity), high solvent consumption, and long treatment times, which have led to advancements in the search for innovative extraction technologies. This comprehensive review summarizes the recent trends in the extraction of carotenoids from microalgae and seaweeds through the assistance of different innovative techniques, such as pulsed electric fields, liquid pressurization, supercritical fluids, subcritical fluids, microwaves, ultrasounds, and high-pressure homogenization. In particular, the review critically analyzes technologies, characteristics, advantages, and shortcomings of the different innovative processes, highlighting the differences in terms of yield, selectivity, and economic and environmental sustainability.
The role of Bioactive Dietary Factors and Plant Extracts in Preventive Dermatology provides current and concise scientific appraisal of the efficacy of foods, nutrients, herbs, and dietary supplements in preventing dermal damage and cancer as well as improving skin health. This important new volume reviews and presents new hypotheses and conclusions on the effects of different bioactive foods and their components derived particularly from vegetables, fruits, and herbs. Primary emphasis is on treatment and prevention of dermal damage focusing on skin cancers with significant health care costs and mortality. Bioactive Dietary Factors and Plant Extracts in Preventive Dermatology brings together expert clinicians and researchers working on the different aspects of supplementation, foods, and plant extracts and nutrition and skin health. Their expertise provides the most current knowledge in the field and will serve as the foundation for advancing future research. © Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013. All rights reserved.
Responding to the expansion of scientific knowledge about the roles of nutrients in human health, the Institute of Medicine has developed a new approach to establish Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs) and other nutrient reference values. The new title for these values Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs), is the inclusive name being given to this new approach. These are quantitative estimates of nutrient intakes applicable to healthy individuals in the United States and Canada. This new book is part of a series of books presenting dietary reference values for the intakes of nutrients. It establishes recommendations for energy, carbohydrate, fiber, fat, fatty acids, cholesterol, protein, and amino acids. This book presents new approaches and findings which include the following: The establishment of Estimated Energy Requirements at four levels of energy expenditure Recommendations for levels of physical activity to decrease risk of chronic disease The establishment of RDAs for dietary carbohydrate and protein The development of the definitions of Dietary Fiber, Functional Fiber, and Total Fiber The establishment of Adequate Intakes (AI) for Total Fiber The establishment of AIs for linolenic and a-linolenic acids Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Ranges as a percent of energy intake for fat, carbohydrate, linolenic and a-linolenic acids, and protein Research recommendations for information needed to advance understanding of macronutrient requirements and the adverse effects associated with intake of higher amounts Also detailed are recommendations for both physical activity and energy expenditure to maintain health and decrease the risk of disease. © 2002/2005 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
The objectives of this study were first to evaluate the performance of seaweed pigments' recovery through ultrasound assisted extraction (UAE) and ultra-filtration (UF), and second to investigate the membrane fouling mechanism and evidence the threshold flux during filtration. The pigments' recovery from the extract was performed using 5 kDa and 10 kDa ultra-filtration membranes. Results showed that increasing the extraction temperature in the range of 40–60 °C was proportional to chlorophyll extraction efficiency, while the maximal carotenoid yield was achieved at 50 °C. Ultrasonic power (from 100 W to 300 W) facilitated the extraction of both chlorophylls and carotenoids. Results from ultra-filtration showed that most pigments (> 90%) were available in permeate through 10 kDa membrane, while 5 kDa membrane partially retained the pigments. Filtration resistance was quantified with resistance-in-series' model, showing that the cake layer was the most important fouling resistance during filtration. Threshold flux at different rotation speeds (200 and 600 rpm) was determined by trans-membrane pressure stepping tests, which were around 10 and 14.5 L/m².h, respectively. Results from this study demonstrated the efficiency of the multistage process involving UAE and UF to enhance the recovery of pigments from brown seaweeds.
The phenolic compounds of extracts from Ascophyllum nodosum (ANE), Bifurcaria bifurcata (BBE) and Fucus vesiculosus (FVE) from Galicia (NW Spain) were analyzed by liquid chromatography-diode array detection coupled to negative electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-DAD–ESI-MS/MS) with the interest to evaluate their potential application as functional ingredients. Phlorotannins were tentatively identified as the main phenolic compounds in the three extracts, followed by phenolic acids, and flavonoids. Fuhalols were present in ANE and BBE, while hydroxyfuhalols were identified in BBE and FVE. Eckol derivatives were present in the three extracts. Quinic acid derivatives were tentatively identified in the three seaweed species; in addition, ANE showed specifically hydroxybenzoic and rosmarinic acid derivatives, BBE showed rosmarinic acid, and FVE contained p-coumaric and ferulic acid derivatives. Regarding flavonoids, acacetin derivatives were tentatively identified in the three extracts, hispidulin and a gallocatechin derivative were specifically detected in ANE, and cypellocarpin C was present in BBE. In conclusion, all brown seaweed extracts studied could be exploited as sources of antioxidant phenolic compounds with potential applications in the food and health sectors.
Edible seaweeds are a good source of antioxidants, dietary fibers, essential amino acids, vitamins, phytochemicals, polyunsaturated fatty acids, and minerals. Many studies have evaluated the gelling, thickening and therapeutic properties of seaweeds when they are used individually. This review gives an overview on the nutritional, textural, sensorial, and health-related properties of food products enriched with seaweeds and seaweed extracts. The effect of seaweeds incorporation on properties of meat, fish, bakery, and other food products were highlighted in depth. Moreover, the positive effects of foods enriched with seaweeds and seaweed extracts on different lifestyle diseases such as obesity, dyslipidemia, hypertension, and diabetes were also discussed. The results of the studies demonstrated that the addition of seaweeds, in powder or extract form, can improve the nutritional and textural properties of food products. Additionally, low-fat products with less calories and less saturated fatty acids can be prepared using seaweeds. Moreover, the addition of seaweeds also affected the health properties of food products. The results of these studies demonstrated that the health value, shelf-life and overall quality of foods can be improved through the addition of either seaweeds or seaweed extracts.
The aim of this work was to study the proximate composition and the bioactive profile of Bifurcaria bifurcata. It contains 73.31 ± 0.69% of moisture, 8.57 ± 0.11 g per 100 g dry weight (d.w.) of protein, 5.81 ± 0.14 g per 100 g d.w. of lipid content and 30.15 ± 0.00 g per 100 g d.w. of ash. The polyunsaturated fatty acids were the most abundant fatty acid (FA), accounting for 2426.56 mg per 100 g which represents 41.77% of the total FA. The methanolic fraction showed high quantity of polyphenols (220.01 ± 0.010 phloroglucinol equivalents g−1 extract), DPPH radical reduction capacity (EC50:58.82 μg mL−1) and oxygen radical absorbent capacity (3151.35 ± 119.33 μmol Trolox equivalents g−1 extract). The highest antimicrobial effect was observed against Pseudomonas aeruginosa (11.3 ± 1.5 mm) and Saccharomyces cerevisiae (IC50:17.07 μg mL−1) induced by methanolic and dichloromethane fractions, respectively. Dichloromethane fraction revealed the highest antitumor activity on Caco-2 and HepG-2 cells. Bifurcaria bifurcata can be a promising source of bioactive compounds and functional ingredients.
The present study deals with the effect of four different cooking techniques (roasting, grilling, microwave baking and frying with olive oil) on nutritional value (fatty acid, amino acid profile and chemical scores of the essential amino acids) of foal meat from “Galician Mountain” breed (slaughtered at 15 months and with 102.6 kg of carcass weight). Cooking treatment decreased (P < 0.05) the amount of saturated fatty acids. Fried meat had lower saturated fatty acid content due to the incorporation of mono-unsaturated (C18:1n-9) fatty acids from oil. Statistical analysis displayed that total essential amino acids and non-essential amino acids were no affected by cooking treatment. However, the content of methionine, phenylalanine, hydroxyproline, tyrosine and cysteine increased (P < 0.001) and the content of histidine and lysine decreased (P < 0.001) with cooking treatments. Finally, chemical scores of the essential amino acids presented differences between raw and cooked samples. Cooking treatment decreased the chemical scores of histidine and lysine, and increased methionine and phenylalanine + tyrosine scores. Heat treatments also increased the essential amino acid index, although the grilled and fried samples showed no significant differences from raw meat. In conclusion, the grilled and roasted would be the best cooking techniques from the nutritional standpoint.