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Background and aims
The criterion of tolerance in DSM-5 Internet gaming disorder (IGD) refers to a need for increasing time spent gaming. However, this focus on “need for gaming time” may overlook some of the broader motivations, outcomes, or effects of gaming that underlie excessive play. This study aimed to explore regular and problematic gamers’ experiences and perceptions of tolerance in IGD.
An online survey of 630 adult gamers yielded 1,417 text responses to open-ended questions. A thematic analysis of 23,373 words was conducted to extract dominant themes.
Participants reported that they increasingly desired game items, status, or story progress as they became more involved or invested in games. As players develop higher standards of play in games, an increasing number of potential reward outcomes may have diminishing mood-modifying effects. None of the participants, including those with self-reported IGD, explicitly referred to a need for increasing time spent gaming.
Discussion and conclusions
These results suggest that players may be motivated by preferences for specific goals or reinforcers in games rather than wanting an amount of time spent gaming. Thus, problematic gaming may involve a need for completion of increasingly intricate, time-consuming, or difficult goals to achieve satisfaction and/or reduce fears of missing out. Further research is needed to determine whether these cognitive and motivational factors related to gaming stimuli should extend or replace the concept of tolerance in IGD or be considered as separate but related processes in disordered gaming.
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... Assessment of IGD using a standardized questionnaire as literature reviews [6,44]. Some of the work is specialized in terms of referring exclusively to the game genre MMORPG [37,42,48] and to features associated with tolerance-one DSM-5 criterion of Internet gaming disorder-without considering other criteria . Some other original work addresses the possible connection of in-game monetization features with GD and gambling-related problems [38, 39••, 40, 47] (Table 2). ...
... One recent publication reflects on how the concept of tolerance as a criterion of gaming disorder is experienced by players of video games . The assessment of tolerance in the context of gaming disorder is complex, since increasing playing time alone does not indicate the presence of tolerance [46,49,50]. ...
... One recent publication reflects on how the concept of tolerance as a criterion of gaming disorder is experienced by players of video games . The assessment of tolerance in the context of gaming disorder is complex, since increasing playing time alone does not indicate the presence of tolerance [46,49,50]. An online sample of N = 630 adult gamers were asked six open-ended questions regarding tolerance and related processes. ...
Purpose of Review
With its inclusion in the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, 11th Revision, gaming disorder (GD) has been officially recognized as a behavioral addiction. Etiological models of GD refer to the interaction of personal, environmental, and game-related risk factors. However, the role of video game characteristics in the development of problem gaming and GD is not well understood. This systematic review summarizes the literature that examines the association between video game genres and structural characteristics and GD symptoms.
Recent studies report that playing massively multiplayer online role-playing games, first-person shooters, and real-time strategy games/Multiplayer Online Battle Arena (MOBA) is associated with more time spent gaming and higher endorsement of GD symptoms. Reward and punishment features (reinforcement), social features, and monetization features have been associated with more frequent gaming and higher scores on self-report measures of GD. The literature is limited due to inconsistencies in measurement of game features, as well as other methodological weaknesses, demonstrating the need for higher quality studies, including studies of individuals with verified gaming disorders to understand their use of specific games.
Current research suggests that some game types containing certain structural game characteristics are positively related to problem gaming. We propose that future studies are guided by theory-based taxonomies of structural game characteristics and examine game influences using experimental designs. For this purpose, a measurement tool to aid the investigation of diverse elements of video game characteristics would be valuable.
... The mood change was due to the change in routine and temporary loss of online contacts. In addition, King, Herd, and Delfabbro (2017) observed what might be considered withdrawal symptoms among players experiencing this type of emotion while playing because they are looking forward to a close reward. A final interesting observation made by was the absence of fun-related experiences when playing in gamers' interview. ...
... An example of a qualitative study of high interest in this area was recently conducted by King, Herd, et al. (2017) who distributed an online survey among 630 adult gamers, collecting 1,417 answers to open-ended questions. Their results highlighted the complex goals and motivations reported by gamers (e.g., items, exploration, the story of the game). ...
... It would be interesting to compare these various questionnaires to demonstrate their relevance, i.e., how they differ from Petry et al.'s questionnaire. Section 3 of the DSM-5 calling for a deepening of knowledge on the condition, it seems also that evidence would support the further inclusion of a craving measure (e.g., King, Herd, et al., 2017;. ...
Video games have become the most popular leisure activity around the world, sometimes mobilizing millions of players on a daily basis. However, accumulating evidence suggests that excessive use of video games is associated to a wide range of negative consequences. In 2013, the American Psychiatric Association included in the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorder criteria to define Internet Gaming Disorder. This proposal was incorporated into Section 3 on emerging measures and models, calling for future studies on these criteria.The originality of this thesis was to be among the first to empirically test the DSM-5 criteria based on various psychological factors recognized as playing a role in the addictive disorders and in the excessive use of video games. The crucial distinction between high but non-problematic engagement in video games and “addiction” was also addressed. Since this thesis was printed, the study presented in Chapter 3 has been modified and printed. Please take this into account via the following reference:Deleuze, J., Long, J., Liu, T.-Q., Maurage, P., & Billieux, J. (2018). Passion or addiction? Correlates of healthy versus problematic use of videogames in a sample of French-speaking regular players. Addictive Behaviors, 82, 114–121. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.addbeh.2018.02.031 Note that no proofreading by an English speaker has been done on the entire manuscript.
... Alternatívne návrhy formulujú toto kritérium ako individuálnu túžbu zastaviť hranie (Griffiths a kol., 2016), potrebu hrať väčšie množstvo času kvôli dosiahnutiu pôvodnej úrovne uspokojenia, ktoré hranie prinášalo (Griffiths a kol., 2015), sledovanie špecifických cieľov hráčov (napr. dokončenie úlohy v hre, ktorá vyžaduje veľké množstvo času alebo postup do vyššej úrovne/ligy) ako motivačných faktorov (King, Herd & Delfabbro, 2017). Je potom logické, že napr. ...
... Je potom logické, že napr. potreba permanentne zvyšovať svoj herný skill je asociovaná s nutnosťou stráviť hraním väčšie množstvo času (King, Herd, & Delfabbro, 2017). Obdobne aj uvažovanie nad hraním ako prvé kritérium môže odzrkadľovať skôr hráčovu potrebu dosahovania zložitých herných cieľov, ktoré si vyžadujú náročné plánovanie či prípravu stratégie. ...
Cieľom tejto publikácie je čitateľom sprostredkovať aktuálny stav poznania v oblasti skúmania závislosti na digitálnych hrách a súťažného hrania a prostredníctvom výsledkov nami realizovaných dvoch štúdií načrtnúť možné prepojenie (mechanizmus fungovania) medzi obidvoma spomenutými výskumnými oblasťami, teda ponúknuť možnú odpoveď na pretrvávajúcu a doposiaľ nezodpovedanú otázku o podobnosti alebo odlišnosti závislosti od súťažného hrania. V súčasnej literatúre je možné sa so závislosťou na hraní digitálnych hier a eSports stretnúť ako s dvoma separátnymi oblasťami výskumu a explicitné prepojenie alebo diskusia o ich podobnosti zatiaľ absentuje. Vo výskumoch zameraných na závislosť na digitálnych hrách sú častokrát hráči eSports súčasťou veľkých heterogénnych výskumných vzoriek pozostávajúcich napr. z bežných hráčov, hráčov MMORPG hier či príležitostných alebo náruživých hráčov multi-playerových hier (nie v kontexte eSports). Samostatné analýzy či širšia diskusia odôvodňujúca zahrnutie aj tejto špecifickej vzorky hráčov však absentuje. Ďalším dôvodom môže byť nízke povedomie o existencii eSports v psychologickom výskume, čo je v protiklade s vysokou atraktivitou výskumu závislosti na digitálnom hraní. Výskum eSports je skôr doménou sociológie, mediálnych štúdií, informatiky, vedy o športe či ekonómie (pozri Reitman, Anderson-Coto, Wu, Lee, & Steinkuehler, 2019). Rozvoj záujmu o eSports v podobe vysokého nárastu publikačných výstupov je možné podľa citovaných autorov zaregistrovať od roku 2016, to znamená relatívne nedávno. V rámci uvedených odborov sa výskum najčastejšie zameriava na dopad eSports na ekonomiku, porovnanie so športom, analýzu interakcií medzi hernými tímami, oblasť fanúškovstva a s tým súvisiacich fenoménov, analýzu herného výkonu či kultúrne zmeny. Ojedinelý psychologický výskum sa zameriava najmä na osobnostné charakteristiky hráčov eSports. Z uvedeného je možné vyvodiť, že pre akademickú sféru predstavuje výskum digitálnych hier a s nimi spojených fenoménov, napr. súťažného hrania v podobe eSports, urgentnú výzvu. Takto zameraný výskum je zaujímavý aj pre bežnú neodbornú populáciu z viacerých dôvodov. Jednak pre potenciálnu destigmatizáciu hráčov eSports ako osôb trpiacich psychickou poruchou (v prípade, že sa potvrdí, že eSports nenapĺňa kritériá pre diagnostikovanie závislosti na hraní digitálnych hier podľa aktuálneho ICD-11), uznania eSports ako plnohodnotnej záľuby alebo naopak identifikácie hrania eSports ako závislostného správania (ak sa potvrdí vyššie uvedené) spätého s nasmerovaním odbornej pomoci pre takéto osoby a s tvorbou rôznych intervencií, prevencie či otvorenia širšej diskusie o tom, do akej miery a akou formou je hranie digitálnych hier ešte nepatologické.
... This personality trait connects with the desire to constantly connect with and follow others on different social networks. Prior literature on FoMO has suggested that the desire to persistently stay connected online to monitor or communicate with others is likely to result in the excessive use of mobile phones (Elhai et al., 2016;Cao et al., 2018), the internet in general (Kandell, 1998), online gaming (King et al., 2017) and social media ITP platforms, particularly Facebook (Przybylski et al., 2013;Alt, 2015;Beyens et al., 2016;Dhir et al., 2019). FoMO on social media can be linked to the impulsive desire or urge to connect on these platforms and engage in activities, for example, chat with others, share or view updates, read or respond to conversations/comments or play social games. ...
... It is plausible that social media users experiencing FoMO are more likely to engage in intense social media usage, which later results in social media fatigue. This argument is consistent with relatively recent studies linking FoMO with excessive media use, such as in the realms of gaming (King et al., 2017), mobile phones (Elhai et al., 2016) and social media platforms (Przybylski et al., 2013;Alt, 2015;Beyens et al., 2016;Dhir et al., 2018). We recommend that scholars test the mediating role of intensive social media use between FoMO and social media fatigue. ...
The current study aims to investigate if different measures related to online psychosocial well-being and online behavior correlate with social media fatigue.
To understand the antecedents and consequences of social media fatigue, the stressor-strain-outcome (SSO) framework is applied. The study consists of two cross-sectional surveys that were organized with young-adult students. Study A was conducted with 1,398 WhatsApp users (aged 19 to 27 years), while Study B was organized with 472 WhatsApp users (aged 18 to 23 years).
Intensity of social media use was the strongest predictor of social media fatigue. Online social comparison and self-disclosure were also significant predictors of social media fatigue. The findings also suggest that social media fatigue further contributes to a decrease in academic performance.
This study builds upon the limited yet growing body of literature on a theme highly relevant for scholars, practitioners as well as social media users. The current study focuses on examining different causes of social media fatigue induced through the use of a highly popular mobile instant messaging app, WhatsApp. The SSO framework is applied to explore and establish empirical links between stressors and social media fatigue.
... Step 2 Such variations may be attributable to the different interpretations of these items regarding in-game investment. Conventionally, gaming time has been conceptualized as the primary form of such investment [e.g., (50,51)]. For instance, both Item 3 (tolerance) and Item 7 (deception) were evaluated based on the "amount of time" spent on gaming. ...
... In addition to the criterion of "escape, " several additional criteria in the DSM-5 framework, including withdrawal and tolerance symptoms, have also been scrutinized concerning their relevance to gaming behavior [e.g., (50,58)]. A recent review (59) maintained that gaming disorder may arise without the presence of withdrawal symptoms, and the current conceptualization of tolerance symptoms has also been criticized for its direct adaptation from substance addiction criteria without considering the nature of gaming activity (51). ...
Gaming disorder was listed as a condition for further study in the 5th edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) in 2013, and measures of the disorder have mushroomed in the years since. The Gaming Disorder Test (GDT) was developed after gaming disorder was officially included in the 11th Revision of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11) in 2018. However, it remains unknown whether the GDT, which is based on the ICD-11 framework, is psychometrically similar to or different from the popular nine-item Internet Gaming Disorder Scale-Short Form (IGDS9-SF) based on the DSM-5 framework. To address this important but unexplored issue, the present study evaluated and compared the psychometric properties of the GDT and IGDS9-SF in a sample of 544 adult gamers (56.2% men; mean age = 28.8, SD = 8.55). The results revealed both measures to have good reliability, structural validity, and criterion validity, with the exception of one IGDS9-SF item with a low factor loading. Moreover, the IGDS9-SF exhibited scalar measurement invariance for gender and age but only partial metric invariance for employment status, whereas the GDT exhibited scalar measurement invariance for all three demographic characteristics. Finally, the GDT displayed incremental validity over the IGDS9-SF in explaining gaming time, but not social anxiety and depressive symptoms. This study thus contributes to the literature by comparing measures derived from distinct gaming disorder diagnostic frameworks empirically. Recommendations for the selection of gaming disorder measures by researchers and practitioners are discussed.
... us, even when components in video gaming may mimic gambling, the progress into each type of addiction is likely to be diverse . ...
While pathological gambling, or gambling disorder, is an established diagnosis, a link to other potential behavioural addictions has been suggested. The present study aimed to investigate whether signs of problem gaming and problematic internet use are related to problem gambling in the general population, while including other potential risk factors.
A cross-sectional study design, using an electronical questionnaire, administered through a marketing survey company for relative representativeness with respect to age and gender. Potential correlates of problem gambling were measured in binary analyses, and significant associations were entered in a logistic regression analysis controlling them for one another. Problem gambling, gaming, and internet use were measured through established screening instruments (the CLiP, the GAS, and the PRIUSS).
Statistically significant associations were found between problem gambling and both problem gaming and problematic internet use, as well as with male gender. In logistic regression, problem gaming, problematic internet use, and male gender remained associated with problem gambling.
After controlling for potential demographic risk factors, problem gaming and problematic internet use may be related to problem gambling, suggesting that these constructs may interact or may share similar risk factors. More research is needed to clarify factors mediating the links between these conditions.
... Notwithstanding the problems they faced and opportunities lost because of gaming, gamers would choose to play as if it is the only thing that matters. As mentioned by King et al. (2017), most problematic internet gamers started escaping from something unpleasant. Hence they ventured in engaging to the virtual world and eventually could not find ways out of it even if they wanted. ...
Purpose of the study: The main objective of this study is to examine the risk factors for internet gaming disorder (IGD). Specifically, it aims to: measure the severity of internet gaming among Filipino students; describe their internet gaming characteristic; and, identify which among the risk factors predict IGD. Methodology: Students who displayed five or more symptoms in the Internet Gaming Disorder Scale – Short Form (IGD9-SF) were identified. The internet gaming characteristics, Brief Self Control Scale (BSCS) to identify self-control levels, and Mini-IPIP for the personality of the participants were also collected. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and linear regression analysis to identify the significant risk factors for IGD using SPSS 17.0. Main Findings: Internet gaming characteristics such as time spent, money spent, and devices used were significant risk factors to IGD. Psychological factors such as self-control and personality traits (agreeableness and openness) were established and were also significant risk factors. The lower the self-control the higher the risk of developing IGD, as well as the more agreeable and open the gamers are the higher the risk to IGD. Applications of this study: Researchers and therapists should focus on developing intervention methods focusing on minimizing the device's exposure to lessen time and money spent in gaming as well as strengthening the self-control of the gamers. Novelty/Originality of this study: This psychological inquiry contributed to the emerging psychological disorder IGD shedding light on its current debates and controversies. This established risk factors to IGD among Filipino students who are time spent, money spent, devices used, self-control, and personality factors such as agreeableness and openness.
... Some criteria included in the DSM-5 for IGD, such as tolerance, may not be as central to IGD as to substance-use disorders. Individuals with IGD may be particularly motivated by complex and specific in-game goals, and by a fear of missing out in multiplayer games; this may be different from aspects of tolerance in substance-use disorders (19). Potential differences between IGD and substance-use disorders may be found for other criteria as more research is conducted. ...
Video gaming and Internet use have become a part of the everyday lives of many individuals, especially during adolescence. Given the health concerns related to problematic gaming behaviors, gaming disorder (GD) has been included in the version of the 11th edition of The International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11) ratified by the secretariat of the World Health Organization. Given these considerations and others (including debate regarding the most appropriate classification of GD and how best to prevent and treat the condition), there is a need for further research into GD. Specifically, we suggest that researching intermediate phenotypes focusing on cognitive and neurobiological function may help clarify GD's relationships to other addictive disorders and more accurately define their relationships with core and associated features of GD. Overlaps in neural activity, cognitive functioning, and other features suggest that GD shares similarities with gambling and substance-use disorders and may best be classified as an addictive disorder. Individuals with GD differ from those with regular game use (RGU) on neurocognitive levels. However, concerns have been raised with respect to the differences between GD and substance-use disorders in certain dimensional features, such as tolerance. Additionally, it has been argued that differences between GD and RGU may not be fully captured by nomenclature systems like the ICD-11. Nonetheless, individuals seek treatment for help with GD, despite the limited data available for effective treatments. As more data are gathered from investigations of GD, they should be translated into refining criteria for GD and optimizing interventions.
... GD in the ICD-11 is characterized by persistent and recurrent gaming, impaired control over gaming, and continued gaming despite harm to multiple areas of functioning (e.g., psychological, relationship, occupational, etc.). This classification followed the recognition of 'Internet gaming disorder' as a condition for further study in the DSM-5, which differs from the ICD-11 criteria with its reference to debated concepts of tolerance and withdrawal (Kaptsis, King, Delfabbro, & Gradisar, 2016;King, Herd, & Delfabbro, 2017, 2018Király, Griffiths, & Demetrovics, 2015;Starcevic, 2016). ...
Prevention and harm minimization approaches to problem gaming have become a matter of growing public health interest, following the recognition of gaming disorder and hazardous gaming in the ICD-11. The present study was the first to gather firsthand accounts of the potential options and challenges for prevention approaches among regular and problematic gamers. An online survey of 992 adult gamers (N = 221 problem gamers) yielded 1987 text responses to open-ended questions. Qualitative analysis of 53,458 words extracted 9 subcategories. Participants believed that some gaming activities were inherently riskier than others, particularly those with ‘predatory’ in-game spending features (microtransactions) that resemble or facilitate electronic gambling. Some participants supported the introduction of in-game features that might facilitate greater self-monitoring and awareness (e.g., education, playing time notifications, limit-setting). Some participants believed that the gaming industry should proactively support and/or fund prevention schemes and share its player data for the purpose of independent health-focused research. These results highlight some of the complexities in developing population-level approaches to problem gaming, and anticipate some of the practical barriers to gaining support from stakeholders, including the industry and the gaming community. Future research should examine the effectiveness and feasibility of voluntary primary prevention measures in real-world settings.
... It is difficult to differentiate these two factors, plausibly because of a high comorbidity of these two symptoms among young people with IGD. Individuals may need to spend increasing amount of time on online gaming (tolerance development) as a result of their increased need and effort to reach their goals of higher achievement in the game (salience; King, Herd, & Delfabbro, 2017. Meanwhile, the increased amount of time spent on gaming can lead to gaming to be the dominant activity in the gamer's daily life. ...
Background and aims:
Internet gaming disorder (IGD) was proposed in Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders of American Psychiatric Association as an area warranting more research attention. High prevalence of excessive Internet game use and related addictions has been reported in China, especially among youth; however, there is a lack of psychometrically and theoretically sound instruments for assessing IGD in the Chinese language.
This study aimed to examine the psychometric properties of a Chinese version of the Internet Gaming Disorder Test (IGD-20 Test) among Chinese middle school (n = 569; Mage = 13.34; 46.2% females) and university students (n = 523; Mage = 20.12; 48.4% females) samples in Beijing, China. All participants voluntarily completed an anonymous questionnaire.
Confirmatory factor analysis results showed that the Chinese version of the IGD-20 Test had five factors (i.e., salience-tolerance, mood modification, withdrawal, conflict, and relapse). Measurement invariance was confirmed across the two samples. The test score was positively associated with the modified Young's Internet Addiction Test for gaming addiction. Concurrent validation was further demonstrated by the IGD-20 Test's positive correlation with weekly gameplay and depression symptoms. The latent profile analysis showed four different gamer classes (i.e., regular gamers, low-risk engaged gamers, high-risk engaged gamers, and probable disordered gamers), with the estimated prevalence of 2.1% of the last group.
Discussion and conclusion:
The IGD-20 Test was applicable to Chinese youth and its Chinese version generally demonstrated good psychometric properties.
... This was the item measuring "Tolerance" in the scale. One study on the tolerance item used open-ended questions and found that gamers increasingly desired game items, status or story progress, but none reported a need for increasing time spent gaming (King et al., 2017). Petry et al. (2014) suggested that the phrase "playing more exiting games or use more powerful equipment" should be added to the item. ...
... The craving for games can be driven by a social desire to maintain competition within a group of peers rather than an intrinsic desire for the game itself 60 . This feature can be more pronounced in online games, in particular games featuring social cooperative play 61 . Therefore, considering the psychological cause of craving for games and the area activated at the source of LPP, game-related stimuli can be considered a social situation for IGD. ...
This study investigated attentional bias toward game-related cues in Internet gaming disorder (IGD) using electrophysiological markers of late positive potential (LPP) and identifying the sources of LPP. In addition, the association between LPP and decision-making ability was investigated. The IGD (n = 40) and healthy control (HC; n = 39) participants viewed a series of game-related and neutral pictures, while their event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded. LPPs were calculated as the mean amplitudes between 400 and 700 ms at the centro-parietal (CP3, CP1, Cpz, CP2, and CP4) and parietal (P3, P1, Pz, P2, and P4) electrode sites. The source activations of LPP were estimated using standardized low-resolution brain electromagnetic tomography (sLORETA). In addition, decision-making ability was evaluated by the Cambridge Gambling Task. Higher LPP amplitudes were found for game-related cues in the IGD group than in the HC group. sLORETA showed that the IGD group was more active in the superior and middle temporal gyri, which are involved in social perception, than in the HC group, whereas it was less active in the frontal area. Individuals with IGD have deficits in decision-making ability. In addition, in the HC group, the lower the LPP when looking at the game-related stimuli, the better the quality of decision-making, but not in the IGD group. Enhanced LPP amplitudes are associated with emotional arousal to gaming cues and decision-making deficits in IGD. In addition, source activities suggest that patients with IGD perceive game-related cues as social stimuli. LPP can be used as a neurophysiological marker of IGD.
... Video games offer increasingly sophisticated interactive experiences (Billieux et al., 2015;King, Herd, & Delfabbro, 2017;King, Koster, & Billieux, 2019;Lemenager, Neissner, Sabo, Mann & Kiefer, 2020). Avatars are one of the important elements of gaming that enhances this interactivity (Gilbert et al., 2014;Sibilla & Mancini, 2018;Vasalou & Joinson, 2009). ...
Background and aims:
Previous studies have reported that stronger avatar identification and negative self-concept are associated with gaming disorder (GD). This study aimed to examine the value and significance of avatars based on firsthand accounts from regular and problematic gamers, and to identify any potential links between avatar-related experiences and excessive gaming.
An online survey of 993 adult gamers yielded 3,972 text responses. Qualitative analysis of 59,059 words extracted 10 categories of avatar-related perspectives.
Some problem and non-problem gamers employed sentimental language (e.g., 'dear friend', 'like a child', 'part of my soul') to refer to their avatar. However, most participants perceived avatars as a means of achieving in-game goals and enabling greater interactivity (e.g., socializing). When asked to reflect on hypothetically losing their avatar, participants generally anticipated feeling temporary frustration or annoyance due to lost time and effort invested into the avatar. Although some participants reported that their avatar 'mattered', avatars were often considered as superficial ('just pixels') and peripheral to the primary reinforcement of achieving in-game rewards and objectives. Some broader psychological and identity issues such as gender dysphoria, rather than 'addiction', were cited as motivating persistent avatar-related interactions and attachment.
Discussion and conclusions:
Participants reported diverse views on the psychological value and function of avatars, but the relationship between avatars and problematic gaming or GD was largely unclear or inconsistent, and refuted by some participants. Future research with clinical samples may lead to a better understanding of player-avatar processes, including whether avatar-stimuli facilitate the development of maladaptive gaming habits, particularly among psychologically vulnerable players. Future investigations should be mindful of 'overpathologizing' avatar-related phenomena and recognize their important role in socializing, storytelling, and creative expression among gamers.
... Given that video game addiction has been recently recognized as a mental health disorder by the WHO under the nomenclature of GD and that a clear diagnostic framework has been devised by the APA in the DSM-5 for IGD, recent studies have suggested that in order to advance research in this area it is paramount to further investigate the diagnostic validity and feasibility of the existing diagnostic criteria for video game addiction [10,40,41]. This need partially emerged from the fact that there are still significant inconsistencies regarding the potential clinical relevance of certain specific diagnostic criteria for video game addiction within the current IGD diagnostic framework, including but not limited to tolerance and withdrawal symptoms . Further to the development of the GD clinical criteria by the WHO, investigating the relevance and utility of the nine IGD criteria is indeed key as it can help shape the way in which the phenomenon can be defined and refined in the next revisions of the existing psychiatric diagnostic manuals. ...
Internet Gaming Disorder (IGD) has been recognized in May 2013 and can be evaluated using the criteria developed by American Psychiatric Association (APA). The present study investigated the role each IGD criteria plays in diagnosing disordered gaming. A total of 3,377 participants (mean age 20 years, SD = 4.3 years) participated in the study. The data collected was scrutinized to detect patterns of IGD using Conditional Inference Tree (Ctree), a sophisticated machine algorithm. Participants provided basic sociodemographic information and completed the Internet Gaming Disorder Scale–Short-Form (IGDS9-SF). The results identified classes of IGD-related symptoms, indicating that endorsing ‘withdrawal’ and ‘loss of control’ increases the probability of disordered gaming by 77.77% while endorsement of ‘withdrawal’, ‘loss of control’ and ‘negative consequences’ increases the probability of disordered gaming by 26.66%. Moreover, lack of endorsement of ‘withdrawal’ and endorsement of ‘preoccupation’ increases the likelihood of disordered gaming by 7.14%. Taken together, the results obtained illustrate that different IGD criteria can present with different clinical weighing as unique diagnostic roles in the development of disordered gaming can be evidenced by each criterion. Moreover, the present findings help inform future revisions of diagnostic manuals and helps enhancing the assessment of IGD in the future. Additional research and clinical implications are discussed.
... In addition, the DSM-5 lists nine criteria for IGD including tolerance, which represents an increase in time spent playing for satisfying a growing desire and need for gaming (84). Although some scholars have questioned the characteristic of tolerance in IGD because increased time is not necessarily a good indicator of problematic gamimg (54,85), individuals with GD clearly spend more time gaming than non-problematic gamers. ...
Background and Aims: In previous correlational research, the relationship between gaming disorder (GD), compensation motivation, game flow, time spent gaming, and fear of missing out (FoMO) has been examined. However, network analysis has rarely been applied to explore the relationship between GD, self-compensation motivation, game flow, time spent gaming, and FoMO. Therefore, the present study used network analysis to examine the relationship between the aforementioned variables among a sample of gamers. Methods: The present study comprised gamers (N = 1,635) recruited from three Chinese universities, who completed an online survey including the Gaming Disorder Test, Self-Compensation Motivation Questionnaire, Game Flow Questionnaire, and Trait-State Fear of Missing Out Scale, as well as four items related to time spent gaming. Results: Self-compensation motivation, game flow, time spent gaming, and FoMO were all significantly and positively associated with GD. In the domain-level and facet-level networks, weekday gaming hours and weekend gaming hours had the strongest edge intensity. The domain-level, facet-level, and item-level networks analysis also showed that GD was connected with self-compensation motivation, game flow, time spent gaming, and FoMO. The network structure demonstrated a significant difference between males and females (2.33 vs. 2.81, p = 0.001) using the domain-level network comparison test (NCT). Li et al. Network Analysis on Gaming Disorder Conclusions: The results suggest that GD is closely associated with self-compensation motivation, game flow, time spent gaming, and FoMO. FoMO and gaming motivation (i.e., self-compensation and game flow) may increase time spent gaming and facilitate GD. Therefore, interventions that decrease game immersion and time spent gaming are likely to decrease GD.
... IAD is an impulse-control disorder of Internet behavior in the absence of addictive substances (1). Its typical symptoms are involved, including tolerance, withdrawal symptoms, large amounts of time spent online, interruption of social relations, and disorder of the biological clock (2)(3)(4)(5). During the past decade, the global average incidence of IAD is about 6%, with the highest incidence in the Middle East (10.9%) and the lowest in Northern and Western Europe (2.6%) (6). ...
Background: Depressive symptoms often accompany people with Internet addiction syndrome (IAD). Acupuncture has been found to have significant advantages in improving the severity and depressive symptoms of IAD. Contingent negative variation (CNV) is a common method to explore the mechanism of neurophysiology.
Objective: The purpose of this study was to observe the efficacy of electroacupuncture (EA), psychological intervention (PI), and comprehensive intervention (CI) in the treatment of depression in Internet addiction disorder (IAD), and to observe the changes of contingent negative variation (CNV) in each group.
Methods: One hundred and twenty subjects diagnosed with IAD were randomly assigned to the EA group, the PI group, or the CI group. They received EA, PI, or a combination of EA and PI for 40 days. The Internet Addiction Test (IAT), the Zung Self-rating Depression Scale (SDS), and the Hamilton Depression Scale (HAMD) were evaluated for all subjects at baseline, 20th, and 40th days of treatment, while CNV data were collected at baseline and 40th days of treatment.
Results: Three treatments effectively reduced IAT, SDS, and HAMD scores, and the intergroup comparison showed that CI was superior to EA, while EA was superior to PI. CNV results indicated that the CNV amplitude increased in all three groups of IAD patients after treatment. The CNV latency of point A and A-S2' wave area of the EA group and the CI group did not change significantly after treatment. Only the A-S2' wave area of the PI group increased significantly compared with the baseline period. In addition, IAD's IAT score was positively correlated with SDS and HAMD score at baseline but negatively correlated with CNV latency. After treatment, only the change of HAMD score in the CI group was negatively correlated with amplitude.
Conclusion: Our results demonstrate the efficacy of acupuncture and psychological intervention in the treatment of IAD from an electrophysiological perspective. Simultaneously, the increase in CNV amplitude might be the underlying neurophysiological mechanism by which CI improves depression and cognitive function in IAD patients.
Clinical Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov , identifier NCT02362698.
... These studies connect involved play with gratifying experiences due to the sense of achievement from overcoming the challenges posed by video games, sociability, immersion and autonomy (Snodgrass et al., 2018). In this respect, a number of qualitative studies on gaming tolerance and the need to increase time spent gaming indicate that gamers tend to plan and improve their experience (King, Herd, & Delfabbro, 2017), using part of the time they are not gaming to consult strategy guides, watch demos, search for information, research game mechanics, consult with others, and watch tournaments (among other activities): these are needs and motivations that are satisfied through live streaming platforms (Hilvert-Bruce et al., 2018;. It would therefore seem logical that as involvement and time spent on video games increase, the time spent watching them increases. ...
Video games have become an everyday part of the lives of thousands of users. While playing video games is relatively common, enjoying video games through live streaming platforms is becoming increasingly popular, with users experiencing the game in a much more social and interactive way. However, recent academic research on the subject has focused on studying the two activities independently. To bridge this gap, the present study proposes a theoretical model that explores the connections between gaming and viewing. More specifically, this paper aims to examine whether the motivations for playing video games and expectations of positive outcomes—e.g., making new friends, professionalizing the hobby, or increasing competences and skills—lead to increased time spent playing and viewing, which may ultimately lead to potentially problematic uses. To validate the conceptual model, data were collected from 954 players and viewers and a partial least squares structural equation model was applied. The results suggest that positive expectations about the use of video games are directly related to time spent playing, but negatively related to time spent watching. Moreover, potential problematic uses are determined more by an increase in time spent playing than in time spent watching, with watching being treated as a complementary activity to gaming.
... Kim et al. stated that Internet gaming addicts tended to sense negative affectivity more than nonaddicted gamers . Mehroof et al. also argued that the level of online gaming addiction is positively associated with neuroticism, (e.g., feeling unpleasurable emotions) ; King et al. found that individuals with IGD exhibited tolerance because they feared that stopping play would cause them to lose game-related achievements and thus they would lose social status with their friends . Our finding in this study indicated that participants with HIGD exhibited better respiratory regulation than did those with LIGD during a prolonged period of negative emotional stimulus. ...
Individuals with Internet gaming disorder (IGD) frequently play online games to achieve satisfaction. Numerous signal processing questions regarding the negative consequences and characteristic respiration in a long-term sitting posture remain unanswered. This study recruited 50 individuals with high-risk and low-risk IGD (HIGD and LIGD); these participants were taught to perform a specific respiration during game-film stimuli. The instantaneous frequencies on abdominal movement (fDF) were calculated with ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD). The difference value (ΔfDF) between rest and stimulus statuses was calculated and found that HIGD showed ΔfDF values of 0.060 during positive stimuli and 0.055 during negative stimuli before the exercise but 0.020 and 0.016, respectively, after the exercise. However, the ΔfDF value for those with LIGD during negative stimuli before the exercise was 0.013, and it increased to 0.025 after the exercise. This is the first approach to IGD discrimination toward abdominal response with EEMD.
... On the other hand, some studies suggest that gaming time is only moderately associated with IGD (Brunborg et al., 2014;Király et al., 2017a) and may reflect healthy player desires to achieve gaming-related objectives and rewards rather than a pathological gaming pattern (D. L. King et al., 2017). This likely suggests that gaming time per se is an unreliable predictor of pathological gaming (Király et al., 2017b). ...
Online gaming may be associated with adverse outcomes in a minority of players. While some suggest that pathological patterns of online gaming are a public health concern in Iran, the evidence on pathological gaming among Iranian online gamers remains scarce. This study aims to investigate the patterns, motivations, and correlates of pathological online gaming in Iran. An online survey in Persian was performed among adult online gamers recruited across Iranian universities and social media. The 10-item Internet Gaming Disorder Test (IGDT-10) was used to screen for Internet Gaming Disorder (IGD). Motivations for gaming were assessed using the Motives for Online Gaming Questionnaire (MOGQ) and correlated psychiatric symptoms were assessed using the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI). After the estimation of descriptive statistics and bivariate tests, multivariate linear and logistic regressions were used to assess the correlates of the IGDT-10 score and IGD. A total of 791 individuals (75.4% men) responded to the survey. More than 5% played 42 h or more per week. Only 3.7% of respondents met the threshold for IGD. IGD was 9.4 times more common among male than female gamers. The most commonly endorsed criteria were “continuation”, “negative consequences”, and “preoccupation”. Younger age, time spent on gaming, using a PC instead of a smartphone for gaming, “escape” and “fantasy” gaming motivations and psychiatric symptoms were associated with the IGDT-10 score. A small minority of Iranian online gamers may be at risk of pathological gaming and its associated harms, especially younger gamers who play long hours and play with escapist and “fantasy”-related motivations. Further research is needed to elucidate the causes and consequences of gaming-related problems and to evaluate proposed diagnostic criteria and screening instruments.
... Inspired by the criteria used in substance-use disorders, some authors include tolerance, abstinence, and craving as common symptoms among individuals with sexual addiction (Allen, Kannis-Dymand, & Katsikitis, 2017;Rosenberg, Carnes, & O'Connor, 2014). However, the applicability of these criteria to behavioral addictions is still under debate (King, Herd, & Delfabbro, 2017;Starcevic, 2016). ...
Background and aims:
Sexual addiction is a pathological behavior characterized by a combination of excessive sexual desire and impaired ability to control it. Its incidence ranges between 1.2% and 32.2%, although this number may vary depending on the screening tool used. This wide variability is largely due to the use of non-validated instruments (e.g., structural validity relying on exploratory analyses, instruments translated without an additional validation process, or instruments validated in another format). To deal with these limitations, this study tested the psychometric properties of the Spanish paper-and-pencil and online versions of the Sexual Addiction Screening Test (SAST).
A total of 2,528 participants (1,163 males) completed the Spanish version of the SAST, along with other instruments assessing sexual compulsivity (1,585 = paper-and-pencil, 943 = online).
The exploratory factor analysis yielded a four-factor structure explaining 57.39% of the variance for the SAST paper-and-pencil version. This factor structure was then verified for the online version through the use of confirmatory factor analysis [χ2(264) = 441.59; χ2/df = 1.66; RMSEA = 0.02; CFI = 0.94; IFI = 0.94]. This methodology was also used to support measurement invariance (configural, metric, and scalar invariance) according to gender. The reliability of the total score ranged from .82 to .85. Similarly, correlations with related scales were positive and significant (r between .22 and .71). Temporal stability 1 year after the first application was 0.65 (paper-and-pencil format) and 0.60 (online version).
These results, together with the absence of questionnaires translated into Spanish to assess this construct, justify the use of the SAST in the evaluation of sexual addiction in Spanish-speaking countries.
... It seems that gaming is adopted as a measure to escape negative emotions (loss of interest) in the Australian and American contexts. Meanwhile, the mood-modifying effect that results from achieving status or progress in online gaming diminishes in persons with prolonged engagement . Therefore, loss of interest in previous gaming activities may derive tolerance-gaming for a longer time to achieve the previous satisfactory effect. ...
The prevalence of internet gaming disorders (IGD) is considerably high among youth,
especially with social isolation imposed by the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. IGD adversely affects
mental health, quality of life, and academic performance. The Internet Gaming Disorder Scale
(IGDS9-SF) is designed to detect IGD according to DSM-IV diagnostic criteria. However, inconsistent results are reported on its capacity to diagnose IGD evenly across different cultures. To ensure the suitability of the IGDS9-SF as a global measure of IGD, this study examined the psychometric properties of the IGDS9-SF in a sample of Sri Lankan university students (N = 322, mean age
=17.2 ± 0.6, range = 16-18 years, 56.5% males) and evaluated its measurement invariance across samples from Sri Lanka, Turkey, Australia, and the USA. Among Sri Lankan students, a unidimensional
structure expressed good fit, invariance across different groups (gender, ethnicity, income, etc.), adequate criterion validity (strong correlation with motives of internet gaming, daily gaming duration,
and sleep quality), and good reliability (alpha = 0.81). Males and online multiplayers expressed
higher IGD levels, greater time spent gaming, and more endorsement of gaming motives (e.g., Social
and Coping) than females and offline players. Across countries, the IGDS9-SF was invariant at the
configural, metric, and scalar levels, albeit strict invariance was not maintained. The lowest and
highest IGD levels were reported among Turkish and American respondents, respectively. In conclusion, the IGDS9-SF can be reliably used to measure IGD among Sri Lankan youth. Because the
scale holds scalar invariance across countries, its scores can be used to compare IGD levels in the
... It seems that gaming is adopted as a measure to escape negative emotions (loss of interest) in the Australian and American contexts. Meanwhile, the mood-modifying effect that results from achieving status or progress in online gaming diminishes in persons with prolonged engagement . Therefore, loss of interest in previous gaming activities may derive tolerance-gaming for a longer time to achieve the previous satisfactory effect. ...
The prevalence of internet gaming disorders (IGD) is considerably high among youth,
especially with the social isolation imposed by the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. IGD adversely
affects mental health, quality of life, and academic performance. The Internet Gaming Disorder Scale
(IGDS9-SF) is designed to detect IGD according to DSM-IV diagnostic criteria. However, inconsistent
results are reported on its capacity to diagnose IGD evenly across different cultures. To ensure the
suitability of the IGDS9-SF as a global measure of IGD, this study examined the psychometric proper-
ties of the IGDS9-SF in a sample of Sri Lankan university students (N = 322, mean age = 17.2 ± 0.6,
range = 16–18 years, 56.5% males) and evaluated its measurement invariance across samples from
Sri Lanka, Turkey, Australia, and the USA. Among Sri Lankan students, a unidimensional structure
expressed good fit, invariance across different groups (e.g., gender, ethnicity, and income), adequate
criterion validity (strong correlation with motives of internet gaming, daily gaming duration, and
sleep quality), and good reliability (alpha = 0.81). Males and online multiplayers expressed higher
IGD levels, greater time spent gaming, and more endorsement of gaming motives (e.g., Social and
Coping) than females and offline players. Across countries, the IGDS9-SF was invariant at the
configural, metric, and scalar levels, although strict invariance was not maintained. The lowest
and highest IGD levels were reported among Turkish and American respondents, respectively. In
conclusion, the IGDS9-SF can be reliably used to measure IGD among Sri Lankan youth. Because
the scale holds scalar invariance across countries, its scores can be used to compare IGD levels in the
... It seems that gaming is adopted as a measure to escape negative emotions (loss of interest) in the Australian and American contexts. Meanwhile, the mood-modifying effect that results from achieving status or progress in online gaming diminishes in persons with prolonged engagement . Therefore, loss of interest in previous gaming activities may derive tolerance-gaming for a longer time to achieve the previous satisfactory effect. ...
The prevalence of internet gaming disorders (IGD) is considerably high among youth, especially with social isolation imposed by the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. IGD adversely affects mental health, quality of life, and academic performance. The Internet Gaming Disorder Scale (IGDS9-SF) is designed to detect IGD according to DSM-IV diagnostic criteria. However, inconsistent results are reported on its capacity to diagnose IGD evenly across different cultures. To ensure the suitability of the IGDS9-SF as a global measure of IGD, this study examined the psychometric properties of the IGDS9-SF in a sample of Sri Lankan university students (N = 322, mean age =17.2 ± 0.6, range = 16-18 years, 56.5% males) and evaluated its measurement invariance across samples from Sri Lanka, Turkey, Australia, and the USA. Among Sri Lankan students, a unidimensional structure expressed good fit, invariance across different groups (e.g., gender, ethnicity, and income), adequate criterion validity (strong correlation with motives of internet gaming, daily gaming duration, and sleep quality), and good reliability (alpha = 0.81). Males and online multiplayers expressed higher IGD levels, greater time spent gaming, and more endorsement of gaming motives (e.g., Social and Coping) than females and offline players. Across countries, the IGDS9-SF was invariant at the configural, metric, and scalar levels, albeit strict invariance was not maintained. The lowest and highest IGD levels were reported among Turkish and American respondents, respectively. In conclusion, the IGDS9-SF can be reliably used to measure IGD among Sri Lankan youth. Because the scale holds scalar invariance across countries, its scores can be used to compare IGD levels in the studied countries.
... In addition, a qualitative investigation reports that users' tendency to stay online more is motivated by the need to complete difficult goals such as achieving satisfaction or reducing fears of missing out. Meanwhile, achieving status or progress as a result of prolonged engagement in online activities (e.g., more reward outcomes in gaming) is associated with diminished mood-modifying effects of the internet . Overall, our findings along with those reported in other studies show that Facebook tolerance in healthy individuals is likely to be motivated by salience, conflict, and relapse components. ...
Facebook addiction is increasing, giving rise to limited real-life social networks, loneliness, poor work and academic performance, psychopathology, and low well-being. Facebook entails numerous factors that increase the risk for disordered eating attitudes and behaviors (e.g., use time and Facebook activities such as social grooming and photo sharing). This study aimed to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Bergen Facebook Addiction Scale (BFAS) among patients with eating disorders (EDs) given lack of validation of Facebook addiction measures in this population.
A cross-sectional study involving 123 inpatient and outpatient women with EDs (Mean age = 27.3, SD = 10.6, range = 14–59 years) used confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), multigroup CFA, structural equation modeling (SEM), Spearman’s rho Spearman’s analysis, McDonald's Omega (ω), Cronbach’s alpha (α), and item-total correlations to examine the structure, invariance, criterion validity, reliability, and discriminant validity of the BFAS.
Correlating the residuals of items 2, 3, and 5 resulted in an excellent fit of a one-factor structure of the BFAS ( χ ² (7) = 8.515, p = .289, CFI = .998, TLI = .996, RMSEA = .042, SRMR = .0099). The BFAS was invariant at the configural, metric, and scalar levels across groups of EDs, age, education, and marital status. High values of ω and α (.96) as well as item-total correlations (.851–.929) indicated excellent reliability and high discrimination index of the BFAS. Criterion validity is noted by strong positive correlation with the Six-item Internet Addiction Test (S-IAT, r = .88) and SEM using the S-IAT to predict the BFAS (χ2(49) = 103.701, p = .001, CFI = .975, TLI = .966, RMSEA = .096, SRMR = .0317)..
The BFAS is a reliable unidimensional measure. Its high discrimination index and invariance across different groups make it useful for detecting Facebook addiction among patients with ED.
... Although the DSM-5 only describes symptoms of gambling disorder, the Appendix lists additional forms of behavioral addiction that should be explored (e.g., excessive use of social media or watching porn), and proposes criteria for Internet gaming disorders (APA, 2013). Various authors note that this form of entertainment can lead to preoccupation (obsessive thinking about online games), overuse, neglecting areas of everyday life, social isolation, inter-and intrapersonal conflicts, and escape from painful reality (Demetrovics et al., 2012;King, Herd, & Delfabbro, 2017, 2018Király et al., 2017;Kuss, 2013;Kuss & Griffiths, 2012). Such people risk substituting real life with virtual reality (Smahel, Blinka, & Ledabyl, 2008). ...
Background and aims: Maladaptive daydreaming (MD) has many features of behavioural
addiction but research exploring this syndrome is limited. This case study provides a
qualitative exploration of MD.
Method: A structured clinical interview and mental state examination of a patient with MD
was video-recorded and transcribed verbatim. Transcripts were subjected to the interpretative phenomenological analysis.
Results: MD developed as a strategy to cope with distress but led to uncontrollable
absorption in fantasy, social withdrawal, and neglecting aspects of everyday life. It was
coupled with excessive Internet use and viewing porn.
Discussion and conclusions: Patients should be questioned about MD during clinical
assessment. Further studies are necessary to determine whether MD constitutes a separate syndrome or is a part of other behavioural addictions.
Purpose of Review
This systematic review examines the motives behind online sexual activities (OSAs) and their relationship with excessive and problematic engagement in OSAs.
Few studies have explored the motives fueling healthy and problematic engagement in OSAs, despite the evident relevance of motives for understanding these activities. Disparities in methodology and lack of validated tools have hindered the comparability and generalizability of results.
We retained and analyzed 30 studies, from which seven categories of motives emerged: (1) those related to the structural characteristics of the Internet, (2) curiosity and sexual education, (3) social motives (social enhancement and/or peer pressure), (4) sexual arousal and pleasure seeking, (5) online/offline sexuality enhancement, (6) anonymous fantasizing, and (7) mood management. These motives varied by age and sex and some allowed the distinction between healthy involvement in OSAs and excessive and dysfunctional involvement in them.
L’objectif de ce travail était d’examiner la proposition d’internet gaming disorder (addiction aux jeux vidéo) du DSM-5, de rendre compte de la controverse immédiate survenue à la suite et d’examiner l’apport du diagnostic de gaming disorder de la CIM-11.
Une analyse descriptive a été élaborée à partir des documents princeps du DSM-5 et des critiques faites pour inventorier les points faisant débat. Une analyse critique a été réalisée afin de répondre à ces points. Enfin, nous avons examiné l’apport du diagnostic de gaming disorder de la CIM-11.
L’analyse critique propose des réponses aux points de débat soulevés concernant la définition, la pertinence clinique des critères diagnostiques, la prévalence, l’évolution et les comorbidités de l’addiction aux jeux vidéo du DSM-5. L’apport du gaming disorder de la CIM-11 a pu être examiné et les controverses entourant ce diagnostic ont été rapportées.
Des réponses cohérentes ont été obtenues concernant la définition de l’internet gaming disorder. La prévalence, ses comorbidités et leur évolution restent débattues. Des différences de validité des critères diagnostiques sont retrouvées. Le craving semble être un critère potentiel. Il reste à définir si l’approche du gaming disorder reflètera mieux le trouble de l’usage des jeux vidéo.
L’addiction aux jeux vidéo est de plus en plus reconnue. Les récentes recherches ont permis une avancée dans la compréhension de cette pathologie mentale. Des études complémentaires sont nécessaires pour répondre aux incohérences restantes.
Backgrounds and aims:
While the Internet became an indispensable component of our contemporary life, public and academic attention is also gathered to its negative impact, namely Internet addiction (IA). Although clinicodemographic and behavioral factors are hypothetically implicated in the mechanism of IA, it still remains largely unknown how such factors are linked to IA severity. Thus, this study sought to examine relationships among IA severity and factors potentially associated with IA in Japanese students in different educational stages.
We conducted a questionnaire-based survey, which included questions about types of online activities and clinicodemographic information, the IA test for IA severity, and the K6 scale for psychological distress in 3,224 students at elementary, junior, and senior high schools, and universities. A multiple regression analysis was performed to predict IA severity with clinicodemographic and behavioral factors.
IA severity was significantly positively related to the following factors: e-messaging, social networking services (SNS), games, holiday Internet usage, and K6 scores, while IA severity had negative correlation with using Internet for educational purposes, age of first exposure to the Internet, and sleep duration. Age was not related to IA severity among participants using both SNS and e-messaging.
IA was linked to various online activities and the degree of psychological distress. This indicates the importance of comprehensive assessment of online behavior and psychological factors for further understanding of IA.
Background: The effects of behavioral addiction to video gaming (VG) has received increasing attention in the literature given increased use intensity among sub-groups of VG players.
Objectives: This study seeks to determine empirically the relationship between Video Gaming (VG) intensity of use and hedonic experience of the user.
Methods: We conducted a survey of n = 835 individuals who regularly play video games to determine the relationship between Video Gaming (VG) intensity of use and hedonic experience of the user. We divide the sample into four quartiles by self-reported VG addictive symptom level (from the Internet Gaming Disorder Scale) and conduct polynomial regressions separately for each quartile.
Results: We find that the higher VG addictive symptom level groups experience a U-shaped (curvilinear) relationship between hedonic experience and intensity of play, whereas groups with lower VG addictive symptom levels exhibit no such relationship. The coefficients that collectively support this result for the highest addictive symptom level group (quartile 4), those representing marginal effects for hours played per week and hours played per week squared, are significantly negative ( p = 0.005 ) and significantly positive ( p = 0.004), respectively.
Conclusions: The obtained results are consistent with sensitization and tolerance theories, which suggest that high-symptom groups are expected to experience frustration and disappointment until achieving excessive dopamine release, at which point their hedonic experience is expected to improve in additional play. Conversely, low-symptom groups experience no such fall-and-rise pattern. This result is consistent with the outcome that members of the latter group play the game for the direct experience such that their hedonic experience is more directly related to events occurring in the game than to the increasingly-elusive pursuit of excessive dopamine release. We also find that high-symptom groups spend substantially more time and money to support VG use and are much more likely to engage in VG use at the expense of other important activities, such as work, sleep, and eating.
Students playing Internet game become a daily activity in campus life. They usually struggle for fun and stay at audio-visual stimuli of Internet games for a long period of time. Some players hardly controlling the impulses of game engagement despite negative consequences can be described as a term of Internet gaming disorder (IGD). They always perform a psychological property, called tolerance symptom, for increasing the amounts of playing time to achieve satisfaction. Studies found that breathing exercise can alleviate IGD symptoms because breathing can facilitate the psychophysiological regulation. Few studies, moreover, observed the effect of breathing exercise on tolerance response of IGD symptom. This study explores the prolonged effect on respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) of individuals with IGD from rest to watching game videos as stimuli through abdominal breathing (AB) training. 7 persons of high-risk IGD (HIGD) and 17 persons of low-risk IGD (LIGD) were recruited. The results showed that both of HIGD and LIGD presented an increasing RSA value with AB training from rest to stimuli. In contrast to those with LIGD, those with HIGD showed higher RSA value during negative stimuli. Our findings suggested that AB training can be a potential method to reduce psychophysiological responses of persons with HIGD during game-related cue stimuli, negative game especially. It may provide researchers insight into the effect of breathing exercises on psychophysiology responses of persons with IGD and further develop related application, such as alleviative method. A further study could investigate the effect on autonomic nervous system activities for a long-period AB training.
Purpose of the study: The purpose of this study is to capture the lived experiences of Filipino College Students excessively immersed in online gaming for a year or more with five or more symptoms of Internet Gaming Disorder (I.G.D.). Methodology: This is a qualitative research using the phenomenological approach. Internet Gaming Disorder Scale – Short form (IGD9-SF) was used to identify participants. Using Paul Colaizzi’s Procedure, field text was carefully transcribed and analyzed to determine the statement verbalizations and musings, which collectively described the phenomenon. Main Findings: The conceptual model “E-Loop of I.G.D.” or the “Entertain-Engulfed-Entangle-Escape” has emerged. The findings of this study established the severity of the adverse effects of I.G.D. To students and the severe gaming dysregulation, this resulted in a vacuum in their personal development. Applications of this study: This model provided a clear picture of a vicious cycle of dysregulated internet gaming behaviour which would equip mental health experts’ richer understanding and analysis of action related to gaming. Ultimately, this inference offers an appropriate basis for intervention or treatment programs in assisting students with I.G.D. symptoms. Novelty/Originality of this study: This study provided a novel conceptual framework of internet gaming disorder based on the lived experiences of the symptomatic gamers. Further, it offered more definite conceptions on the vicious cycle of I.G.D.
This study examined the diagnostic validity of a three-item ultra-brief screening tool for online gaming disorder in line with the gaming disorder criteria in the International Classification of Diseases 11th Revision.
The Three-item Gaming disorder Test-Online-Centered (TIGTOC) was composed of three items using a four-point Likert scale selected from the Internet Game Use-Elicited Symptom Screen (IGUESS). Among a cohort of 2319 young-adolescent Internet users, the baseline data of 228 healthy controls and 45 Internet-gaming-disorder cases were analyzed. Receiver operation characteristic (ROC) analysis was performed using mental health specialists' diagnoses as the gold standard.
The ROC curve analysis showed an area under the curve of 86%. Using a cut-off score of 4 from a full range of 0-9, the sensitivity, specificity, and Cronbach's α were 72%, 90%, and 0.811, respectively. TIGTOC scores was positively associated with time spent on online gaming, depressive symptoms, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms, and addictive Internet use.
The TIGTOC appears to be a brief, valid, and reliable screening tool for online gaming disorder within the community or in primary care settings.
Internet addiction (IA) is an emerging behavioral problem that constitutes a major health threat to vulnerable populations, including adolescents. However, there is a paucity of IA screening tools specifically designed for adolescents, especially in Indonesia. Therefore, the current study developed and validated the IA Diagnostic Questionnaire (KDAI) in adolescents while acknowledging local cultural influences. The KDAI was conceived through extensive literature reviews, expert discussions based on Delphi methods, a face validity study, focus group discussion (N = 31) for initial reliability testing, and a recruited pilot study (N = 385) and main study (N = 643) for exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses, respectively. The multi-sample analyses demonstrated that the KDAI model with the best fit and reliability comprised a seven-factor structure, including withdrawal, loss of control, increase of priority, negative consequences, mood modification, salience, and impairment. These factors were scrutinized against domains of IA Test, and concurrent validity was ascertained. Subsequently, a receiver operating characteristic curve and area under the curve determined a cutoff score of 108 to discern adolescents with IA. Taken together, the KDAI displayed excellent psychometric indices and sensitivity as a screening tool for IA in adolescents.
Gaming disorder, including internet gaming disorder (IGD), was recently defined by the World Health Organization as a mental disease in the 11th Revision of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11). Thus, reducing IGD is warranted. Maladaptive cognitions related to internet gaming (MCIG) have been associated with IGD, while impulsivity, self-control, parental influences, and peer influences are key risk factors of IGD. Previous literature suggests that MCIG is associated with the aforementioned 4 risk factors and IGD, and may thus mediate between these risk factors and IGD. These potential mediations, if significant, imply that modification of MCIG may possibly alleviate these risk factors’ harmful impacts on increasing IGD. These mediation hypotheses were tested in this study for the first time.
This study tested the mediation effects of MCIG between intrapersonal factors (impulsivity and self-control) and IGD, and between interpersonal factors (parental influences and peer influences) and IGD among adolescents in China.
An anonymous, cross-sectional, and self-administered survey was conducted among secondary school students in classroom settings in Guangzhou and Chengdu, China. All grade 7 to 9 students (7 to 9 years of formal education) of 7 secondary schools were invited to join the study, and 3087 completed the survey. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) checklist was used to assess IGD. MCIG was assessed by using the Chinese version of the Revised Internet Gaming Cognition Scale. Impulsivity, self-control, and parental or peer influences were measured by using the motor subscale of the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale, the Brief Self-Control Scale, and the modified interpersonal influence scale, respectively. Structural equation modeling was conducted to examine the mediation effects of MCIG between these risk factors and IGD.
The prevalence of IGD was 13.57% (418/3081) and 17.67% (366/2071) among all participants and adolescent internet gamers, respectively. The 3 types of MCIG (perceived rewards of internet gaming, perceived urges for playing internet games, and perceived unwillingness to stop playing without completion of gaming tasks) were positively associated with IGD. Impulsivity, self-control, parental influences, and peer influences were all significantly associated with the 3 types of MCIG and IGD. The 3 types of MCIG partially mediated the associations between the studied factors and IGD (effect size of 30.0% to 37.8%).
Impulsivity, self-control, and interpersonal influences had both direct and indirect effects via MCIG on IGD. Modifications of the 3 types of MCIG can potentially reduce the harmful impacts of impulsivity and interpersonal influences on IGD and enhance the protective effect of self-control against IGD. Future longitudinal studies are warranted.
Internet Gaming Disorder (IGD) is a rapidly growing public health problem that may have detrimental effects. The purpose of this study is to identify factors associated with IGD status.
In this cross-sectional observational study, a convenient sample of gamers in Jordan was recruited and asked to participate in an online survey based on the nine criteria of the 20-item Internet Gaming Disorder (IGD-20) used to assess gaming disorder. Sociodemographic and psychosocial data were also obtained.
A total of 504 gamers participated in this study. The mean age of respondents was 21.6 ± 3.90 years. Using the standard IGD-20 scale, 96 participants (19%) were classified as potential IGD cases, compared to 408 (80.9%) non-disordered gamers. Males were dominant among the population, constituting 348 (69%) of gamers. Males also played significantly more hours per week [17.8 ±16.75] compared to females [13 ± 17.65]. The majority of gamers (411 (81.5%)) were students, although unemployed adults played for the highest total time [23.9 ± 30.84 hours/week]. Device type used for gaming also significantly (p <0.05) affected the time spent playing. Predictors of IGD included educational level (p< 0.05) and playing hours/week (p< 005). Conversely, no significant associations were found between IGD and gender, age, employment, or sleeping hours. IGD is increasingly being diagnosed among both genders and presents a health challenge for internet users.
Establishing gamer profiles and recognizing predictors of IGD is therefore vital for guiding clinical classification and diagnosis of the disease.
The significance of Internet gaming time’s dosage effect on Internet gaming disorder (IGD) may depend on gamers’ characteristics. Majority of the gamers with extensive gaming time do not develop IGD. This study investigated moderation effects of cognitive/psychosocial factors on the association between Internet gaming time and probable IGD among adolescent Internet gamers in China. The cross-sectional, self-administered, and anonymous survey was conducted from October to December of 2018 among seven conveniently selected secondary school students in Chengdu and Guangzhou, China. Probable IGD was measured by using the DSM-5 checklist. The cognitive/psychosocial moderators were assessed by using validated instruments. Of the 2,503 students who had played Internet games (past 12 months), the prevalence of probable IGD was 17.7%. Internet gaming time [adjusted odds ratio (ORa)=1.06], the three maladaptive cognitions specific to Internet gaming (perceived overvaluation of rewards, perceived urges, and perceived unwillingness to stop playing) (ORa=1.17 to 1.44), and the two types of psychosocial factors (loneliness and social anxiety) (ORa=1.09 to 1.13) were independent risk factors of probable IGD. Moderation analyses showed that overall maladaptive cognitions, perceived urges, and loneliness (but not the other two types of cognitions and social anxiety) were significant moderators of the association between Internet gaming time and probable IGD. The dose-effect relationship of Internet gaming time on probable IGD was significantly and slightly stronger among those with higher levels of perceived urges and loneliness. Interventions to reduce the levels of such moderators may reduce probable IGD directly and buffer the dosage effect among adolescents.
Background: From 2022, the ICD-11 includes the first mental disorder based on digital technology, “gaming disorder”, which was previously suggested as a condition for further study in the DSM-5 (2013). In this study, we provide the first large-scale network analysis of various symptom structures for these constructs to understand the complex interconnections between their proposed symptoms.Methods: Culturally diverse samples of 2,846 digital game players (M = 25.3 years) and 746 esports players (M = 23.5 years) were recruited. Network approach was applied to explore a multiverse of gaming disorder symptom structures, effects of item operationalization, and possible external moderators.Findings: Two symptoms (lack of control and continued use despite problems) present in both, the DSM-5 and ICD-11, were systematically central to most of the analyzed networks. Alternative operationalizations of single items systematically caused significant network differences. Networks were invariant across groups of play style, age, gender, gaming time, and most of the psychosocial characteristics.Interpretation: Our results caution practitioners and researchers when studying and interpreting gaming disorder symptoms. The data indicate that even minor item-level changes can lead to significant network-level changes, thus highlighting the need for careful operationalization. Considering this high sensitivity of the network structure, future clinical validation studies should not be strictly limited to the wordings, criteria, and symptoms of current diagnostic manuals.
Excessive internet game use frequently leads to various physical, psychological, and social problems, and internet gaming disorder (IGD) has become a serious public health issue worldwide. Recently, virtual reality (VR) therapy has emerged as a promising method to increase psychological treatment motivation and accessibility. However, few studies have examined the potential of VR technology for the management of IGD, and VR content tailored to IGD characteristics remains scarce.
This preliminary study aimed to examine the potential of a VR-based program that was designed to help users identify their leisure time use patterns, especially those related to gaming, and to modify their gaming overuse by alternative activities provided in the VR content. Moreover, to investigate whether users’ VR activities reflect various clinical variables of IGD in youth, we examined the relationships among the leisure time activity selection pattern, built-in response, and speech data obtained from the VR program, as well as symptom severity of internet gaming, psychiatric comorbidities, and motivation of participants reported through relevant questionnaire data.
Three types of VR content (understanding my daily activities at home, finding an alternative activity to internet gaming at home, expressing contradictory opinions toward a friend’s gaming beliefs) were developed by simulating the daily situations in which patients with IGD can select alternative free-time leisure activities. We examined internet addiction, mental health problems, and motivation for 23 IGD and 29 control participants. Behavioral and self-rated responses from VR, such as alternative activity selection data and speech patterns (speech time, speech satisfaction, and speech accordance), and results from various questionnaires were compared between groups. The correlations between IGD behaviors in VR and real-life behaviors assessed by questionnaire measures were analyzed.
Significant correlations were found between internet gaming behavior and user activity data, such as speech and activity selection pattern, in our VR program. Our results showed that the IGD group had fewer leisure activities and preferred game or digital activities to other types of activities compared to controls, even in VR. There was a positive relationship between the viability of alternative leisure activities the participants selected in VR and the amount of perceived satisfaction from that activity (r=.748, P<.001). Speech accordance in the IGD group was lower than in the control group and was correlated negatively with Internet Addiction Test and Internet Addiction Test–gaming scores (r=.300, P=.03) but positively with users’ motivation (r=.312, P=.02).
The results from our VR program can provide information about daily activity patterns of youths with IGD and the relationship between user VR activities and IGD symptoms, which can be useful in applying VR technology to IGD management.
Online gaming has greatly increased in popularity in recent years, and with this has come a multiplicity of problems due to excessive involvement in gaming. Gaming disorder, both online and offline, has been defined for the first time in the draft of 11th revision of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11). National surveys have shown prevalence rates of gaming disorder/addiction of 10%-15% among young people in several Asian countries and of 1%-10% in their counterparts in some Western countries. Several diseases related to excessive gaming are now recognized, and clinics are being established to respond to individual, family, and community concerns, but many cases remain hidden. Gaming disorder shares many features with addictions due to psychoactive substances and with gambling disorder, and functional neuroimaging shows that similar areas of the brain are activated. Governments and health agencies worldwide are seeking for the effects of online gaming to be addressed, and for preventive approaches to be developed. Central to this effort is a need to delineate the nature of the problem, which is the purpose of the definitions in the draft of ICD-11.
This commentary responds to Aarseth et al.’s (in press) criticisms that the ICD-11 Gaming Disorder proposal would result in “moral panics around the harm of video gaming” and “the treatment of abundant false-positive cases.” The ICD-11 Gaming Disorder avoids potential “overpathologizing” with its explicit reference to functional impairment caused by gaming and therefore improves upon a number of flawed previous approaches to identifying cases with suspected gaming-related harms. We contend that moral panics are more likely to occur and be exacerbated by misinformation and lack of understanding, rather than proceed from having a clear diagnostic system
Concerns about problematic gaming behaviors deserve our full attention. However, we claim that it is far from clear that these problems can or should be attributed to a new disorder. The empirical basis for a Gaming Disorder proposal, such as in the new ICD-11, suffers from fundamental issues. Our main concerns are the low quality of the research base, the fact that the current operationalization leans too heavily on substance use and gambling criteria, and the lack of consensus on symptomatology and assessment of problematic gaming. The act of formalizing this disorder, even as a proposal, has negative medical, scientific, public-health, societal and human rights fallout that should be considered. Of particular concern are moral panics around the harm of video gaming. They might result in premature application of diagnosis in the medical community and the treatment of abundant false-positive cases, especially for children and adolescents. Secondly, research will be locked into a confirmatory approach, rather than an exploration of the boundaries of normal versus pathological. Thirdly, the healthy majority of gamers will be affected negatively. We expect that the premature inclusion of Gaming Disorder as a diagnosis in ICD-11 will cause significant stigma to the millions of children who play video games as part of a normal, healthy life. At this point, suggesting formal diagnoses and categories is premature: the ICD-11 proposal for Gaming Disorder should be removed to avoid a waste of public health resources as well as to avoid causing harm to healthy video gamers around the world.
This manuscript overviews the behavioural (i.e. associative learning, conditioning) research in behavioural addictions, with reference to contemporary models of substance addiction and ongoing controversies in the behavioural addictions literature. The role of behaviour has been well explored in substance addictions and gambling but this focus is often absent in other candidate behavioural addictions. In contrast, the standard approach to behavioural addictions has been to look at individual differences, psychopathologies and biases, often translating from pathological gambling indicators. An associative model presently captures the core elements of behavioural addiction included in the DSM (gambling) and identified for further consideration (internet gaming). Importantly, gambling has a schedule of reinforcement that shows similarities and differences from other addictions. While this is more likely than not applicable to internet gaming, it is less clear whether it is so for a number of candidate behavioural addictions. Adopting an associative perspective, this paper translates from gambling to video gaming, in light of the existing debates on this matter and the nature of the distinction between these behaviours. Finally, a framework for applying an associative model to behavioural addictions is outlined, and it's application toward treatment.
We employed ethnographic methods more attentive to insider gamer perspectives to develop culturally-sensitive scale measures of online gaming involvement and its positive and negative consequences. Our inquiry combined relatively unstructured in-game participant-observation, semi-structured interviews, and a web survey. The latter derived from both ethnography and theory, and contained 15 involvement items and 21 each for positive and negative consequences items. Cultural consensus analysis revealed broadly shared understandings among players about online gaming involvement and its positive consequences, but less agreement about negative scale items. Our findings suggest the need for caution in employing current tools to assess “addictive” and “disordered” gaming, as our gamer respondents judged commonly used scale items, such as cognitive salience, withdrawal, and tolerance, as not fitting with their own understandings and experiences. We argue that our approach, rooted in gamers' actual experiences and also current theory, contributes to more valid psychiatric assessments of online gaming experiences, though more research is needed to refine the new measures we present.
Internet Gaming Disorder (IGD) is positioned in the appendix of the DSM-5 as a condition requiring further study. The IGD criteria refer to withdrawal symptoms, including irritability, anxiety, or sadness, that follow cessation of Internet gaming (APA, 2013). The aim of this study was to prospectively examine the nature of Internet gaming withdrawal symptoms, if they occur, under gaming abstinence conditions. This study employed a repeated-measures protocol to examine the cognitive-affective reactions of participants undertaking an 84-h Internet gaming abstinence period. The sample included individuals who met the IGD criteria as well as those who regularly played Internet games but did not meet the IGD criteria. Outcome variables included affect (positive and negative), psychological distress (depression, anxiety, stress), and Internet gaming withdrawal symptoms (craving/urge, thoughts about gaming, inability to resist gaming). A total of 24 participants (M
= 24.6 years,SD = 5.8) were recruited from online gaming communities, and completed a series of online surveys before, during, and after abstaining from Massively Multiplayer Online (MMO) games. Both the IGD group and the non-IGD group experienced an abstinence-induced decline in withdrawal symptomatology, negative affect, and psychological distress. The IGD group experienced its largest decline in withdrawal symptomatology within the first 24 h of abstinence. These preliminary data suggest that gaming withdrawal symptoms may follow, at least initially, negative linear and quadratic trends. Further prospective work in larger samples involving longer periods of abstinence is required to verify and expand upon these observations.
Internet gaming disorder (IGD) is currently positioned in the appendix of the DSM-5 as a condition requiring further study. The aim of this review was to examine the state of current knowledge of gaming withdrawal symptomatology, given the importance of withdrawal in positioning the disorder as a behavioral addiction. A total of 34 studies, including 10 qualitative studies, 17 research reports on psychometric instruments, and 7 treatment studies, were evaluated. The results indicated that the available evidence on Internet gaming withdrawal is very underdeveloped. Internet gaming withdrawal is most consistently referred to as ‘irritability’ and ‘restlessness’ following cessation of the activity. There exists a concerning paucity of qualitative studies that provide detailed clinical descriptions of symptoms arising from cessation of Internet gaming. This has arguably compromised efforts to quantify withdrawal symptoms in empirical studies of gaming populations. Treatment studies have not reported on the natural course of withdrawal and/or withdrawal symptom trajectory following intervention. It is concluded that many more qualitative clinical studies are needed, and should be prioritised, to develop our understanding of gaming withdrawal. This should improve clinical descriptions of problematic Internet gaming and in turn improve the quantification of IGD withdrawal and thus treatments for harmful Internet gaming.
Behavioral addiction research has been particularly flourishing over the last two decades. However, recent publications have suggested that nearly all daily life activities might lead to a genuine addiction.
Methods and aim
In this article, we discuss how the use of atheoretical and confirmatory research approaches may result in the identification of an unlimited list of “new” behavioral addictions.
Both methodological and theoretical shortcomings of these studies were discussed.
We suggested that studies overpathologizing daily life activities are likely to prompt a dismissive appraisal of behavioral addiction research. Consequently, we proposed several roadmaps for future research in the field, centrally highlighting the need for longer tenable behavioral addiction research that shifts from a mere criteria-based approach toward an approach focusing on the psychological processes involved.
Internet gaming disorder (IGD) has received nomenclatural recognition as a potential mental health disorder, despite evident variability in its core psychopathology and psychometric assessment. Although cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) is considered an efficacious treatment for IGD, the underlying cognitions of the disorder are not well understood. This review aimed to synthesise research evidence on Internet gaming cognition toward identification of cognitive factors underlying IGD. A systematic review of 29 quantitative studies on Internet gaming cognition and 7 treatment studies employing cognitive therapy for IGD was conducted. Four cognitive factors underlying IGD were identified. Factors included (a) beliefs about game reward value and tangibility, (b) maladaptive and inflexible rules about gaming behaviour, (c) over-reliance on gaming to meet self-esteem needs, and (d) gaming as a method of gaining social acceptance. It is proposed that IGD-related cognition may be more complex than "preoccupation" (i.e., criterion A of IGD). IGD cognition may involve the persistent overvaluation of video gaming rewards, activities, and identities, combined with a need to adhere to maladaptive rules governing use and completion of video games. Greater understanding of the proposed cognitive factors may advance clinical research agendas on identification of individuals with IGD, as well as the expansion and improvement of cognitive therapies for the disorder.
The accuracy of in-group and out-group variability judgments was examined by comparing those judgments with the variability of self-ratings provided by random samples of group members. Following B. Park and C. M. Judd (1990), perceptions of both group dispersion and group stereotypicality were examined in 116 college students (58 business majors and 58 engineering majors). Accuracy was examined both by within-S sensitivity correlations and by simple discrepancies between perceived and actual variability estimates. In-group–out-group differences in sensitivity were shown, particularly for judgments of stereotypicality. These differences were related to differences in the degree to which out-group variability is underestimated relative to in-group variability (i.e., the out-group homogeneity effect). Out-group stereotypicality judgments were overestimated, supporting the view that out-group stereotypes are overgeneralizations. Whether dispersion judgments were over- or underestimated depended on their measurement.
The phenomenological similarities between gambling and substance dependence have led to the conceptualization of pathological gambling as an addictive disorder. Tolerance and withdrawal are important features of both disorders, suggesting commonalities in the neurobiological processes associated with neuroadaptational underpinnings. However, there are few empirical studies supporting the presence of tolerance and withdrawal reported in the gambling literature. Moreover, there are no studies comparing the equivalence of tolerance and withdrawal between gambling and alcohol dependence. This study compared tolerance and withdrawal features in samples of gamblers, alcoholics and gamblers who also met criteria for alcohol dependence. In contrast to the addiction model, findings indicate that, while a majority of participants increased bet size, the motivation to do so was not for excitement or to maintain arousal levels as indicated by the DSM-IV-TR but because of cognitive factors related to winning. Results supported the notion that pathological gamblers experienced similar levels of withdrawal symptom severity as alcohol-dependent participants. Further research is needed to evaluate whether those symptoms result from the inability to gamble or from the loss of an avoidant stress coping strategy.
ABSTRACT Four approaches to playing MUDs are identified and described. These approaches may arise from the inter-relationship of two dimensions of playing style: action versus interaction, and world-oriented versus player-oriented. An account of the dynamics of player populations is given in terms of these dimensions, with particular attention to how to promote balance or equilibrium. This analysis also offers an explanation for the labelling of MUDs as being either "social" or "gamelike".
Thematic analysis is a poorly demarcated, rarely acknowledged, yet widely used qualitative analytic method within psychology. In this paper, we argue that it offers an accessible and theoretically flexible approach to analysing qualitative data. We outline what thematic analysis is, locating it in relation to other qualitative analytic methods that search for themes or patterns, and in relation to different epistemological and ontological positions. We then provide clear guidelines to those wanting to start thematic analysis, or conduct it in a more deliberate and rigorous way, and consider potential pitfalls in conducting thematic analysis. Finally, we outline the disadvantages and advantages of thematic analysis. We conclude by advocating thematic analysis as a useful and flexible method for qualitative research in and beyond psychology.
Abstract Recently, there have been growing concerns about excessive online gaming. Playing Massively Multiplayer Online Role-Playing Games (MMORPGs) appears to be particularly problematic, because these games require a high degree of commitment and time investment from the players to the detriment of occupational, social, and other recreational activities and relations. A number of gaming motives have been linked to excessive online gaming in adolescents and young adults. We assessed 175 current MMORPG players and 90 nonplayers using a Web-based questionnaire regarding their gaming behavior, problems as consequences of gaming, and game motivations and tested their statistical associations. Results indicated that (a) MMORPG players are significantly more likely to experience gaming-related problems relative to nonplayers, and that (b) the gaming motivations escapism and mechanics significantly predicted excessive gaming and appeared as stronger predictors than time investment in game. The findings support the necessity of using measures that distinguish between different types of online games. In addition, this study proves useful regarding the current discussion on establishing (online) gaming addiction as a diagnosis in future categorizations of psychopathology.
While massively multiplayer online role-playing games like World of Warcraft are often accused of leading to excessive and
harmful playing, the only gaming activity that is internationally recognized as a pathological disorder is excessive gambling.
The present article seeks to establish empirical data on potential harmful online gaming through a comparative structural
analysis of massively multiplayer online games and gambling games. The analysis focuses on some of the psycho-structural elements
that contribute to excessive gambling, with a special emphasis on the phenomena known as entrapment and near miss. The analysis is based on interviews with twelve heavy users of World of Warcraft and ethnographical observations from the
game. The findings suggest that entrapment and near miss are present in World of Warcraft, but with a comparatively weaker
impact, and influenced by other elements more typical of this genre, including social engagement and competition. These elements
might overall have a stronger effect on the dedication to play excessively.
Innovative and impressive technological advances coupled with economies of scale have led to the mass availability of personal computers, mobile (cell) phones with integrated web-access, personal organizer and camera, and dedicated games and GPS devices. The common usage and reliance on electronic applications is evident by statistical data indicating that 56% of households own a personal computer and 50% access Internet facilities (US Census Bureau, 2005). In one survey of 4,000 users (Stanford University, 2005), 90% reported using the Internet for email communication followed by 77% for general information, 62% for product information, 36% for entertainment and games, 27% for stock shares, 24% for seeking positions of employment, and 12% for banking purposes. Internet is now consolidated as a necessary and standard business and communication tool with wireless technology improving mobility and enhancing easy access to the Internet. The potential for misuse and inappropriate and excessive use of certain computer applications has led to the expression of concerns related to the psychological and behavioural impact of the Internet on individuals. We find reference in media reports referring to complaints from commercial enterprises of email and Internet use leading to inefficiencies and reduced productivity, termination of employment or prosecutions resulting from the access to illegal/inappropriate websites, parental complaints related to children and adolescents becoming socially withdrawn and secluded through excessive time spent on computers, and educators and health professional concerned about the impact of computer usage on education and the physical health and obesity levels. Within this context emerges the claim from mental health professionals that a proportion of individuals develop a Fbehavioural_ addiction to computers (Shotton, 1991; Griffiths, 1996) and Internet use (Young, 1996). The concept of humanmachine Ftechnological_ addiction, it is argued, is a natural extension of behavioural or non-chemical group of addictions containing the core elements defining addiction
Several studies have linked massively multiplayer online role-playing games (MMORPGs) with possible problematic usage or internet addiction.
The main goal of the present study was to assess links between motivations to play in MMORPGs and addictive involvement in such types of games.
A total of 696 gamers responded to an online survey.
Five distinct motivations to play were identified in gamers: achievement, socializing, immersion, relaxing and escaping. Multiple regression analysis revealed that addictive MMORPG use patterns are predicted by achievement, escapism and socializing motives. Gender was also a significant predictor of problematic involvement in MMORPGs. Moreover, addictive MMORPG use positively correlated with the weekly time devoted to playing MMORPGs.
A nationwide survey was conducted to investigate the prevalence of video game addiction and problematic video game use and their association with physical and mental health. An initial sample comprising 2,500 individuals was randomly selected from the Norwegian National Registry. A total of 816 (34.0 percent) individuals completed and returned the questionnaire. The majority (56.3 percent) of respondents used video games on a regular basis. The prevalence of video game addiction was estimated to be 0.6 percent, with problematic use of video games reported by 4.1 percent of the sample. Gender (male) and age group (young) were strong predictors for problematic use of video games. A higher proportion of high frequency compared with low frequency players preferred massively multiplayer online role-playing games, although the majority of high frequency players preferred other game types. Problematic use of video games was associated with lower scores on life satisfaction and with elevated levels of anxiety and depression. Video game use was not associated with reported amount of physical exercise.
Recent studies have suggested that the brain circuitry mediating cue-induced desire for video games is similar to that elicited by cues related to drugs and alcohol. We hypothesized that desire for Internet video games during cue presentation would activate similar brain regions to those that have been linked with craving for drugs or pathologic gambling.
This study involved the acquisition of diagnostic magnetic resonance imaging and functional magnetic resonance imaging data from 19 healthy male adults (age, 18-23 years) following training and a standardized 10-day period of game play with a specified novel Internet video game, "War Rock" (K2 Network, Irvine, CA). Using segments of videotape consisting of 5 contiguous 90-second segments of alternating resting, matched control, and video game-related scenes, desire to play the game was assessed using a 7-point visual analogue scale before and after presentation of the videotape.
In responding to Internet video game stimuli, compared with neutral control stimuli, significantly greater activity was identified in left inferior frontal gyrus, left parahippocampal gyrus, right and left parietal lobe, right and left thalamus, and right cerebellum (false discovery rate <0.05, P < .009243). Self-reported desire was positively correlated with the β values of left inferior frontal gyrus, left parahippocampal gyrus, and right and left thalamus. Compared with the general players, subjects who played more Internet video game showed significantly greater activity in right medial frontal lobe, right and left frontal precentral gyrus, right parietal postcentral gyrus, right parahippocampal gyrus, and left parietal precuneus gyrus. Controlling for total game time, reported desire for the Internet video game in the subjects who played more Internet video game was positively correlated with activation in right medial frontal lobe and right parahippocampal gyrus.
The present findings suggest that cue-induced activation to Internet video game stimuli may be similar to that observed during cue presentation in persons with substance dependence or pathologic gambling. In particular, cues appear to commonly elicit activity in the dorsolateral prefrontal, orbitofrontal cortex, parahippocampal gyrus, and thalamus.
Tolerance in DSM-5 Internet gaming disorder (IGD) refers to a need for increasing time spent in gaming activities. However, the focus on ‘time’ has been criticized for being a superficial imitation of tolerance in substance-based addiction. Gaming tolerance may require a broader conceptualization of its motivational and cognitive features. The present study aimed to investigate tolerance-like processes in gaming and their association with IGD symptoms. An online survey that included a 20-item measure of gaming-related tolerance was administered to 630 adult gamers, including 4.0% who screened positively for IGD. Exploratory factor analysis indicated that a three-factor model for the tolerance items provided the best fit. These factors were: (1) Wealth, the need to accumulate in-game rewards of increasing rarity, novelty, or quantity; (2) Achievement, the need to pursue goal-driven activities of increasing complexity, difficulty, or uniqueness; and (3) Inadequacy, the need to rectify perceived insufficiencies in gaming capability or progress. A hierarchical regression analysis indicated that Inadequacy was modestly but significantly related to other IGD symptoms, after controlling for age, gender, and time spent gaming. These findings support the notion that problematic gaming may be motivated by the need for completion of increasingly more intricate, time-consuming, or difficult goals to achieve satisfaction and the need to rectify perceived inadequacies related to gaming.
Since Internet gaming disorder recently appeared in the section III of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-5 (DSM-5), little investigation has been performed. Besides, more data on Internet gaming behaviors is needed in French samples. Therefore, the main purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of Internet gaming disorder in a sample of French young Internet users and to explore the relationships between Internet gaming disorder, time spent on the Internet, gaming time and motives, game genre, and psychopathology. Our sample consisted of 418 online gamers recruited online, aged from 18 to 30 years (M = 22; SD = 3) and constituted of 206 women (49%) and 212 men. They completed several scales assessing characteristics of Internet use and gaming behaviors as well as depression and self-esteem. The prevalence of Internet gaming disorder was nearly 2% (n = 8). Hierarchical regression analysis revealed that time spent on the Internet, gaming motives and depressive symptoms were significant predictors of Internet gaming disorder scores, with differences according to gender. Problematic gamers had higher mean scores of social, escape, coping and fantasy motives and psychopathology than non-problematic gamers. This study highlights the relationships between Internet gaming disorder, motives, game genres and psychopathological variables, as differences between gamers with and without Internet gaming disorder. Motives such escape appears as a highly important factor, highlighting why internet gaming disorder could be considered as a dysfunctional coping strategy.
Internet gaming disorder (IGD) has been proposed as a behavioral addiction warranting additional investigation. Craving is considered a core component of addictions. However, few studies to date have investigated craving in IGD. In the current study, we investigated how gaming was associated with changes in response to gaming-related stimuli in subjects with IGD and those with recreational game use (RGU).
Behavioral and functional magnetic resonance imaging data were collected from 27 individuals with IGD and 43 individuals with RGU. Subjects' craving responses to gaming-related stimuli were measured before and after 30 minutes of gaming.
The comparison between post- and pregaming measures showed that for IGD, gaming was associated with increased craving and increased brain activation of the lateral and prefrontal cortex, the striatum, and the precuneus when exposed to gaming-related stimuli. In individuals with RGU, no enhanced brain activity was observed.
These results suggest that gaming behavior enhances craving responses in subjects with IGD but not in subjects with RGU, provide insight into potential mechanisms underlying IGD, and suggest behavioral and neurobiological targets for IGD-related interventions.
Videogames have received much attention in addiction research due to their popularity and frequent use. However, few studies have addressed the effect of passion and impulsivity in gamers. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to examine the influence of passion and impulsivity on the intensity of play, playing time, and choice of Massive Multiplayer Online Role Play Game (MMORPG) vs. non-MMORPG. A sample of 630 university students (40.7% Colombian, 59.3% Spanish) responded to a questionnaire on gaming habits, the Passion scale and the Inventory of Impulsivity. Results showed that men preferred sports and MMORPG games and women played more simulation and strategy games and mini-games. The predictor variables for Intensity of Play were: playing MMORPG games, harmonious and obsessive passion and dysfunctional impulsivity. The predictor variables for Hours of Play were: age, harmonious passion and dysfunctional impulsivity. Age, both passions, and functional impulsivity predicted preference for MMORPGs. Impulsivity and passion help explain how players engage with videogames. Dysfunctional impulsivity is related to higher hours and intensity of play and functional impulsivity is a defining feature of MMORPG players. The presence of both passions was related to a higher intensity of play, however only harmonious passion was positively associated with playing for a longer time. These results suggest that the different types of passion and impulsivity have distinct influences on the manner of game play and the experience of that play.
This qualitative study examined the psychological consequences of an 84-hour Internet gaming abstinence period for young adults with and without Internet gaming disorder. Using a repeated-measures online survey methodology, participants were asked to abstain and then describe their craving for Internet games, including any coping strategies used to manage craving, and to reflect on the positive and negative aspects of gaming abstinence. A total of 155 written responses were gathered from 24 participants (Mage=24.6 years, SD=5.8), including 9 who met the criteria for Internet gaming disorder, recruited from online gaming communities. Participants completed a series of seven online surveys containing open ended questions before, during, and after abstaining from Massively Multiplayer Online games. The results revealed several key themes, including: (1) internal and external cues that elicit craving for Internet games; (2) beliefs and assumptions about Internet gaming experiences; (3) negative affect related to abstinence; (4) coping strategies for managing craving; (5) beneficial outcomes in behavioral and cognitive domains, including adjustments to gaming-specific activities; and (6) negative outcomes such as unwanted emotional and cognitive states, and social isolation. Participants' reactions to gaming abstinence could be broadly characterized as boredom and a drive for mental stimulation, which seemed somewhat inconsistent with the DSM-5 criterion of withdrawal. These data provide new insights to guide clinical conceptualization and interventions for problematic patterns of Internet gaming behavior.
Player enjoyment is perhaps the most important issue in successful game design, but so far it has not been addressed in the area of pervasive games. Departing from the general gameflow model, this article presents an initial outline for a new model of pervasive player enjoyment, that is, the pervasive gameflow model, which is described and discussed in terms of additions and elaborations to the general gameflow model. It is intended to serve as a departure point for further empirical studies on player enjoyment in pervasive games.
Recently, the American Psychiatric Association included Internet gaming disorder (IGD) in the appendix of the 5th edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5). The main aim of the current study was to test the reliability and validity of 4 survey instruments to measure IGD on the basis of the 9 criteria from the DSM-5: a long (27-item) and short (9-item) polytomous scale and a long (27-item) and short (9-item) dichotomous scale. The psychometric properties of these scales were tested among a representative sample of 2,444 Dutch adolescents and adults, ages 13-40 years. Confirmatory factor analyses demonstrated that the structural validity (i.e., the dimensional structure) of all scales was satisfactory. Both types of assessment (polytomous and dichotomous) were also reliable (i.e., internally consistent) and showed good criterion-related validity, as indicated by positive correlations with time spent playing games, loneliness, and aggression and negative correlations with self-esteem, prosocial behavior, and life satisfaction. The dichotomous 9-item IGD scale showed solid psychometric properties and was the most practical scale for diagnostic purposes. Latent class analysis of this dichotomous scale indicated that 3 groups could be discerned: normal gamers, risky gamers, and disordered gamers. On the basis of the number of people in this last group, the prevalence of IGD among 13- through 40-year-olds in the Netherlands is approximately 4%. If the DSM-5 threshold for diagnosis (experiencing 5 or more criteria) is applied, the prevalence of disordered gamers is more than 5%. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
This study investigated certain social aspects of young massively multiplayer online game (MMOG) players’ lives in the context of pathological gameplay while distinguishing addiction from high engagement. Online gameplay frequency and demographic information were also examined. Of the 1,332 sampled, those classified as addicted self-reported the largest percentage of (a) playing online games, (b) scheduling their lives around their gameplay, (c) playing games instead of spending time with family and friends, (d) getting into verbal and physical altercations, and (e) playing to interact with friends and strangers. Statistical analysis, however, revealed no significant differences between the groups, perhaps supporting the idea that players progress through a phase of high engagement before reaching the stage of addiction and that those highly engaged might already show traits or behaviors very similar to, if not the same as, those addicted with regard to certain aspects of their social lives.
For the first time, the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders (DSM-5) introduces non-substance addictions as psychiatric diagnoses. The aims of this paper are to (i) present the main controversies surrounding the decision to include internet gaming disorder, but not internet addiction more globally, as a non-substance addiction in the research appendix of the DSM-5, and (ii) discuss the meaning behind the DSM-5 criteria for internet gaming disorder. The paper also proposes a common method for assessing internet gaming disorder. Although the need for common diagnostic criteria is not debated, the existence of multiple instruments reflect the divergence of opinions in the field regarding how best to diagnose this condition.
We convened international experts from European, North and South American, Asian and Australasian countries to discuss and achieve consensus about assessing internet gaming disorder as defined within DSM-5.
We describe the intended meaning behind each of the nine DSM-5 criteria for internet gaming disorder and present a single item that best reflects each criterion, translated into the 10 main languages of countries in which research on this condition has been conducted.
Using results from this cross-cultural collaboration, we outline important research directions for understanding and assessing internet gaming disorder. As this field moves forward, it is critical that researchers and clinicians around the world begin to apply a common methodology; this report is the first to achieve an international consensus related to the assessment of internet gaming disorder.
Online gaming addiction is a relatively under-researched area and there have been few studies examining online gamers in treatment. This paper reports the findings from a qualitative interview study of nine players undergoing treatment for their addictive playing of Massively Multiplayer Online Role Playing Games (MMORPGs). A face-to-face interview study with nine online gaming addicts was carried out using Grounded Theory. The six most reported phenomena by the participants were: (i) entertainment search, (ii) virtual friendship, (iii) escapism and/or dissociation, (iv) game context, (v) control versus no control, and (vi) conflict. The findings suggest that players’ initial gaming motivation is because of three factors: (i) entertainment, (ii) escapism, and/or (iii) virtual friendship. MMORPG addiction appears once the playing time significantly increases, coupled with a loss of control and a narrow behavior focus. These factors lead to problems and result in psychological dependence and serious life conflicts. The consequences of MMORPG addiction are similar to the consequences of more established substance addictions including salience, mood modification, loss of control, craving, and serious adverse effects. Additionally, in some cases, tolerance and relapse may also be present.
Obviously, the negative impact of online games has received much attention as well as having become a popular research topic. This research explored, from flow theory and humanistic needs theory, the psychological motivations of Taiwanese adolescents who are addicted to online games. The purpose of Study 1 was to investigate the relationship between players’ flow state and their online games addiction. The results indicated that flow state was negatively correlated with addictive inclination and it was not a significant predictor for players’ subsequent additive inclination. Findings also revealed that the addicts’ flow state was significantly lower than the nonaddicts. Thus, flow state might not be the key psychological mechanism of players’ addiction. In Study 2, the results showed that the psychological needs of players of online games were close to the two-factor theory which depicts satisfaction and dissatisfaction dimensions. Addicted players’ need-gratification was similar to the feature of dissatisfactory factor. That is, the absence of playing online games is more likely to generate sense of dissatisfaction; the addicts’ compulsive use of online games seems to stem from the relief of dissatisfaction rather than the pursuit of satisfaction. In contrast, online games tend to provide the nonaddicts with a sense of satisfaction rather than a sense of dissatisfaction.
Excessive internet use is becoming a concern, and some have proposed that it may involve addiction. We evaluated the dimensions assessed by, and psychometric properties of, a range of questionnaires purporting to assess internet addiction.
Fourteen questionnaires were identified purporting to assess internet addiction among adolescents and adults published between January 1993 and October 2011. Their reported dimensional structure, construct, discriminant and convergent validity and reliability were assessed, as well as the methods used to derive these.
Methods used to evaluate internet addiction questionnaires varied considerably. Three dimensions of addiction predominated: compulsive use (79%), negative outcomes (86%) and salience (71%). Less common were escapism (21%), withdrawal symptoms (36%) and other dimensions. Measures of validity and reliability were found to be within normally acceptable limits.
There is a broad convergence of questionnaires purporting to assess internet addiction suggesting that compulsive use, negative outcome and salience should be covered and the questionnaires show adequate psychometric properties. However, the methods used to evaluate the questionnaires vary widely and possible factors contributing to excessive use such as social motivation do not appear to be covered.
Typically, the effects of a drug, and alterations in these effects over the course of repeated administrations (i.e., tolerance and sensitization), have been attributed to wholly systemic mechanisms. For example, the effect of an exogenous opiate may be attributable to its effects at central endorphin receptors, and tolerance may be the result of the neurochemical alterations induced by repeated drug administrations. It has become apparent, however, that drug effects are importantly modulated by nonpharmacological factors. The result of the chemical stimulation depends not only on pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic principles, but also upon the recipient’s previous experiences and expectations.
More Americans now play video games than go to the movies (NPD Group, 2009). The meteoric rise in popularity of video games highlights the need for research approaches that can deepen our scientific understanding of video game engagement. This article advances a theory-based motivational model for examining and evaluating the ways by which video game engagement shapes psychological processes and influences well-being. Rooted in self-determination theory (Deci & Ryan, 2000; Ryan & Deci, 2000a), our approach suggests that both the appeal and well-being effects of video games are based in their potential to satisfy basic psychological needs for competence, autonomy, and relatedness. We review recent empirical evidence applying this perspective to a number of topics including need satisfaction in games and short-term well-being, the motivational appeal of violent game content, motivational sources of postplay aggression, the antecedents and consequences of disordered patterns of game engagement, and the determinants and effects of immersion. Implications of this model for the future study of game motivation and the use of video games in interventions are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Many of the symptoms of nicotine withdrawal are similar to those of other drug withdrawal syndromes: anxiety, awakening during sleep, depression, difficulty concentrating, impatience, irritability/anger and restlessness. Slowing of the heart rate and weight gain are distinguishing features of tobacco withdrawal. Although nicotine withdrawal may not produce medical consequences, it lasts for several weeks and can be severe in some smokers. Like most other drug withdrawals, nicotine withdrawal is time-limited, occurs in non-humans, is influenced by instructions/expectancy and abates with replacement therapy and gradual reduction. Unlike some other drug withdrawal syndromes, protracted, neonatal or precipitated withdrawal does not occur. Whether nicotine withdrawal is associated with tolerance, acute physical dependence, greater duration and intensity of use, rapid reinstatement, symptom stages, cross-dependence with other nicotine ligands, reduction by non-pharmacological interventions and genetic influences is unclear. Whether nicotine withdrawal plays a major role in relapse to smoking has not been established but this is also true for other drug withdrawal syndromes.
A mixed methods design was used to identify factors associated with motivational engagement in video gaming. Self-report instruments
were administered to 189 video game players to assess goal orientations, affect, need for cognition, and perceptions of engagement
and flow. Simultaneously, a sub-set of 25 participants were interviewed and results analyzed to identify patterns that influenced
their propensity for gaming. Regression results revealed motivational engagement for gaming was related to gender, hours of
play, task orientation, and socialization. Players indicated that gaming was socially captivating, fun, challenging but relaxing,
and precipitated positive affect and cognition even when unsuccessful results were achieved. The negative consequences normally
associated with task failure were not reported by participants to take place during gaming. We concluded transfer of motivational
engagement in gaming for entertainment to educational contexts was unlikely to occur.
At present, little is known about why subjective time loss occurs whilst playing video games other than that it may relate
to features of escape, immersion and arousal—all of which have been implicated in the development of addictive behaviours.
This study examined subjective time loss of 40 undergraduate students (26 males and 14 females with a mean age of 21.4years)
whilst playing one of two video games in an experimental setting. Mood state before and after game playing was also examined
using the Profile of Mood States—Short Form (POMS-SF, Grove & Prapavessis, 1992). Results found that, females significantly underestimated the time that they were playing compared to males. Total Mood
Disturbance increased after playing one of the games, but only for participants who reported that they would liked to have
continued playing for longer. There were no gender differences in relation to mood state. It is concluded that time loss is
not (in itself) a precipitating or facilitating factor relating to addictive behaviour patterns.
Cocaine tolerance was assessed by comparing the acute effects of cocaine in drug-abstinent men who reported occasional cocaine use (n = 6) and in men who met DSM-III-R diagnostic criteria for dependence on both cocaine and opiates (n = 6). Peak plasma cocaine levels were equivalent in the two groups, and pharmacokinetic analyses revealed no significant differences in cocaine levels at any time. Cocaine induced a significantly greater increase in ACTH in the occasional cocaine users than in the cocaine dependent men (p < .01). Heart rate and systolic and diastolic blood pressure increases after cocaine were also significantly greater in the occasional cocaine users than in the cocaine-dependent men (p < .05). These neuroendocrine and physiologic differences were paralleled by significantly greater subjective reports of “high” and “euphoria” by the occasional cocaine users (p < .03 to .0001). These data are consistent with the conclusion that tolerance to cocaine’s physiologic, neuroendocrine, and subjective effects may occur as a function of chronic use.
This study considered whether the distinction between core and peripheral criteria for behavioral addiction, previously drawn with respect to computing activities in general, applies in the specific area of Massively Multiplayer Online Game playing. Questionnaire items were administered over the Internet to 442 game players. Factor-analysis of the data supported the previous findings for computing in general. An addiction factor loaded on items tapping previously identified core criteria (conflict, withdrawal symptoms, relapse and reinstatement and behavioral salience) and a (non-pathological) engagement factor loaded on items tapping previously identified peripheral criteria (cognitive salience, tolerance and euphoria). Analysis of response frequencies supported the existence of a developmental process whereby peripheral criteria are met before core criteria. Players who might be considered addicted using a monothetic classification system involving only the core criteria were shown to spend a significantly greater amount of time playing per week than those endorsing only the peripheral criteria. It is concluded that the study supports the idea that it is inappropriate to use some of the previously used criteria for addiction when researching or diagnosing computer-related addictions. Implications of the present findings for Internet-mediated data collection methodologies are also discussed.
“Excitement” has often been referred to as the gambler's drug although until recently there was little evidence to substantiate such claims. This study involved the systematic monitoring of the psychophysiology of fruit machine gambling using heart rate measures in 30 adolescent male gamblers. The study was designed to test heart rate differences between regular and nonregular fruit machine gamblers (i.e., between subjects) and differences against the players' own baseline rates (i.e., within subjects). Results showed that there were no heart rate differences between regular and nonregular gamblers although during gambling, both groups' heart rates increased by approximately 22 beats per minute. It was also found that nonregular gamblers' heart rates did not decrease significantly after gambling whereas regular gamblers did. This finding could be argued as the first study to demonstrate an objective measure of gambling tolerance.